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Technical Paper

Nozzle Flow and Spray Development One-Way Coupling Methodology for a Multi-Hole GDi Injector

2019-09-09
2019-24-0031
The use of predictive models in the study of Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) allows reducing developing cost and times. However, those models are challenging due to the complex and multi-phase phenomena occurring in the combustion chamber, but also because of the different spatial and temporal scales in different components of the injection systems. This work presents a methodology to accurately simulate the spray by Discrete Droplet Models (DDM) without experimentally measuring the injector mass flow rate and/or momentum flux. Transient nozzle flow simulations are used instead to define the injection conditions of the spray model. The methodology is applied to a multi-hole Gasoline Direct injection (GDi) injector. Firstly, the DDM constant values are calibrated comparing simulation results to Diffused Back-light Illumination (DBI) experimental technique results. Secondly, transient nozzle flow simulations are carried out.
Technical Paper

PIV and DBI Experimental Characterization of Air Flow-Spray Interaction and Soot Formation in a Single Cylinder Optical Diesel Engine Using a Real Bowl Geometry Piston

2019-09-09
2019-24-0100
With demanding emissions legislations and the need for higher efficiency, new technologies for compression ignition engines are in development. One of them relies on reducing the heat losses of the engine during the combustion process as well as to devise injection strategies that reduce soot formation. Therefore, it is necessary a better comprehension about the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) distribution inside the cylinder and how it is affected by the interaction between air flow motion and fuel spray. Furthermore, new diesel engines are characterized by massive decrease of NOx emissions. Therefore, considering the well-known NOx-soot trade-off, it is necessary a better comprehension and overall quantification of soot formation and how the different injection strategies can impact it.
Technical Paper

Dual-Fuel Ethanol-Diesel Technology Applied in Mild and Full Hybrid Powertrains

2019-09-09
2019-24-0115
The increasingly stringent emissions regulations together with the demand of highly efficient vehicles from the customers, lead to rapid developments of distinct powertrain solutions, especially when the electrification is present in a certain degree. The combination of electric machines with conventional powertrains diversifies the powertrain architectures and brings the opportunity to save energy in greater extents. On the other hand, alternative combustion modes as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) have shown to provide simultaneous ultra-low NOx and soot emissions with similar or better thermal efficiency than conventional diesel combustion (CDC). In addition, it is necessary to introduce more renewable fuels as ethanol to reduce the total CO2 emitted to the atmosphere, also called well-to-wheel (WTW) emission, in the transport sector.
Technical Paper

Limitations of Sector Mesh Geometry and Initial Conditions to Model Flow and Mixture Formation in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0204
Sector mesh modeling is the dominant computational approach for combustion system design optimization. The aim of this work is to quantify the errors descending from the sector mesh approach through three geometric modeling approaches to an optical diesel engine. A full engine geometry mesh is created, including valves and intake and exhaust ports and runners, and a full-cycle flow simulation is performed until fired TDC. Next, an axisymmetric sector cylinder mesh is initialized with homogeneous bulk in-cylinder initial conditions initialized from the full-cycle simulation. Finally, a 360-degree azimuthal mesh of the cylinder is initialized with flow and thermodynamics fields at IVC mapped from the full engine geometry using a conservative interpolation approach. A study of the in-cylinder flow features until TDC showed that the geometric features on the cylinder head (valve tilt and protrusion into the combustion chamber, valve recesses) have a large impact on flow complexity.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Fuel Condensation Processes under Non-reacting Conditions in an Optically-Accessible Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0197
Engine experiments have revealed the importance of fuel condensation on the emission characteristics of low temperature combustion. However, direct in-cylinder experimental evidence has not been reported in the literature. In this paper, the in-cylinder condensation processes observed in optically accessible engine experiments are first illustrated. The observed condensation processes are then simulated using state-of-the-art multidimensional engine CFD simulations with a phase transition model that incorporates a well-validated phase equilibrium numerical solver, in which a thermodynamically consistent phase equilibrium analysis is applied to determine when mixtures become unstable and a new phase is formed. The model utilizes fundamental thermodynamics principles to judge the occurrence of phase separation or combination by minimizing the system Gibbs free energy.
Technical Paper

