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Technical Paper

Effects of Exhaust Gas Hydrogen Addition and Oxygenated Fuel Blends on the Light-Off Performance of a Three-Way Catalyst

2019-12-19
2019-01-2329
A significant amount of harmful emissions pass unreacted through catalytic after-treatment devices for IC engines before the light-off temperature is reached, despite the high conversion efficiency of these systems in fully warm conditions. Further tightening of fleet targets and worldwide emission regulations will make a faster catalyst light-off to meet legislated standards hence reduce the impact of road transport on air quality even more critical. This work investigates the effect of adding hydrogen (H2) at levels up to 2500 ppm into the exhaust gases produced by combustion of various oxygenated C2-, C4- and renewable fuel molecules blended at 20 % wt/wt with gasoline on the light-off performance of a commercially available three-way catalyst (TWC) (0.61 L, Pd/Rh/Pt - 19/5/1, 15g). The study was conducted on a modified naturally aspirated, 1.4 L, four-cylinder, direct-injected, spark-ignition engine.
Technical Paper

HyPACE - Hybrid Petrol Advance Combustion Engine - Advanced Boosting System for Extended Stoichiometric Operation and Improved Dynamic Response

2019-04-02
2019-01-0325
The HyPACE (Hybrid Petrol Advanced Combustion Engine) project is a part UK government funded research project established to develop a high thermal efficiency petrol engine that is optimized for hybrid vehicle applications. The project combines the capabilities of a number of partners (Jaguar Land Rover, BorgWarner, MAHLE Powertrain, Johnson Matthey, Cambustion and Oxford University) with the target of achieving a 10% vehicle fuel consumption reduction, whilst still achieving a 90 to 100 kW/liter power rating through the novel application of a combination of new technologies. The baseline engine for the project was Jaguar Land Rover’s new Ingenium 4-cylinder petrol engine which includes an advanced continuously variable intake valve actuation mechanism. A concept study has been undertaken and detailed combustion Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to enable the optimization of the combustion system layout of the engine.
Technical Paper

Method Development and Application of Thermal Encapsulation to Reduce Fuel Consumption of Internal Combustion Powertrains

2019-04-02
2019-01-0902
Under bonnet thermal encapsulation is a method for retaining the heat generated by a running powertrain after it is turned off. By retaining the heat in the engine bay, the powertrain will be closer to its operating temperatures the next time it is started, reducing the warm up time required. This reduces the period of inefficiency due to high friction losses before the engine reaches it operating temperature, and as a result reduces the vehicles fuel consumption and CO2 emissions. To develop an integrated and efficient encapsulation design, CAE methods can be applied to allow this work stream to start as early in a vehicles development cycle as possible. In this work, the existing test methods are discussed, and a new Thermal CFD method is presented that accurately simulates the fluid temperatures after a customer representative 9 hour park period.
Technical Paper

Investigating the Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of Biomass-Derived Platform Fuels as Gasoline Extenders in a Single Cylinder Spark-Ignition Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2325
The conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to liquid fuels presents an alternative to the current production of renewable fuels for IC engines from food crops. However, realising the potential for reductions in net CO2 emissions through the utilisation of, for example, waste biomass for sustainable fuel production requires that energy and resource inputs into such processes be minimised. This work therefore investigates the combustion and emission characteristics of five intermediate platform molecules potentially derived from lignocellulosic biomass: gamma-valerolactone (GVL), methyl valerate, furfuryl alcohol, furfural and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF). The study was conducted on a naturally aspirated, water cooled, single cylinder spark-ignition engine. Each of the platform molecules were blended with reference fossil gasoline at 20 % wt/wt.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Effect of a Swirl Flap and Asymmetric Inlet Valve Opening on a Light Duty Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2429
Diesel engine designers often use swirl flaps to increase air motion in cylinder at low engine speeds, where lower piston velocities reduce natural in-cylinder swirl. Such in-cylinder motion reduces smoke and CO emissions by improved fuel-air mixing. However, swirl flaps, acting like a throttle on a gasoline engine, create an additional pressure drop in the inlet manifold and thereby increase pumping work and fuel consumption. In addition, by increasing the fuel-air mixing in cylinder the combustion duration is shortened and the combustion temperature is increased; this has the effect of increasing NOx emissions. Typically, EGR rates are correspondingly increased to mitigate this effect. Late inlet valve closure, which reduces an engine’s effective compression ratio, has been shown to provide an alternative method of reducing NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Effect of Fuel/Air Interactions in a Modern High-Speed Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0075
Modern diesel cars, fitted with state-of-the-art aftertreatment systems, have the capability to emit extremely low levels of pollutant species at the tailpipe. However, diesel aftertreatment systems can represent a significant cost, packaging and maintenance requirement. Reducing engine-out emissions in order to reduce the scale of the aftertreatment system is therefore a high priority research topic. Engine-out emissions from diesel engines are, to a significant degree, dependent on the detail of fuel/air interactions that occur in-cylinder, both during the injection and combustion events and also due to the induced air motion in and around the bowl prior to injection. In this paper the effect of two different piston bowl shapes are investigated.
Journal Article

