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Technical Paper

Fuel Property Effects on Spray Atomization Process in Gasoline Direct Injection

2020-04-14
2020-01-0329
This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray G under non-vaporizing condition, focusing on the impacts of fuel properties as well as realistic geometry on the atomization process. The large-eddy-simulation method, coupled with the volume-of-fluid method, is used to model the high-speed turbulent two-phase flow. A moving-needle boundary condition is applied to capture the internal flow boundary condition accurately. The injector geometry was measured with micron-level resolution using x-ray tomographic imaging at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory, providing detailed machining tolerance and defects from manufacturing and a realistic rough surface. A 2.5-μm fine mesh is used to sufficiently resolve the details of liquid-gas interface and the breakup process.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Spray Numerical Injection Modeling for Gasoline Applications

2020-04-14
2020-01-0330
The modeling of fuel jet atomization is key in the characterization of Internal Combustion (IC) engines, and 3D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a recognized tool to provide insights for design and control purposes. Multi-hole injectors with counter-bored nozzle are the standard for Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) applications and the Spray-G injector from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is considered the reference for numerical studies, thanks to the availability of extensive experimental data. In this work, the behavior of the Spray-G injector is simulated in a constant volume chamber, ranging from sub-cooled (nominal G) to flashing conditions (G2), validating the models on Diffused Back Illumination and Phase Doppler Anemometry data collected in vaporizing inert conditions.
Technical Paper

Combustion System Optimization of a Light-Duty GCI Engine Using CFD and Machine Learning

2020-04-14
2020-01-1313
In this study, the combustion system of a light-duty compression ignition engine running on a market gasoline fuel with Research Octane Number (RON) of 91 was optimized using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and Machine Learning (ML). This work was focused on optimizing the piston bowl geometry at two compression ratios (CR) (17 and 18:1) and this exercise was carried out at full-load conditions (20 bar indicated mean effective pressure, IMEP). First, a limited manual piston design optimization was performed for CR 17:1, where a couple of pistons were designed and tested. Thereafter, a CFD design of experiments (DoE) optimization was performed where CAESES, a commercial software tool, was used to automatically perturb key bowl design parameters and CONVERGE software was utilized to perform the CFD simulations. At each compression ratio, 128 piston bowl designs were evaluated.
Technical Paper

Statistical Analysis of Fuel Effects on Cylinder Conditions Leading to End-Gas Autoignition in SI Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0630
Currently there is a significant research effort being made in gasoline spark/ignition (SI) engines to understand and reduce cycle-to-cycle variations. One of the phenomena that presents this cycle-to-cycle variation is combustion knock, which also happens to have a very stochastic behavior in modern SI engines. Conversely, the CFR octane rating engine presents much more repeatable combustion knock activity. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of fuel composition on the cycle to cycle variation of the pressure and timing of end gas autoignition. The variation of cylinder conditions at the timing of end-gas autoignition (knock point) for a wide selection of cycle ensembles have been analyzed for several constant RON 98 fuels on the CFR engine, as well as in a modern single-cylinder gasoline direct injection (GDI) SI engine operated at RON-like intake conditions.
Technical Paper

Mixing-Limited Combustion of Alcohol Fuels in a Diesel Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0552
Diesel-fueled, heavy-duty engines are critical to global economies, but unfortunately they are currently coupled to the rising price and challenging emissions of Diesel fuel. Public awareness and increasingly stringent emissions standards have made Diesel OEMs consider possible alternatives to Diesel, including electrification, fuel cells, and spark ignition. While these technologies will likely find success in certain market segments, there are still many applications that will continue to require the performance and liquid-fueled simplicity of Diesel-style engines. Three-way catalysis represents a possible low-cost and highly-effective pathway to reducing Diesel emissions, but that aftertreatment system has typically been incompatible with Diesel operation due to the prohibitively high levels of soot formation at the required stoichiometric fuel-air ratios. This paper explores a possible method of integrating three-way catalysis with Diesel-style engine operation.
Technical Paper

