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Technical Paper

A Multi-Domain Component Based Modeling Toolset for Dynamic Integrated Power and Thermal System Modeling

2019-03-19
2019-01-1385
Design of modern aircraft relies heavily on modeling and simulation for reducing cost and improving performance. However, the complexity of aircraft architectures requires accurate modeling of dynamic components across many subsystems. Integrated power and thermal modeling necessitates dynamic simulations of liquid, air, and two-phase fluids within vapor cycle system components, air cycle machine and propulsion components, hydraulic components, and more while heat generation of many on-board electrical components must also be precisely calculated as well. Integration of these highly complex subsystems may result in simulations which are too computationally expensive for quickly modeling extensive variations of aircraft architecture, or will require simulations with reduced accuracy in order to provide computationally inexpensive models.
Technical Paper

A Study of Parameter Identification Techniques for Complex Aircraft Systems Models

2016-09-20
2016-01-2045
Model based design is a standard practice within the aerospace industry. However, the accuracies of these models are only as good as the parameters used to define them and as a result a great deal of effort is spent on model tuning and parameter identification. This process can be very challenging and with the growing complexity and size of these models, manual tuning is often ineffective. Many methods for automated parameter tuning exist. However, for aircraft systems this often leads to large parameter search problems since frequency based identification and direct gradient search schemes are generally not suitable. Furthermore, the cost of experimentation often limits one to sparse data sets which adds an additional layer of difficulty. As a result, these search problems can be highly sensitive to the definition of the model fitness function, the choice of algorithm, and the criteria for convergence.
Journal Article

A Specification Analysis Framework for Aircraft Systems

2016-09-20
2016-01-2023
Future aircraft systems are projected to have order of magnitude greater power and thermal demands, along with tighter constraints on the performance of the power and thermal management subsystems. This trend has led to the need for a fully integrated design process where power and thermal systems, and their interactions, are considered simultaneously. To support this new design paradigm, a general framework for codifying and checking specifications and requirements is presented. This framework is domain independent and can be used to translate requirement language into a structured definition that can be quickly queried and applied to simulation and measurement data. It is constructed by generalizing a previously developed power quality analysis framework. The application of this framework is demonstrated through the translation of thermal specifications for airborne electrical equipment, into the SPecification And Requirement Evaluation (SPARE) Tool.
Journal Article

A First Principles Based Approach for Dynamic Modeling of Turbomachinery

2016-09-20
2016-01-1995
As the cost and complexity of modern aircraft systems increases, emphasis has been placed on model-based design as a means for reducing development cost and optimizing performance. To facilitate this, an appropriate modeling environment is required that allows developers to rapidly explore a wider design space than can cost effectively be considered through hardware construction and testing. This wide design space can then yield solutions that are far more energy efficient than previous generation designs. In addition, non-intuitive cross-coupled subsystem behavior can also be explored to ensure integrated system stability prior to hardware fabrication and testing. In recent years, optimization of control strategies between coupled subsystems has necessitated the understanding of the integrated system dynamics.
Journal Article

Integrated Power and Thermal Management System (IPTMS) Demonstration Including Preliminary Results of Rapid Dynamic Loading and Load Shedding at High Power

2015-09-15
2015-01-2416
An IPTMS hardware facility has been established in the laboratories of the Aerospace Systems Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) at Wright-Paterson Air Force Base (WPAFB). This hardware capability was established to analyze the transient behavior of a high power Electrical Power System (EPS) coupled virtually to a Thermal Management System (TMS) under fast dynamic loading conditions. The system incorporates the use of dynamic electrical load, engine emulation, energy storage, and emulated thermal loads operated to investigate dynamics under step load conditions. Hardware architecture and control options for the IPTMS are discussed. This paper summarizes the IPTMS laboratory demonstration system, its capabilities, and preliminary test results.
Technical Paper

Cycle-Based Vapor Cycle System Control and Active Charge Management for Dynamic Airborne Applications

2014-09-16
2014-01-2224
Numerous previous studies have highlighted the potential efficiency improvements which can be provided to aircraft thermal management systems by the incorporation of vapor cycle systems (VCS), either in place of, or in conjunction with, standard air cycle systems, for providing the needed thermal management for aircraft equipment and crews. This paper summarizes the results of a cycle-based VCS control architecture as tested using the Vapor Cycle System Research Facility (VCSRF) in the Aerospace Systems Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. VCSRF is a flexible, dynamic, multi-evaporator VCS which incorporates electronic expansion valves and a variable speed compressor allowing the flexibility to test both components and control schemes. The goal of this facility is to reduce the risk of incorporating VCS into the thermal management systems (TMS) of future advanced aircraft.
Technical Paper

Model Accuracy of Variable Fidelity Vapor Cycle System Simulations

2014-09-16
2014-01-2140
As the cost and complexity of modern aircraft systems advance, emphasis has been placed on model-based design as a means for cost effective subsystem optimization. The success of the model-based design process is contingent on accurate prediction of the system response prior to hardware fabrication, but the level of fidelity necessary to achieve this objective is often called into question. Identifying the key benefits and limitations of model fidelity along with the key parameters that drive model accuracy will help improve the model-based design process enabling low cost, optimized solutions for current and future programs. In this effort, the accuracy and capability of a vapor cycle system (VCS) model were considered from a model fidelity and parameter accuracy standpoint. A range of model fidelity was evaluated in terms of accuracy, capability, simulation speed, and development time.
Technical Paper

