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Technical Paper

Target Development for Transmission and Electric Motor NVH

2019-06-05
2019-01-1554
It is a common practice to conduct NVH fingerprinting and benchmarking assessments at the powertrain level, to understand source level noise and vibration. To assess the NVH influence of engine, e-motor, and transmission, sub-system testing is often conducted in addition to full powertrain testing. These powertrain or sub-system investigations provide valuable information regarding the status of “source” level excitations relative to targets and / or competitive powertrains. In the case of transmissions and e-machines, it is particularly important to understand source level tonal content and how this will be perceived at the vehicle level. However, variation in component design results in differences in order content, which complicates the process of objectively comparing multiple products. Multiple methods are presented here for characterizing tonal content of transmission and e-machines, based on assessments conducted in a component hemi-anechoic dynamometer test cell.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of an Objective Metric for Transient Engine Clatter Noise

2019-06-05
2019-01-1519
Several powertrain noise phenomena have been studied over the years. Sound quality metrics, like loudness, sharpness, modulation, and tonality, among others, have been developed to characterize powertrain noises. While these readily available metrics work well on steady state and some transient noises, they do not correlate directly with subjective impressions. Moreover, it is difficult to assign a meaningful single rating for time varying noises that may also be associated with simultaneous variations in frequency content. This paper summarizes the process of creating a vehicle level objective metric and its application to blind noise samples to verify correlation with subjective impressions, particularly in association with clatter noise at moderate engine speeds (2000-3500 rpm) with light to moderate throttle tip-ins.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Automotive Environmental Noise on Mobile Phone Hands-Free Call Quality

2019-06-05
2019-01-1597
Environmental noises such as wind, road, powertrain, and HVAC noise are important aspects to consider when implementing a hands-free terminal for mobile phone calling from within a car. Traditionally, these environmental noises have been exclusively considered for driver comfort; however, with the introduction of the hands-free terminals (HFT) and increasing consumer demand relative to mobile phone call quality, a broader implication of high background noise levels should be considered. HFT algorithm development and implementation can and does provide a high level of background noise suppression to mitigate these concerns, but this is often done at the expense of computational power and cumulative delay during a phone call. The more advantageous solution would be to address the problem from a source and path perspective with emphasis on reduction of noise in the frequency bands which most influence call quality performance.
Technical Paper

Use of Active Vibration Control to Improve Vehicle Refinement while Expanding the Usable Range of Cylinder Deactivation

2019-06-05
2019-01-1571
Cylinder deactivation has been in use for several years resulting in a sizable fuel economy advantage for V8-powered vehicles. The size of the fuel-economy benefit, compared to the full potential possible, is often limited due to the amount of usable torque available in four-cylinder-mode being capped by Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) sensitivities of various rear-wheel-drive vehicle architectures. This paper describes the application and optimization of active vibration absorbers as a system to attenuate vibration through several paths from the powertrain-driveline into the car body. The use of this strategy for attenuating vibration at strategic points is shown to diminish the need for reducing the powertrain source amplitude. This paper describes the process by which the strategic application of these devices is developed in order to achieve the increased usage of the most fuel efficient reduced-cylinder-count engine-operating-points.
Technical Paper

NVH Aspects of Electric Drive Unit Development and Vehicle Integration

2019-06-05
2019-01-1454
The automotive industry continues to develop new powertrain and vehicle technologies aimed at reducing overall vehicle-level fuel consumption. Specifically, the use of electrified propulsion systems is expected to play an increasingly important role in helping OEM’s meet fleet CO2 reduction targets for 2025 and beyond. This will also include a strong growth in the global demand for electric drive units (EDUs). The change from conventional vehicles to vehicles propelled by EDUs leads to a reduction in overall vehicle exterior and interior noise levels, especially during low-speed vehicle operation. Despite the overall noise levels being low, the NVH behavior of such vehicles can be objectionable due to the presence of tonal noise coming from electric machines and geartrain components as well as relatively high shares of road/wind noise. In order to ensure customer acceptance of electrically propelled vehicles, it is imperative that these NVH challenges are understood and solved.
Technical Paper