LES Analysis on Cycle-to-Cycle Variation of Combustion Process in a DISI Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0006
Combustion cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of Spark-Ignition (SI) engines can be influenced by the cyclic variations in charge motion, trapped mass and mixture composition inside the cylinder. A high CCV leads to misfire or knock, limiting the engine’s operating regime. To understand the mechanism of the effect of flow field and mixture compositions on CCV, the present numerical work was performed in a single cylinder Direct Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) engine. A large eddy simulation (LES) approach coupled with the G-equation combustion model was developed to capture the CCV by accurately resolving the turbulent flow field spatially and temporally. Further, the ignition process was modeled by sourcing energy during the breakdown and arc phases with a line-shape ignition model which could move with the local flow. Detailed chemistry was solved both inside and outside the flame front. A compact 48-species 152-reactions primary reference fuel (PRF) reduced mechanism was used.
Journal Article

CFD-Guided Combustion System Optimization of a Gasoline Range Fuel in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Automatic Piston Geometry Generation and a Supercomputer

2019-01-15
2019-01-0001
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) guided combustion system optimization was conducted for a heavy-duty diesel engine running with a gasoline fuel that has a research octane number (RON) of 80. The goal was to optimize the gasoline compression ignition (GCI) combustion recipe (piston bowl geometry, injector spray pattern, in-cylinder swirl motion, and thermal boundary conditions) for improved fuel efficiency while maintaining engine-out NOx within a 1-1.5 g/kW-hr window. The numerical model was developed using the multi-dimensional CFD software CONVERGE. A two-stage design of experiments (DoE) approach was employed with the first stage focusing on the piston bowl shape optimization and the second addressing refinement of the combustion recipe. For optimizing the piston bowl geometry, a software tool, CAESES, was utilized to automatically perturb key bowl design parameters. This led to the generation of 256 combustion chamber designs evaluated at several engine operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Using a DNS Framework to Test a Splashed Mass Sub-Model for Lagrangian Spray Simulations

2018-04-03
2018-01-0297
Numerical modeling of fuel injection in internal combustion engines in a Lagrangian framework requires the use of a spray-wall interaction sub-model to correctly assess the effects associated with spray impingement. The spray impingement dynamics may influence the air-fuel mixing and result in increased hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions. One component of a spray-wall interaction model is the splashed mass fraction, i.e. the amount of mass that is ejected upon impingement. Many existing models are based on relatively large droplets (mm size), while diesel and gasoline sprays are expected to be of micron size before splashing under high pressure conditions. It is challenging to experimentally distinguish pre- from post-impinged spray droplets, leading to difficulty in model validation.
Technical Paper

Large-Eddy Simulations of Spray Variability Effects on Flow Variability in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine Under Non-Combusting Operating Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0196
Large-eddy Simulations (LES) have been carried out to investigate spray variability and its effect on cycle-to-cycle flow variability in a direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine under non-reacting conditions. Initial simulations were performed of an injector in a constant volume spray chamber to validate the simulation spray set-up. Comparisons showed good agreement in global spray measures such as the penetration. Local mixing data and shot-to-shot variability were also compared using Rayleigh-scattering images and probability contours. The simulations were found to reasonably match the local mixing data and shot-to-shot variability using a random-seed perturbation methodology. After validation, the same spray set-up with only minor changes was used to simulate the same injector in an optically accessible DISI engine. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements were used to quantify the flow velocity in a horizontal plane intersecting the spark plug gap.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Diesel Spray-Wall Interaction and Morphology around Impingement Location