Water Ingress Analysis and Splash Protection Evaluation for Vehicle Wading using Non-Classical CFD Simulation

2017-03-28
2017-01-1327
Physical testing of a vehicle wading through water is performed to gauge its capability to traverse through shallow to deep levels of water, wherein various vehicle performance parameters are observed, recorded and analysed. Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) has instigated and established a comprehensive CAE test procedure for assessing the same, which makes use of overset mesh (in a CFD environment) for a non-traditional approach to vehicle motion. The paper presents investigations made into the established wading physics, in order to optimise the splashing and water jet modelling. Large Scale Interface model was implemented instead of the previously standardised VOF-VOF fluid phase interaction model, and a comparison is made between the two. The implemented wheel rotation approach was scrutinised as well and appropriate inferences are drawn.
Technical Paper

Robust Application of CBE and OBE for Engine Testing System Diagnosis

2016-04-05
2016-01-0987
Tightening emissions regulations are driving increasing focus on both equipment and measurement capabilities in the test cell environment. Customer expectations are therefore rising with respect to data uncertainty. Key critical test cell parameters such as load, fuel rate, air flow and emission measurements are more heavily under scrutiny and require real time methods of verification over and above the traditional test cell calibration in 40CFR1065 regulation. The objective of this paper is to develop a system to use a carbon dioxide (CO2) based balance error and an oxygen (O2) based balance error for diagnosing the main measurement system error in the test cell such as fuel rate meter, air flow meter, emission sample line, pressure transducer and thermocouples. The general combustion equation is used to set up the balance equations with assumptions. To validate the air fuel ratio balance model an experimental investigation was carried out for D2 5 mode and C1 8 mode cycle test.
Technical Paper

Aspects of Numerical Modelling of Flash-Boiling Fuel Sprays

2015-09-06
2015-24-2463
Flash-boiling of sprays may occur when a superheated liquid is discharged into an ambient environment with lower pressure than its saturation pressure. Such conditions normally exist in direct-injection spark-ignition engines operating at low in-cylinder pressures and/or high fuel temperatures. The addition of novel high volatile additives/fuels may also promote flash-boiling. Fuel flashing plays a significant role in mixture formation by promoting faster breakup and higher fuel evaporation rates compared to non-flashing conditions. Therefore, fundamental understanding of the characteristics of flashing sprays is necessary for the development of more efficient mixture formation. The present computational work focuses on modelling flash-boiling of n-Pentane and iso-Octane sprays using a Lagrangian particle tracking technique.
Journal Article

Numerical Modelling of the In-Nozzle Flow of a Diesel Injector with Moving Needle during and after the End of a Full Injection Event

2015-09-06
2015-24-2472
The design of a Diesel injector is a key factor in achieving higher engine efficiency. The injector's fuel atomisation characteristics are also critical for minimising toxic emissions such as unburnt Hydrocarbons (HC). However, when developing injection systems, the small dimensions of the nozzle render optical experimental investigations very challenging under realistic engine conditions. Therefore, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) can be used instead. For the present work, transient, Volume Of Fluid (VOF), multiphase simulations of the flow inside and immediately downstream of a real-size multi-hole nozzle were performed, during and after the injection event with a small air chamber coupled to the injector downstream of the nozzle exit. A Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach was used to account for turbulence. Grid dependency studies were performed with 200k-1.5M cells.
Journal Article