New Method for Decoupling the Powertrain Roll Mode to Improve Idle Vibration

2019-06-05
2019-01-1588
Modern engines have high torque outputs and have low RPM due to increased demand for fuel efficiency. Vibrations caused by such engines have to be mitigated. Decoupling the roll mode from the remaining five rigid body modes results in a response which is predominantly about the torque roll axis (TRA) and helps reduce vibrations. Therefore, placing the mounts on the TRA early in the design phase is crucial. Best NVH performance can be obtained by optimizing the powertrain mount parameters viz; Position, Orientation and Stiffness. Many times, packaging restricts the mounts to be placed about the TRA resulting in degradation in NVH performance. Assuming that the line through the engine mount (Body side) centers is the desired TRA, we propose a novel method of shifting the TRA by adding mass modifying the powertrain inertia such that the new TRA is parallel to and on top to the desired TRA. This in turn will decouple the roll mode and reduce vibrations.
Technical Paper

A Two-Step Combustion Model of Iso-Octane for 3D CFD Combustion Simulation in SI Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0201
The application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for three-dimensional (3D) combustion analysis coupled with detailed chemistry in engine development is hindered by its expensive computational cost. Chemistry computation may occupy as much as 90% of the total computational cost. In the present paper, a new two-step iso-octane combustion model was developed for spark-ignited (SI) engine to maximize computational efficiency while maintaining acceptable accuracy. Starting from the model constants of an existing global combustion model, the new model was developed using an approach based on sensitivity analysis to approximate the results of a reference skeletal mechanism. The present model involves only five species and two reactions and utilizes only one uniform set of model constants. The validation of the new model was performed using shock tube and real SI engine cases.
Technical Paper

Integrating a Proactive Quality Control Concept into Machining Operation of a Crankshaft Manufacturing Process

2019-04-02
2019-01-0507
Competition in the manufacturing industry is ever increasingly intense. Manufacturing organizations that want to grow and prosper must embrace a discipline of constant improvement. Their engineering departments are tasked with improving existing manufacturing processes in terms of quality and throughput, which is vital to competing on a global scale. Manufacturers strive to utilize technologies to extract efficiencies from their existing processes. Reducing scrap and rework is the paramount goal in increasing a processes’ efficiency. The foundation of this study is to analyze a production line to determine the quality status throughout the manufacturing process. The intention is to react to process instability before the production becomes non-compliant (scrap/rework) which will significantly improve productivity.
Technical Paper

Notch Plasticity and Fatigue Modelling of AZ31B-H24 Magnesium Alloy Sheet

2019-04-02
2019-01-0530
Vehicle weight reduction through the use of components made of magnesium alloys is an effective way to reduce carbon dioxide emission and improve fuel economy. In the design of these components, which are mostly under cyclic loading, notches are inevitably present. In this study, surface strain distribution and crack initiation sites in the notch region of AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy notched specimens under uniaxial load are measured via digital image correlation. Predicted strains from finite element analysis using Abaqus and LS-DYNA material types 124 and 233 are then compared against the experimental measurements during quasi-static and cyclic loading. It is concluded that MAT_233, when calibrated using cyclic tensile and compressive stress-strain curves, is capable of predicting strain at the notch root. Finally, employing Smith-Watson-Topper model together with MAT_233 results, fatigue lives of the notched specimens are estimated and compared with experimental results.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Low Mileage GPF Filtration and Regeneration as Influenced by Soot Morphology, Reactivity, and GPF Loading

2019-04-02
2019-01-0975
As European and Chinese tailpipe emission regulations for gasoline light-duty vehicles impose particulate number limits, automotive manufacturers have begun equipping some vehicles with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). Increased understanding of how soot morphology, reactivity, and GPF loading affect GPF filtration and regeneration characteristics is necessary for advancing GPF performance. This study investigates the impacts of morphology, reactivity, and filter soot loading on GPF filtration and regeneration. Soot morphology and reactivity are varied through changes in fuel injection parameters, known to affect soot formation conditions. Changes in morphology and reactivity are confirmed through analysis using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) respectively.
Technical Paper

A Study of Energy Enhanced Multi-Spark Discharge Ignition in a Constant-Volume Combustion Chamber