A Visual Investigation of CFD-Predicted In-Cylinder Mechanisms That Control First- and Second-Stage Ignition in Diesel Jets

2019-04-02
2019-01-0543
The long-term goal of this work is to develop a conceptual model for multiple injections of diesel jets. The current work contributes to that effort by performing a detailed modeling investigation into mechanisms that are predicted to control 1st and 2nd stage ignition in single-pulse diesel (n-dodecane) jets under different conditions. One condition produces a jet with negative ignition dwell that is dominated by mixing-controlled heat release, and the other, a jet with positive ignition dwell and dominated by premixed heat release. During 1st stage ignition, fuel is predicted to burn similarly under both conditions; far upstream, gases at the radial-edge of the jet, where gas temperatures are hotter, partially react and reactions continue as gases flow downstream. Once beyond the point of complete fuel evaporation, near-axis gases are no longer cooled by the evaporation process and 1st stage ignition transitions to 2nd stage ignition.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Efficiency of a Conventional Diesel Oxidation Catalyst for Dual-Fuel RCCI Diesel-Gasoline Combustion

2018-09-10
2018-01-1729
Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion has demonstrated to be able to avoid the NOx-soot trade-off appearing during conventional diesel combustion (CDC), with similar or better thermal efficiency than CDC under a wide variety of engine platforms. However, a major challenge of this concept comes from the high hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission levels, which are orders of magnitude higher than CDC and similar to those of port fuel injected (PFI) gasoline engines. The higher HC and CO emissions combined with the lower exhaust temperatures during RCCI operation present a challenge for current exhaust aftertreatment technologies. RCCI has been successfully implemented on different compression ignition engine platforms with only minor modifications on the combustion system to include a PFI for feeding the engine with the low reactivity fuel.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation on Spray Mixing and Combustion Characteristics for Spray C/D Nozzles in a Constant Pressure Vessel

2018-09-10
2018-01-1783
The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is a coordinate effort from research partners from all over the world which aims at creating a large experimental database to validate CFD calculations. Two injectors from ECN, namely Spray C and D, have been compared in a constant pressure flow vessel, which enables a field of view of more than 100 mm. Both nozzles have been designed with similar flow metrics, with Spray D having a convergent hole shape and Spray C a cylindrical one, the latter being therefore more prone to cavitation. Although the focus of the study is on reacting conditions, some inert cases have also been measured. High speed schlieren imaging, OH* chemiluminescence visualization and head-on broadband luminosity have been used as combustion diagnostics to evaluate ignition delay, lift off length and reacting tip penetration. Parametric variations include ambient temperature, oxygen content and injection pressure variations.
Technical Paper

Combined CFD - PIV Methodology for the Characterization of Air Flow in a Diesel Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1769
It is known that in-cylinder airflow structures during intake and compression strokes deeply affects the combustion process in compression ignition (CI) engines. This work presents a methodology for the analysis of the swirling structures by means of the CFD proprietary code Converge 2.3. The methodology is based on the CFD modelling and the comparison of results with in-cylinder velocity fields measured by particle image velocimetry (PIV). Furthermore, the analysis is extended to the accuracy evaluation of other methods available to define the flow in the cylinder of internal combustion engines, such as experiments in steady flow rigs. These methods, in junction with simple phenomenological models, have been traditionally used to determine some of the fundamental variables that define the in-cylinder flow in ICE engines. The CFD analysis is focused in the flow structures around top dead centre (TDC) at the end of the compression stroke.
Technical Paper

Bowl Geometry Effects on Turbulent Flow Structure in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1794
Diesel piston bowl geometry can affect turbulent mixing and therefore it impacts heat-release rates, thermal efficiency, and soot emissions. The focus of this work is on the effects of bowl geometry and injection timing on turbulent flow structure. This computational study compares engine behavior with two pistons representing competing approaches to combustion chamber design: a conventional, re-entrant piston bowl and a stepped-lip piston bowl. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed for a part-load, conventional diesel combustion operating point with a pilot-main injection strategy under non-combusting conditions. Two injection timings are simulated based on experimental findings: an injection timing for which the stepped-lip piston enables significant efficiency and emissions benefits, and an injection timing with diminished benefits compared to the conventional, re-entrant piston.
Technical Paper

