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Technical Paper

Symmetric Negative Valve Overlap Effects on Energy Distribution of a Single Cylinder HCCI Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1250
The effects of Variable Valve Timing (VVT) on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine energy distribution and waste heat recovery are investigated using a fully flexible Electromagnetic Variable Valve Timing (EVVT) system. The experiment is carried out in a single cylinder, 657 cc, port fuel injection engine fueled with n-heptane. Exergy analysis is performed to understand the relative contribution of different loss mechanisms in HCCI engines and how VVT changes these contributions. It is found that HCCI engine brake thermal efficiency, the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) power to heat ratio, the first and the second law efficiencies are improved with proper valve timing. Further analysis is performed by applying the first and second law of thermodynamics to compare HCCI energy and exergy distribution to Spark Ignition (SI) combustion using Primary Reference Fuel (PRF). HCCI demonstrates higher fuel efficiency and power to heat and energy loss ratios compared to SI.
Technical Paper

Progress towards a 3D Numerical Simulation of Ice Accretion on a Swept Wing using the Morphogenetic Approach

2015-06-15
2015-01-2162
We have developed an original, three-dimensional icing modelling capability, called the “morphogenetic” approach, based on a discrete formulation and simulation of ice formation physics. Morphogenetic icing modelling improves on existing ice accretion models, in that it is capable of predicting simultaneous rime and glaze ice accretions and ice accretions with variable density and complex geometries. The objective of this paper is to show preliminary results of simulating complex three-dimensional features such as lobster tails and rime feathers forming on a swept wing. The results are encouraging. They show that the morphogenetic approach can predict realistically both the overall size and detailed structure of the ice accretion forming on a swept wing. Under cold ambient conditions, when drops freeze instantly upon impingement, the numerical ice structure has voids, which reduce its density.
Technical Paper

Styrofoam Precursors as Drop-in Diesel Fuel

2013-09-08
2013-24-0108
Styrene, or ethylbenzene, is mainly used as a monomer for the production of polymers, most notably Styrofoam. In the synthetis of styrene, the feedstock of benzene and ethylene is converted into aromatic oxygenates such as benzaldehyde, 2-phenyl ethanol and acetophenone. Benzaldehyde and phenyl ethanol are low value side streams, while acetophenone is a high value intermediate product. The side streams are now principally rejected from the process and burnt for process heat. Previous in-house research has shown that such aromatic oxygenates are suitable as diesel fuel additives and can in some cases improve the soot-NOx trade-off. In this study acetophenone, benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol are each added to commercial EN590 diesel at a ratio of 1:9, with the goal to ascertain whether or not the lower value benzaldehyde and 2-phenyl ethanol can perform on par with the higher value acetophenone. These compounds are now used in pure form.
Technical Paper

Injection of Fuel at High Pressure Conditions: LES Study

2011-09-11
2011-24-0041
This paper presents a large eddy simulation study of the liquid spray mixing with hot ambient gas in a constant volume vessel under engine-like conditions with the injection pressure of 1500 bar, ambient density 22.8 kg/m₃, ambient temperature of 900 K and an injector nozzle of 0.09 mm. The simulation results are compared with the experiments carried out by Pickett et al., under similar conditions. Under modern direct injection diesel engine conditions, it has been argued that the liquid core region is small and the droplets after atomization are fine so that the process of spray evaporation and mixing with the air is controlled by the heat and mass transfer between the ambient hot gas and central fuel flow. To examine this hypothesis a simple spray breakup model is tested in the present LES simulation. The simulations are performed using an open source compressible flow solver, in OpenFOAM.
Journal Article

UHC and CO Emissions Sources from a Light-Duty Diesel Engine Undergoing Dilution-Controlled Low-Temperature Combustion