2019-04-02
2019-01-0728
Multi-spark discharge (MSD) ignition is widely used in high-speed internal combustion engines such as racing cars, motorcycles and outboard motors in attempts to achieve multiple sparks during each ignition. In contrast to transistor coil ignition (TCI) system, MSD system can be greatly shortened the charging time in a very short time. However, when the engine speed becomes higher, the ignition will be faster, electrical energy stored in the ignition system will certainly become less, especially for MSD system. Once the energy released into the spark plug gap can’t be guaranteed sufficiently, ignition will become more difficult, and it will get worse in some harsh environment such as strong turbulence or lean fuel conditions. With these circumstances, the risks of misfire and partial combustion will increase, which can deteriorate the power outputs and exhaust emissions of internal combustion engine.
Technical Paper

Efficiency Evaluation of Lower Viscosity ATF in a Planetary Automatic Transmission for Improved Fuel Economy

2019-04-02
2019-01-1296
With continued industry focus on reducing parasitic transmission and driveline losses, detailed studies are required to quantify potential enablers to improve vehicle fuel economy. Investigations were undertaken to understand the influence of lower viscosity Automatic Transmission Fluids (ATF) on transmission efficiency as compared with conventional fluids. The objectives of this study were to quantify the losses of lower viscosity ATF as compared with conventional ATF, and to understand the influence of ATF properties including viscosities, base oil types, and additive packages on fuel efficiency. The transmission efficiency investigations were conducted on a test bench following a vehicle-based break-in of the transmission using a prescribed drive cycle on a chassis dynamometer. At low temperature, the lower viscosity ATF showed a clear advantage over the conventional ATF in both spin loss and loaded efficiency evaluations.
Technical Paper

Integration of an ORC Waste Heat Recovery with Electrification and Supercharging through Use of a Planetary Gear System for a Class 8 Tractor Application

2019-04-02
2019-01-0229
A novel approach to the Integration of Turbocompounding/WHR, Electrification and Supercharging technologies (ITES) to reduce fuel consumption in a medium heavy-duty diesel engine was previously published by FEV. This paper describes a modified approach to ITES to reduce fuel consumption on a heavy-duty diesel engine applied in a Class 8 tractor. The original implementation of the ITES incorporated a turbocompound turbine as the means for waste heat recovery. In this new approach, the turbocompound unit connected to the sun gear of the planetary gear set has been replaced by an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) turbine expander. The secondary compressor and the electric motor-generator are connected to the ring gear and the carrier gear respectively. The ITES unit is equipped with dry clutch and band brake allowing flexibility in mechanical and electrical integration of the ORC expander, secondary compressor and electric motor-generator to the engine.
Technical Paper

Total Thermal Management of Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs)

2018-05-30
2018-37-0026
The key hurdles to achieving wide consumer acceptance of battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are weather-dependent drive range, higher cost, and limited battery life. These translate into a strong need to reduce a significant energy drain and resulting drive range loss due to auxiliary electrical loads the predominant of which is the cabin thermal management load. Studies have shown that thermal sub-system loads can reduce the drive range by as much as 45% under ambient temperatures below −10 °C. Often, cabin heating relies purely on positive temperature coefficient (PTC) resistive heating, contributing to a significant range loss. Reducing this range loss may improve consumer acceptance of BEVs. The authors present a unified thermal management system (UTEMPRA) that satisfies diverse thermal and design needs of the auxiliary loads in BEVs.
Technical Paper

Automatic Calibrations Generation for Powertrain Controllers Using MapleSim

2018-04-03
2018-01-1458
Modern powertrains are highly complex systems whose development requires careful tuning of hundreds of parameters, called calibrations. These calibrations determine essential vehicle attributes such as performance, dynamics, fuel consumption, emissions, noise, vibrations, harshness, etc. This paper presents a methodology for automatic generation of calibrations for a powertrain-abstraction software module within the powertrain software of hybrid electric vehicles. This module hides the underlying powertrain architecture from the remaining powertrain software. The module encodes the powertrain’s torque-speed equations as calibrations. The methodology commences with modeling the powertrain in MapleSim, a multi-domain modeling and simulation tool. Then, the underlying mathematical representation of the modeled powertrain is generated from the MapleSim model using Maple, MapleSim’s symbolic engine.
Technical Paper

