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Technical Paper

Software Reliability Growth Modeling: Comparison between Non-Linear- Regression Estimation and Maximum-Likelihood-Estimator Procedures

Automotive software complexity has been growing rapidly with time. The demand for automation in automotive segment including autonomous automobiles and software based products has caught the attention of researchers. Hence, it is necessary to check the complexity of automotive software and their reliability growth. Testing in the field of software artifact is resource intensive exercise. If project managers are able to put forward testing activities well then the testing resource consumptions may be much more resource/cost efficient. Reliability can be estimated during testing phase of software using software reliability growth models (SRGMs). A software package Computer Aided Software Reliability Estimation (CASRE) has many important SRGMs. These SRGMs are based on Non-Homogeneous Poisson Process (NHPP), Markov process or Bayesian models.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Quasi-1D Multi-Component Fuel Droplet Vaporization using Discrete Approach with Experimental Validation

An efficient multi-component fuel droplet vaporization model has been developed in this work using discrete approach. The precise modeling of droplet vaporization process is divided into two parts: vapor-phase and liquid-phase sub-models. Temporal evolution of flow inside the droplet is considered to describe the transient behavior introduced by the slow diffusion process. In order to account for the internal circulation motion, surface regression and finite diffusion without actually resolving the spatial governing equations within the liquid phase, a set of ordinary differential equations is applied to describe the evolution of the non-uniform distributions of universal diffusional variables, i.e. temperature and species mass fraction. The differences between the droplet surface and bulk mean states are modeled by constructing a quasi-1D frame; the effect of the internal circulations is taken into consideration by using the effective diffusivity rather than physical diffusivity.
Journal Article

Flow Visualization and Experimental Measurement of Compressor Oil Separator

This article presents basic separation mechanisms with coalescing/impinging separators studied as the add-on to current popular centrifugal designs. The coalescence and impingement of oil on wire mesh and wave-plates are visualized and tested to investigate the impact of geometry and flow conditions on oil separation efficiency. Re-entrainment phenomenon is explained based on the mass balance. Oil mist flow at the swashplate reciprocating compressor discharge is quantified by video processing method to provide detailed information of the oil droplets. The physics behind oil separator is illustrated by visualization and measurement in this study, which gives useful guidelines for oil separator design and operation. The flow visualization shows the details of oil passing through different oil separation structures. Videos are quantified to provide information like droplet size distribution and liquid volume fraction.
Technical Paper

Measurement and Visualization of R134a Distribution in the Vertical Header of the Microchannel Heat Exchanger

Distribution of R134a in four different vertical headers of microchannel heat exchanger was investigated experimentally. R134a was provided into the header by the microchannel tubes (5 or 10 tubes) in the bottom pass. It left the header through the microchannel tubes (5 or 10 tubes) in the top pass representing the upward flow in the heat pump mode of the reversible systems. The inlet quality was varied from 0.2 to 0.8, and the inlet mass flow rate was from 1.5 to 4.5 kg/h per microchannel tube. Among the test conditions, the aluminum and transparent headers show similar results: refrigerant distribution is better when reducing quality at the same mass flow rate and when increasing mass flow rate at the same quality. Increasing the tubes protrusion and the number of the microchannel tubes usually improve the distribution due to the increase in mass flux. Based on the visualization, churn and separated flow regimes are identified.
Journal Article

Effect of Lubricant on Two-phase Refrigerant Distribution in Microchannel Evaporator

This paper presents a model analysis of oil effects on the distribution of two phase refrigerant in a parallel flow microchannel evaporator. A microchannel evaporator model developed and presented earlier (SAE paper 2012-01-0321) is enhanced by inclusion of the thermodynamic and transport properties of refrigerant-oil mixture and their impact on boiling heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics. R134a and PAG oil are selected as the working pair. Viscosity effect and OCR effect on refrigerant distribution are investigated using this model, and the results show that 1) High viscosity is detrimental for refrigerant distribution. 2) As OCR increases, distribution becomes worse; but at very high OCR, distribution becomes better. Some initial experimental results show that distribution becomes worse when OCR changes from 0.1% to 3%.
Journal Article

A Multi-Distribution Functions Droplet Evaporation Model using Continuous Thermodynamics