Analytical and Developmental Techniques Utilized in the Structural Optimization of a New Lightweight Diesel Engine

2015-06-15
2015-01-2298
Jaguar Land Rover (JLR) has designed and developed a new inline 4 cylinder engine family, branded Ingenium. In addition to delivering improved emissions and fuel economy over the outgoing engine, another key aim from the outset of the program was to reduce the combustion noise. This paper details the NVH development of the lead engine in this family, a 2.0 liter common rail turbo diesel. The task from the outset of this new program was to reduce the mass of the engine by 21.5 kg, whilst also improving the structural attenuation of the engine by 5 dB in comparison to the outgoing engine. Improving the structural attenuation by 5 dB was not only a key enabler in reducing combustion noise, but also helped to achieve a certified CO2 performance of 99 g/km in the all-new Jaguar XE model, by allowing more scope for increasing cylinder pressure forcing without compromising NVH.
Journal Article

A New De-throttling Concept in a Twin-Charged Gasoline Engine System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1258
Throttling loss of downsized gasoline engines is significantly smaller than that of naturally aspirated counterparts. However, even the extremely downsized gasoline engine can still suffer a relatively large throttling loss when operating under part load conditions. Various de-throttling concepts have been proposed recently, such as using a FGT or VGT turbine on the intake as a de-throttling mechanism or applying valve throttling to control the charge airflow. Although they all can adjust the mass air flow without a throttle in regular use, an extra component or complicated control strategies have to be adopted. This paper will, for the first time, propose a de-throttling concept in a twin-charged gasoline engine with minimum modification of the existing system. The research engine model which this paper is based on is a 60% downsized 2.0L four cylinder gasoline demonstrator engine with both a supercharger and turbocharger on the intake.
Technical Paper

Effects of Charging System Variability on the Performance and Fuel Economy of a Supercharged Spark-Ignition Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-1286
The paper discusses the effects of various charging system technologies on the performance and fuel consumption of a modern supercharged engine, the Jaguar Land Rover AJ126 3.0 litre V6. The goal of the project was to improve performance and reduce the fuel consumption of the standard engine by researching new technologies around the supercharger. As standard the AJ126 engine uses an Eaton R1320 supercharger with a fixed ratio drive from the crankshaft and no clutch.
Journal Article

Feedforward Control Approach for Digital Combustion Rate Shaping Realizing Predefined Combustion Processes

2015-04-14
2015-01-0876
The aim of this research collaboration focuses on the realization of a novel Diesel combustion control strategy, known as Digital Combustion Rate Shaping (DiCoRS) for transient engine operation. Therefore, this paper presents an initial, 3D-CFD simulation based evaluation of a physical model-based feedforward controller, considered as a fundamental tool to apply real-time capable combustion rate shaping to a future engine test campaign. DiCoRS is a promising concept to improve noise, soot and HC/CO emissions in parallel, without generating drawbacks in NOx emission and combustion efficiency. Instead of controlling distinct combustion characteristics, DiCoRS aims at controlling the full combustion process and therefore represents the highest possible degree of freedom for combustion control. The manipulated variable is the full injection profile, generally consisting of multiple injection events.
Journal Article

Large Eddy Simulation of an n-Heptane Spray Flame with Dynamic Adaptive Chemistry under Different Oxygen Concentrations

2015-04-14
2015-01-0400
Detailed chemical kinetics is essential for accurate prediction of combustion performance as well as emissions in practical combustion engines. However, implementation of that is challenging. In this work, dynamic adaptive chemistry (DAC) is integrated into large eddy simulations (LES) of an n-heptane spray flame in a constant volume chamber (CVC) with realistic application conditions. DAC accelerates the time integration of the governing ordinary differential equations (ODEs) for chemical kinetics through the use of locally (spatially and temporally) valid skeletal mechanisms. Instantaneous flame structures and global combustion characteristics such as ignition delay time, flame lift-off length (LOL) and emissions are investigated to assess the effect of DAC on LES-DAC results. The study reveals that in LES-DAC simulations, the auto-ignition time and LOL obtain a well agreement with experiment data under different oxygen concentrations.
Technical Paper