Refrigerant Charge Management and Control for Next-Generation Aircraft Vapor Compression Systems

2013-09-17
2013-01-2241
Vapor compression systems (VCS) offer significant benefits as the backbone for next generation aircraft thermal management systems (TMS). For a comparable lift, VCS offer higher system efficiencies, improved load temperature control, and lower transport losses than conventional air cycle systems. However, broad proliferation of VCS for many aircraft applications has been limited primarily due to maintenance and reliability concerns. In an attempt to address these and other VCS system control issues, the Air Force Research Laboratory has established a Vapor Cycle System Research Facility (VCSRF) to explore the practical application of dynamic VCS control methods for next-generation, military aircraft TMS. The total refrigerant mass contained within the closed refrigeration system (refrigerant charge) is a critical parameter to VCS operational readiness. Too much or too little refrigerant can be detrimental to system performance.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Modeling Toolbox for Air Vehicle Vapor Cycle Systems

2012-10-22
2012-01-2172
Modern air vehicles face increasing internal heat loads that must be appropriately understood in design and managed in operation. This paper examines one solution to creating more efficient and effective thermal management systems (TMSs): vapor cycle systems (VCSs). VCSs are increasingly being investigated by aerospace government and industry as a means to provide much greater efficiency in moving thermal energy from one physical location to another. In this work, we develop the AFRL (Air Force Research Laboratory) Transient Thermal Modeling and Optimization (ATTMO) toolbox: a modeling and simulation tool based in Matlab/Simulink that is suitable for understanding, predicting, and designing a VCS. The ATTMO toolbox also provides capability for understanding the VCS as part of a larger air vehicle system. The toolbox is presented in a modular fashion whereby the individual components are presented along with the framework for interconnecting them.
Technical Paper

Rapid Access to High-Resolution Thermal/Fluid Component Modeling

2012-10-22
2012-01-2170
Although computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations have been widely used to successfully resolve turbulence and boundary layer phenomena induced by microscale flow passages in advanced heat exchanger concepts, the expense of such simulations precludes their use within system-level models. However, the effect of component design changes on systems must be better understood in order to optimize designs with little thermal margin, and CFD simulations greatly enhance this understanding. A method is presented to introduce high resolution, 3-D conjugate CFD calculations of candidate heat exchanger cores into dynamic aerospace subsystem models. The significant parameters guiding performance of these heat exchangers are identified and a database of CFD solutions is built to capture steady and unsteady performance of microstructured heat exchanger cores as a function of the identified parameters and flow conditions.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Chemical Reactor-heat Exchanger based on Ammonium Carbamate

2012-10-22
2012-01-2190
In this work we present our recent effort in developing a novel heat exchanger based on endothermic chemical reaction (HEX reactor). The proposed HEX reactor is designed to provide additional heat sink capability for aircraft thermal management systems. Ammonium carbamate (AC) which has a decomposition enthalpy of 1.8 MJ/kg is suspended in propylene glycol and used as the heat exchanger working fluid. The decomposition temperature of AC is pressure dependent (60°C at 1 atmosphere; lower temperatures at lower pressures) and as the heat load on the HEX increases and the glycol temperature reaches AC decomposition temperature, AC decomposes and isothermally absorbs energy from the glycol. The reaction, and therefore the heat transfer rate, is controlled by regulating the pressure within the reactor side of the heat exchanger. The experiment is designed to demonstrate continuous replenishment of AC.
Technical Paper

Two Phase Thermal Energy Management System

2011-10-18
2011-01-2584
The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), in cooperation with the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) and Fairchild Controls Corporation, is building a test facility to study the use of advanced vapor cycle systems (VCS) in an expanded role in aircraft thermal management systems (TMS). It is dedicated to the study and development of VCS control and operation in support of the Integrated Vehicle ENergy Technology (INVENT) initiative. The Two Phase Thermal Energy Management System (ToTEMS1) architecture has been shown through studies to offer potential weight, cost, volume and performance advantages over traditional thermal management approaches based on Air Cycle Systems (ACS). The ToTEMS rig will be used to develop and demonstrate a control system that manages the system capacity over both large amplitude and fast transient changes in the system loads.
Technical Paper

Integrated Engine/Thermal Architecture Model Interface Development

2011-10-18
2011-01-2585
Integrated system-level analysis capability is critical to the design and optimization of aircraft thermal, power, propulsion, and vehicle systems. Thermal management challenges of modern aircraft include increased heat loads from components such as avionics and more-electric accessories. In addition, on-going turbine engine development efforts are leading to more fuel efficient engines which impact the traditionally-preferred heat sink - engine fuel flow. These conditions drive the need to develop new and innovative ways to manage thermal loads. Simulation provides researchers the ability to investigate alternative thermal architectures and perform system-level trade studies. Modeling the feedback between thermal and engine models ensures more accurate thermal boundary conditions for engine air and fuel heat sinks, as well as consideration of thermal architecture impacts on engine performance.
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