2018-04-03
2018-01-0276
The necessity to study spray-wall interaction in internal combustion engines is driven by the evidence that fuel sprays impinge on chamber and piston surfaces resulting in the formation of wall films. This, in turn, may influence the air-fuel mixing and increase the hydrocarbon and particulate matter emissions. This work reports an experimental and numerical study on spray-wall impingement and liquid film formation in a constant volume combustion vessel. Diesel and n-heptane were selected as test fuels and injected from a side-mounted single-hole diesel injector at injection pressures of 120, 150, and 180 MPa on a flat transparent window. Ambient and plate temperatures were set at 423 K, the fuel temperature at 363 K, and the ambient densities at 14.8, 22.8, and 30 kg/m3. Simultaneous Mie scattering and schlieren imaging were carried out in the experiment to perform a visual tracking of the spray-wall interaction process from different perspectives.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Dynamic Coupling of Internal Nozzle Flow and Spray Formation for Gasoline Direct Injection Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0314
A numerical study has been carried out to assess the effects of needle movement and internal nozzle flow on spray formation for a multi-hole Gasoline Direct Injection system. The coupling of nozzle flow and spray formation is dynamic in nature and simulations with pragmatic choice of spatial and temporal resolutions are needed to analyze the sprays in a GDI system. The dynamic coupling of nozzle flow and spray formation will be performed using an Eulerian-Lagrangian Spray Atomization (ELSA) approach. In this approach, the liquid fuel will remain in the Eulerian framework while exiting the nozzle, while, depending on local instantaneous liquid concentration in a given cell and amount of liquid in the neighboring cells, part of the liquid mass will be transferred to the Lagrangian framework in the form of Lagrangian parcels.
Journal Article

Numerical Methodology for Optimization of Compression-Ignited Engines Considering Combustion Noise Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-0193
It is challenging to develop highly efficient and clean engines while meeting user expectations in terms of performance, comfort, and drivability. One of the critical aspects in this regard is combustion noise control. Combustion noise accounts for about 40 percent of the overall engine noise in typical turbocharged diesel engines. The experimental investigation of noise generation is difficult due to its inherent complexity and measurement limitations. Therefore, it is important to develop efficient numerical strategies in order to gain a better understanding of the combustion noise mechanisms. In this work, a novel methodology was developed, combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and genetic algorithm (GA) technique to optimize the combustion system hardware design of a high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine, with respect to various emissions and performance targets including combustion noise.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of a Direct-Acting Piezoelectric Prototype Injector Nozzle Flow for Partial Needle Lifts

2017-09-04
2017-24-0101
Actual combustion strategies in internal combustion engines rely on fast and accurate injection systems to be successful. One of the injector designs that has shown good performance over the past years is the direct-acting piezoelectric. This system allows precise control of the injector needle position and hence the injected mass flow rate. Therefore, understanding how nozzle flow characteristics change as function of needle dynamics helps to choose the best lift law in terms of delivered fuel for a determined combustion strategy. Computational fluid dynamics is a useful tool for this task. In this work, nozzle flow of a prototype direct-acting piezoelectric has been simulated by using CONVERGE. Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes approach is used to take into account the turbulence. Results are compared with experiments in terms of mass flow rate. The nozzle geometry and needle lift profiles were obtained by means of X-rays in previous works.
Technical Paper

Coupled Eulerian Internal Nozzle Flow and Lagrangian Spray Simulations for GDI Systems

2017-03-28
2017-01-0834
An extensive numerical study of two-phase flow inside the nozzle holes and the issuing jets for a multi-hole direct injection gasoline injector is presented. The injector geometry is representative of the Spray G nozzle, an eight-hole counter-bored injector, from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). Homogeneous Relaxation Model (HRM) coupled with the mixture multiphase approach in the Eulerian framework has been utilized to capture the phase change phenomena inside the nozzle holes. Our previous studies have demonstrated that this approach is capable of capturing the effect of injection transients and thermodynamic conditions in the combustion chamber, by predicting phenomenon such as flash boiling. However, these simulations were expensive, especially if there is significant interest in predicting the spray behavior as well.
Journal Article