Development of an Integrated Virtual Engine Model to Simulate New Standard Testing Cycles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1413
The combination of more strict regulation for pollutant and CO2 emissions and the new testing cycles, covering a wider range of transient conditions, makes very interesting the development of predictive tools for engine design and pre-calibration. This paper describes a new integrated Virtual Engine Model (VEMOD) that has been developed as a standalone tool to simulate new standard testing cycles. The VEMOD is based on a wave-action model that carries out the thermo-and fluid dynamics calculation of the gas in each part of the engine. In the model, the engine is represented by means of 1D ducts, while the volumes, such as cylinders and reservoirs, are considered as 0D elements. Different sub-models are included in the VEMOD to take into account all the relevant phenomena. Thus, the combustion process is calculated by the Apparent Combustion Time (ACT) 1D model, responsible for the prediction of the rate of heat release and NOx formation.
Technical Paper

Numerical Optimization of the Combustion System of a HD Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with DME Considering Current and Future Emission Standards

2018-04-03
2018-01-0247
A genetic algorithm (GA) optimization methodology is applied to the design of the combustion system of a heavy-duty (HD) Diesel engine fueled with dimethyl ether (DME). The study has two objectives, the optimization of a conventional diffusion-controlled combustion system aiming to achieve US2010 targets and the optimization of a stoichiometric combustion system coupled with a three way catalyst (TWC) to further control NOx emissions and achieve US2030 emission standards. These optimizations include the key combustion system related hardware, bowl geometry and injection nozzle design as input factors, together with the most relevant air management and injection settings. The GA was linked to the KIVA CFD code and an automated grid generation tool to perform a single-objective optimization. The target of the optimizations is to improve net indicated efficiency (NIE) while keeping NOx emissions, peak pressure and pressure rise rate under their corresponding target levels.
Technical Paper

Influence of Direct-Injected Fuel Properties on Performance and Emissions from a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Running Under RCCI Combustion Mode

2018-04-03
2018-01-0250
The dual-fuel combustion mode known as reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) allows an effective control of the combustion process by means of modulating the in-cylinder fuel reactivity depending on the engine operating conditions. This strategy has been found to be able to avoid the NOx-soot trade-off appearing during conventional diesel combustion (CDC), with diesel-like or better thermal efficiency in a great part of the engine map. The role of the low reactivity fuel properties and engine settings over RCCI combustion has been widely investigated in literature, concluding that the direct-injected fuel injection timing is a key parameter for controlling the in-cylinder fuel stratification. From this, it can be inferred that the physical and chemical characteristics of the direct-injected fuel should have also an important role on the RCCI combustion process.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Engine Combustion Network ‘Spray B’ in a Light Duty Single Cylinder Optical Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0220
Engine Combustion Network promotes fundamental investigations on a number of different spray configurations with the goal of providing experimental results under highly controlled conditions for CFD validation. Most of the available experiments up to now have been obtained in spray vessels, which miss some of the interactions governing spray evolution in the combustion chamber of an engine, such as the jet wall interaction and the transient conditions in the combustion chamber. The main aim of the present research is to compare the results obtained with a three-hole, 90 μm injector, known as ECN’s Spray B, in these constant-volume vessels and more recent Heavy-Duty engines with those obtained in a Light Duty Single Cylinder Optical Engine, under inert and reactive conditions, using n-dodecane. In-cylinder conditions during the injection were estimated by means of a 1-D and 0-D model simulation, accounting for heat transfer and in-cylinder mass evolution.
Technical Paper

Representation of Two-Stroke Engine Scavenging in 1D Models Using 3D Simulations

2018-04-03
2018-01-0166
The paper proposes the way of using scavenging curves, i.e., dependence of residual gas fraction in exhaust port or valve on residual fraction in a cylinder, found by CFD simulations. In the general case, exhaust gas recirculation outside of a cylinder (EGR) or internal gas recirculation caused by variable values of burned gas backflow to inlet system may influence in-cylinder residual gas fraction. These deviations may take place during engine optimization, done by 1D models. The determination of scavenging curves via 3D CFD simulations is a time consuming process, which cannot be repeated for every 1D case.
Journal Article