A finite diffusion method is presented in this paper to model droplet evaporation for complex liquid mixture composed of different homogeneous groups. Multiple components fuel mixture is represented by separate distribution functions to describe the composition of each homogeneous group in the mixture. Only a few parameters are required to describe the mixture. Quasi-steady assumption is applied in the determination of evaporation rates and heat flux to the droplet, and the effects of surface regression, finite diffusion and preferential vaporization of the mixture are included in the liquid phase equations using an effective properties approach. The proposed model was validated by comparing against experimental measurements for single, isolated droplets of n-decane, kerosene, heptane-decane and diesel-butanol. The present model was applied to simulate the evaporation of isolated droplets with composition of typical diesel.
Technical Paper

Using R744 (CO2) to Cool an Up-Armored M1114 HMMWV

The US Army uses a light tactical High-Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) which, due to the amount of armor added, requires air conditioning to keep its occupants comfortable. The current system uses R134a in a dual evaporator, remote-mounted condenser, engine-driven compressor system. This vehicle has been adapted to use an environmentally friendly refrigerant (carbon dioxide) to provide performance, efficiency, comfort and logistical benefits to the Army. The unusual thermal heat management issues and the fact that the vehicle is required to operate under extreme ambient conditions have made the project extremely challenging. This paper is a continuation of work presented at the SAE Alternate Refrigerants Symposium held in Phoenix last June [1].
Technical Paper

Continuous Multicomponent Fuel Film Vaporization Model for Multidimensional Engine Modeling

A multicomponent fuel film vaporization model using continuous thermodynamics is developed for multidimensional spray and wall film modeling. The vaporization rate is evaluated using the turbulent boundary-layer assumption and a quasi-steady approximation. Third-order polynomials are used to model the fuel composition profiles and the temperature within the liquid phase in order to predict accurate surface properties that are important for evaluating the mass and moment vaporization rates and heat flux. By this approach, the governing equations for the film are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations and thus offer a significant reduction in computational cost while maintaining adequate accuracy compared to solving the governing equations for the film directly.
Technical Paper

Multicomponent Liquid and Vapor Fuel Distribution Measurements in the Cylinder of a Port-Injected, Spark-Ignition Engine

A 2.5L, V-6, port-injected, spark-ignition engine was modified for optical access by separating the head from the block and installing a Bowditch extended piston with a fused-silica top and a fused-silica liner in one of the cylinders. Two heads were employed in the study. One produced swirl and permitted modulation of the swirl level, and another produced a tumbling flow in the cylinder. Planar laser-induced exciplex fluorescence, which allows the simultaneous, but separate, imaging of liquid and vapor fuel, was extended to capture components of different volatilities in a model fuel designed to simulate the distillation curve of a typical gasoline. The exciplex fluorescence technique was calibrated in a separate cell where careful control of mixture composition, temperature and pressure was possible. The results show that large-scale motion induced during intake is critical for good mixing during the intake and compression strokes.
Technical Paper

Analytical Descriptions of Service Loading Suitable for Fatigue Analysis

Service loading histories have the same general character for an individual route and the magnitudes vary from driver to driver. Both the magnitude and character of the loading history change from route to route and a linear scaling of one loading history does not characterize the variability of usage over a wide range of operating conditions. In this paper a technique for measuring and extrapolating cumulative exceedance diagrams to quantify the distribution of service loading in a vehicle is described. Monte Carlo simulations are coupled with the local stress strain approach for fatigue to obtain distributions of service loading. Fatigue life estimates based on the original loading histories are compared to those obtained from statistical descriptions of exceedance diagrams.
Technical Paper

Determining the Value of Vehicle Attributes Using a PC Based Tool

Product engineers and product planners are routinely faced with trade-off decisions involving the cost of adding a product feature or modifying an existing feature versus its added value to the customer. The purpose of this paper is to assess the use of a personal computer (PC) for surveying respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) for four options - two-tone color, 4x4 drive, sporty trim package, and extended cab -- available on the base 1997 Ford F-150 truck. The results show that the respondents' stated WTP reflected the value of the options as determined from their prices and fraction of sales.
Technical Paper

Oversteer/Understeer Characteristics of a Locked Differential

The type of differential used in a vehicle has an important and often-neglected effect on handling performance. This is particularly important in racing applications, such as in IndyCar racing, in which the type of differential chosen depends on the course being raced (superspeedway ovals, short ovals, temporary street courses and permanent road courses). In the present work, we examine the effect of a locked rear differential on oversteer/understeer behavior. Using a linear tire model, it is shown that employing a locked differential adds a constant understeer offset to the steering wheel angle (SWA) -v- lateral acceleration vehicle signature. A computer simulation of steady-state cornering behavior showed that the actual effect is much more complicated, and is strongly influenced by static weight distribution, front/rear roll couple distribution, available traction and the radius of the turn being negotiated.