Lumped Parameter Based Thermo-Physical Modeling of Electrified Vehicle Transmission System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1195
More stringent Federal emission regulations and fuel economy requirements have driven the automotive industry toward more efficient vehicle thermal management systems to best utilize the heat produced from burning fuel and improve driveline efficiency. The greatest part of the effort is directed toward the hybridization of automotive transmission systems. The efficiency and durability of hybrid powertrain depends on the heat generation in electric motors and their interactions among each other, ambient condition, the cooling system and the transmission component configuration. These increase the complexity of motor temperature prediction as well as the computational cost of running a conjugate heat-transfer based CFD analysis. In this paper, 1D physics based thermal model is developed which allows rapid and accurate component-wise temperature estimation of the electric motor during both steady-state and transient driving cycles.
Technical Paper

Thermal Map of an Exhaust Manifold for a Transient Dyno Test Schedule: Development and Test Data Correlation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0126
In an Internal Combustion (IC) Engine, the exhaust manifold has the primary function of channeling products of combustion from cylinder head runners to the emissions system through a collector. Exhaust manifolds must endure severe thermal loads and high strain caused by channeling extremely hot gases and fastener loads, respectively. The combination of these two loads can lead to Thermomechanical Fatigue (TMF) failures after repeated operational cycles if they are not assessed and addressed adequately during the design process. Therefore, it is vital to have a methodology in place to evaluate the life of an engine component (such as the exhaust manifold) using a TMF damage prediction model. To accomplish this, spatial temperature prediction and maximum value attained, as well as temporal distribution, are the most important input conditions.
Technical Paper

A Physics Based Thermal Management Model for PHEV Battery Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0080
The demand for vehicles with electrified powertrain systems is increasing due to government regulations on fuel economy. The battery systems in a PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid-electric Vehicle) have achieved tremendous efficiency over past few years. The system has become more delicate and complex in architecture which requires sophisticated thermal management. Primary reason behind this is to ensure effective cooling of the cells. Hence the current work has emphasized on developing a “Physics based” thermal management modeling framework for a typical battery system. In this work the thermal energy conservation has been analyzed thoroughly in order to develop necessary governing equations for the system. Since cooling is merely a complex process in HEV battery systems, the underlying mechanics has been investigated using the current model. The framework was kept generic so that it can be applied with various architectures. In this paper the process has been standardized in this context.
Technical Paper

Mode-shifting Minimization in a Power Management Strategy for Rapid Component Sizing of Multimode Power Split Hybrid Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1018
The production of multi-mode power-split hybrid vehicles has been implemented for some years now and it is expected to continually grow over the next decade. Control strategy still represents one of the most challenging aspects in the design of these vehicles. Finding an effective strategy to obtain the optimal solution with light computational cost is not trivial. In previous publications, a Power-weighted Efficiency Analysis for Rapid Sizing (PEARS) algorithm was found to be a very promising solution. The issue with implementing a PEARS technique is that it generates an unrealistic mode-shifting schedule. In this paper, the problematic points of PEARS algorithm are detected and analyzed, then a solution to minimize mode-shifting events is proposed. The improved PEARS algorithm is integrated in a design methodology that can generate and test several candidate powertrains in a short period of time.
Technical Paper

Optimal Water Jacket Flow Distribution Using a New Group-Based Space-Filling Design of Experiments Algorithm

2018-04-03
2018-01-1017
The availability of computational resources has enabled an increased utilization of Design of Experiments (DoE) and metamodeling (response surface generation) for large-scale optimization problems. Despite algorithmic advances however, the analysis of systems such as water jackets of an automotive engine, can be computationally demanding in part due to the required accuracy of metamodels. Because the metamodels may have many inputs, their accuracy depends on the number of training points and how well they cover the entire design (input) space. For this reason, the space-filling properties of the DoE are very important. This paper utilizes a new group-based DoE algorithm with space-filling groups of points to construct a metamodel. Points are added sequentially so that the space-filling properties of the entire group of points is preserved. The addition of points is continuous until a specified metamodel accuracy is met.
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