Numerical Methodology for Optimization of Compression-Ignited Engines Considering Combustion Noise Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-0193
It is challenging to develop highly efficient and clean engines while meeting user expectations in terms of performance, comfort, and drivability. One of the critical aspects in this regard is combustion noise control. Combustion noise accounts for about 40 percent of the overall engine noise in typical turbocharged diesel engines. The experimental investigation of noise generation is difficult due to its inherent complexity and measurement limitations. Therefore, it is important to develop efficient numerical strategies in order to gain a better understanding of the combustion noise mechanisms. In this work, a novel methodology was developed, combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and genetic algorithm (GA) technique to optimize the combustion system hardware design of a high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine, with respect to various emissions and performance targets including combustion noise.
Journal Article

Experimental and Computational Investigation of Subcritical Near-Nozzle Spray Structure and Primary Atomization in the Engine Combustion Network Spray D

2018-04-03
2018-01-0277
In order to improve understanding of the primary atomization process for diesel-like sprays, a collaborative experimental and computational study was focused on the near-nozzle spray structure for the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray D single-hole injector. These results were presented at the 5th Workshop of the ECN in Detroit, Michigan. Application of x-ray diagnostics to the Spray D standard cold condition enabled quantification of distributions of mass, phase interfacial area, and droplet size in the near-nozzle region from 0.1 to 14 mm from the nozzle exit. Using these data, several modeling frameworks, from Lagrangian-Eulerian to Eulerian-Eulerian and from Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), were assessed in their ability to capture and explain experimentally observed spray details. Due to its computational efficiency, the Lagrangian-Eulerian approach was able to provide spray predictions across a broad range of conditions.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Vortex Center Location Algorithms for Particle Image Velocimetry Data in an Optical Light-Duty Compression Ignition Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0209
Ever decreasing permitted emission levels and the necessity of more efficient engines demand a better understanding of in-cylinder phenomena. In swirl-supported compression ignition (CI) engines, mean in-cylinder flow structures formed during the intake stroke deeply influence mixture preparation prior to combustion, heat transfer and pollutant oxidation all of which could potentially improve engine performance. Therefore, the ability to characterize these mean flow structures is relevant for achieving performance improvements. CI mean flow structure is mainly described by a precessing vortex. The location of the vortex center is key for the characterization of the flow structure. Consequently, this work aims at evaluating algorithms that allow for the location of the vortex center both, in ensemble-averaged velocity fields and in instantaneous velocity fields.
Technical Paper

Soot Characterization of Diesel/Gasoline Blends Injected through a Single Injection System in CI engines

2017-09-04
2017-24-0048
In the past few years’ various studies have shown how the application of a highly premixed dual fuel combustion for CI engines leads a strong reduction for both pollutant emissions and fuel consumption. In particular a drastic soot and NOx reduction were achieved. In spite of the most common strategy for dual fueling has been represented by using two different injection systems, various authors are considering the advantages of using a single injection system to directly inject blends in the chamber. In this scenario, a characterization of the behavior of such dual-fuel blend spray became necessary, both in terms of inert and reactive ambient conditions. In this work, a light extinction imaging (LEI) has been performed in order to obtain two-dimensional soot distribution information within a spray flame of different diesel/gasoline commercial fuel blends. All the measurements were conducted in an optically accessible two-stroke engine equipped with a single-hole injector.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of a Direct-Acting Piezoelectric Prototype Injector Nozzle Flow for Partial Needle Lifts

2017-09-04
2017-24-0101
Actual combustion strategies in internal combustion engines rely on fast and accurate injection systems to be successful. One of the injector designs that has shown good performance over the past years is the direct-acting piezoelectric. This system allows precise control of the injector needle position and hence the injected mass flow rate. Therefore, understanding how nozzle flow characteristics change as function of needle dynamics helps to choose the best lift law in terms of delivered fuel for a determined combustion strategy. Computational fluid dynamics is a useful tool for this task. In this work, nozzle flow of a prototype direct-acting piezoelectric has been simulated by using CONVERGE. Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes approach is used to take into account the turbulence. Results are compared with experiments in terms of mass flow rate. The nozzle geometry and needle lift profiles were obtained by means of X-rays in previous works.
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