Simulation Study of Divided Exhaust Period for a Regulated Two-stage Downsized SI Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2550
The Divided Exhaust Period (DEP) concept is an approach which has been proved to significantly reduce the averaged back pressure of turbocharged engines whilst still improving its combustion phasing. The standard layout of the DEP system comprises of two separately-functioned exhaust valves with one valve feeding the blow-down pulse to the turbine whilst the other valve targeting the scavenging behaviour by bypassing the turbine. Via combining the characteristics of both turbocharged engines and naturally aspirated engines, this method can provide large BSFC improvement. The DEP concept has only been applied to single-stage turbocharged engines so far. However, it in its basic form is in no way restricted to a single-stage system. This paper, for the first time, will apply DEP concept to a regulated two-stage (R2S) downsized SI engine.
Technical Paper

Engine Testing of Dissolved Sodium Borohydride for Diesel Combustion CO2 Scrubbing

2014-10-13
2014-01-2729
Improvements in the efficiency of internal combustion engines and the development of renewable liquid fuels have both been deployed to reduce exhaust emissions of CO2. An additional approach is to scrub CO2 from the combustion gases, and one potential means by which this might be achieved is the reaction of combustions gases with sodium borohydride to form sodium carbonate. This paper presents experimental studies carried out on a modern direct injection diesel engine supplied with a solution of dissolved sodium borohydride so as to investigate the effects of sodium borohydride on combustion and emissions. Sodium borohydride was dissolved in the ether diglyme at concentrations of 0.1 and 2 % (wt/wt), and tested alongside pure diglyme and a reference fossil diesel. The sodium borohydride solutions and pure diglyme were supplied to the fuel injector under an inert atmosphere and tested at a constant injection timing and constant engine indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP).
Technical Paper

Developing Low Gasoline Particulate Emission Engines Through Improved Fuel Delivery

2014-10-13
2014-01-2843
Particulate emissions are of growing concern due to health impacts. Many urban areas around the world currently have particulate matter levels exceeding the World Health Organisation safe limits. Gasoline engines, especially when equipped with direct injection systems, contribute to this pollution. In recognition of this fact European limits on particulate mass and number are being introduced. A number of ways to meet these new stringent limits have been under investigation. The focus of this paper is on particulate emissions reduction through improvements in fuel delivery. This investigation is part of the author's ongoing particulate research and development that includes optical engine spray and combustion visualisation, CFD method development, engine and vehicle testing with the aim to move particulate emission development upstream in the development process.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Kinetic Parameters for an Aftertreatment Catalyst

2014-10-13
2014-01-2814
Mathematical modelling has become an essential tool in the design of modern catalytic systems. Emissions legislation is becoming increasingly stringent, and so mathematical models of aftertreatment systems must become more accurate in order to provide confidence that a catalyst will convert pollutants over the required range of conditions. Automotive catalytic converter models contain several sub-models that represent processes such as mass and heat transfer, and the rates at which the reactions proceed on the surface of the precious metal. Of these sub-models, the prediction of the surface reaction rates is by far the most challenging due to the complexity of the reaction system and the large number of gas species involved.
Journal Article

EU6c Particle Number on a Full Size SUV - Engine Out or GPF?

2014-10-13
2014-01-2848
This paper describes the findings of a design, simulation and test study into how to reduce particulate number (Pn) emissions in order to meet EU6c legislative limits. The objective of the study was to evaluate the Pn potential of a modern 6-cylinder engine with respect to hardware and calibration when fitted to a full size SUV. Having understood this capability, to redesign the combustion system and optimise the calibration in order to meet an engineering target value of 3×1011 Pn #/km using the NEDC drive cycle. The design and simulation tasks were conducted by JLR with support from AVL. The calibration and all of the vehicle testing was conducted by AVL, in Graz. Extensive design and CFD work was conducted to refine the inlet port, piston crown and injector spray pattern in order to reduce surface wetting and improve air to fuel mixing homogeneity. The design and CFD steps are detailed along with the results compared to target.
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