Development of a Sectional Soot Model Based Methodology for the Prediction of Soot Engine-Out Emissions in GDI Units
With the aim of identifying technical solutions to lower the particulate matter emissions, the engine research community made a consistent effort to investigate the root causes leading to soot formation. Nowadays, the computational power increase allows the use of advanced soot emissions models in 3D-CFD turbulent reacting flows simulations. However, the adaptation of soot models originally developed for Diesel applications to gasoline direct injection engines is still an ongoing process. A limited number of studies in literature attempted to model soot produced by gasoline direct injection engines, obtaining a qualitative agreement with the experiments. To the authors’ best knowledge, none of the previous studies provided a methodology to quantitatively match particulate matter, particulate number and particle size distribution function measured at the exhaust without a case-by-case soot model tuning.