CFD-Guided Heavy Duty Mixing-Controlled Combustion System Optimization with a Gasoline-Like Fuel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0550
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) guided combustion system optimization was conducted for a heavy-duty compression-ignition engine with a gasoline-like fuel that has an anti-knock index (AKI) of 58. The primary goal was to design an optimized combustion system utilizing the high volatility and low sooting tendency of the fuel for improved fuel efficiency with minimal hardware modifications to the engine. The CFD model predictions were first validated against experimental results generated using the stock engine hardware. A comprehensive design of experiments (DoE) study was performed at different operating conditions on a world-leading supercomputer, MIRA at Argonne National Laboratory, to accelerate the development of an optimized fuel-efficiency focused design while maintaining the engine-out NOx and soot emissions levels of the baseline production engine.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of a Gasoline-Like Fuel in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Global Sensitivity Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-0578
Fuels in the gasoline auto-ignition range (Research Octane Number (RON) > 60) have been demonstrated to be effective alternatives to diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Such fuels allow more time for mixing with oxygen before combustion starts, owing to longer ignition delay. Moreover, by controlling fuel injection timing, it can be ensured that the in-cylinder mixture is “premixed enough” before combustion occurs to prevent soot formation while remaining “sufficiently inhomogeneous” in order to avoid excessive heat release rates. Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) has the potential to offer diesel-like efficiency at a lower cost and can be achieved with fuels such as low-octane straight run gasoline which require significantly less processing in the refinery compared to today’s fuels.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Experimental and Modeled Velocity in Gasoline Direct-Injection Sprays with Plume Interaction and Collapse

2017-03-28
2017-01-0837
Modeling plume interaction and collapse for direct-injection gasoline sprays is important because of its impact on fuel-air mixing and engine performance. Nevertheless, the aerodynamic interaction between plumes and the complicated two-phase coupling of the evaporating spray has shown to be notoriously difficult to predict. With the availability of high-speed (100 kHz) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experimental data, we compare velocity field predictions between plumes to observe the full temporal evolution leading up to plume merging and complete spray collapse. The target “Spray G” operating conditions of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is the focus of the work, including parametric variations in ambient gas temperature. We apply both LES and RANS spray models in different CFD platforms, outlining features of the spray that are most critical to model in order to predict the correct aerodynamics and fuel-air mixing.
Technical Paper

Implementation of a Tabulated Flamelet Model for Compression Ignition Engine Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-0564
Modeling unsteady turbulent flame development in lifted spray flames is important as a strong correlation exists between pollutant formation and the transient flame features such as auto-ignition, flame propagation and flame stabilization. Detailed chemistry mechanisms with large number of species are required to resolve the chemical kinetics accurately. These factors make high-fidelity simulation of engine combustion computationally expensive. In this work, a turbulent combustion model is proposed based on tabulation of flamelets. The aim is to develop a comprehensive combustion modeling approach incorporating detailed chemistry mechanisms, turbulence models and highly resolved grids leveraging the computational cost advantage of tabulation. A novel technique of implementing unsteady flamelet libraries without the use of progress variables is implemented for igniting sprays called Tabulated Flamelet Model (TFM).
Journal Article

Novel Tabulated Combustion Model Approach for Lifted Spray Flames with Large Eddy Simulations

2016-10-17
2016-01-2194
In this work, a turbulent combustion model is developed for large eddy simulation (LES) using a novel flamelet tabulation technique based on the framework of the multi-flamelet representative interactive flamelet (RIF) model. The overall aim is to develop a detailed model with elaborate chemistry mechanisms, LES turbulence models and highly resolved grids leveraging the computational cost advantage of a tabulated model. A novel technique of implementing unsteady flamelet libraries by using the residence time instead of the progress variables is proposed. In this study, LES of n-dodecane spray flame is performed using the tabulated turbulent combustion model along with a dynamic structure subgrid model. A high-resolution mesh is employed with a cell size of 62.5 microns in the entire spray and combustion regions. This model is then validated against igniting n-dodecane sprays under diesel engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Modeling Heat Loss through Pistons and Effect of Thermal Boundary Coatings in Diesel Engine Simulations using a Conjugate Heat Transfer Model

2016-10-17
2016-01-2235
Heat loss through wall boundaries play a dominant role in the overall performance and efficiency of internal combustion engines. Typical engine simulations use constant temperature wall boundary conditions [1, 2, 3]. These boundary conditions cannot be estimated accurately from experiments due to the complexities involved with engine combustion. As a result, they introduce a large uncertainty in engine simulations and serve as a tuning parameter. Modeling the process of heat transfer through the solid walls in an unsteady engine computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation can lead to the development of higher fidelity engine models. These models can be used to study the impact of heat loss on engine efficiency and explore new design methodologies that can reduce heat losses. In this work, a single cylinder diesel engine is modeled along with the solid piston coupled to the fluid domain.
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