Effects of Injection Timing on the Exhaust Emissions of a Centrally-Injected Four-Valve Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine
A study to investigate the influence of fuel injection timing on exhaust emissions from a single-cylinder direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) research engine was performed. Experimental results were obtained for carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (HC), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx). Images showing the variation of liquid-phase fuel distribution with changing injection timing were obtained in a firing optically-accessed engine of similar design. A correlation between measured emissions and observed liquid-phase fuel distribution was performed. This correlation was supported by development of phenomenological models that permit explanation of the variation of CO, HC, and NOx emissions with changes in air-fuel mixture preparation.