2009-09-13
2009-24-0043
Unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emission sources are examined in an optical, light-duty diesel engine operating under low load and engine speed, while employing a highly dilute, partially premixed low-temperature combustion (LTC) strategy. The impact of engine load and charge dilution on the UHC and CO sources is also evaluated. The progression of in-cylinder mixing and combustion processes is studied using ultraviolet planar laser-induced fluorescence (UV PLIF) to measure the spatial distributions of liquid- and vapor-phase hydrocarbon. A separate, deep-UV LIF technique is used to examine the clearance volume spatial distribution and composition of late-cycle UHC and CO. Homogeneous reactor simulations, utilizing detailed chemical kinetics and constrained by the measured cylinder pressure, are used to examine the impact of charge dilution and initial stoichiometry on oxidation behavior.
Technical Paper

Extending the Load Range of a Natural Gas HCCI Engine using Direct Injected Pilot Charge and External EGR

2009-06-15
2009-01-1884
Natural gas is a challenging fuel for HCCI engines because its single-stage ignition and rapid combustion make it difficult to optimize combustion timing over a significant load range. This study investigates direct injection of a pilot quantity of high-cetane fuel near TDC as a range extension and combustion control mechanism for natural gas HCCI engines. The EGR and load range is studied in a supercharged natural gas HCCI engine equipped with external EGR, intake heating and a direct injection system for n-heptane pilot fuel. The operating range and emissions are of primary interest and are compared between both the baseline HCCI engine with variable intake temperature and the direct injected HCCI (DI-HCCI) engine with constant intake temperature. Test results show the EGR and load range at fixed intake temperature can be extended using pilot direct injection.
Technical Paper

Actuator Comparison for Closed Loop Control of HCCIC Combustion Timing

2009-04-20
2009-01-1135
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is an emerging combustion technology due to its increased efficiency and decreased NOx emissions. One of the most challenging aspects of HCCI is the regulation of the combustion timing. Unlike conventional combustion modes there is no direct control over the start of combustion. Autoignition timing is a function of the temperature, pressure and composition of the mixture, so to adjust the combustion timing of HCCI changes have to be made to these. Both variable valve timing and variable fuel octane number are effective inputs to achieve cycle-to-cycle combustion control of HCCI combustion timing. The application of these control methods are investigated in this paper. A one-cylinder Ricardo engine is fitted with a 4-valve spark ignition cylinder head equipped with camshaft phasers. These phasers independently adjust both the intake and exhaust camshaft phasing.
Journal Article

Dynamic Modeling of HCCI Combustion Timing in Transient Fueling Operation

2009-04-20
2009-01-1136
A physics-based control-oriented model is developed to dynamically predict cycle-to-cycle combustion timing in transient fueling conditions for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines. The model simulates the engine cycle from the intake stroke to the exhaust stroke and includes the thermal coupling dynamics caused by the residual gases from one cycle to the next cycle. A residual gas model, a modified knock integral model, a fuel burn rate model, and thermodynamic models for the gas state in combustion and exhaust strokes are incorporated to simulate the engine cycle. The gas exchange process, generated work and completeness of combustion are predicted using semi-empirical correlations. The resulting model is parameterized for the combustion of Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) blends using 5703 simulations from a detailed thermo-kinetic model. Semi-empirical correlations in the model are parameterized using the experimental data obtained from a single-cylinder engine.
Technical Paper

A Novel Model for Computing the Trapping Efficiency and Residual Gas Fraction Validated with an Innovative Technique for Measuring the Trapping Efficiency

2008-09-09
2008-32-0003
The paper describes a novel method for calculating the residual gas fraction and the trapping efficiency in a 2 stroke engine. Assuming one dimensional compressible flow through the inlet and exhaust ports, the method estimates the instantaneous mass flowing in and out from the combustion chamber; later the residual gas fraction and trapping efficiency are estimated combining together the perfect displacement and perfect mixing scavenging models. It is assumed that when the intake port opens, the fresh mixture is pushing out the burned charge without any mixing and after a multiple of the time needed for the largest eddy to perform one rotation, the two gasses are instantly mixed up together and expelled. The result is a very simple algorithm that does not require much computational time and is able to estimate with high level of precision the trapping efficiency and the residual gas fraction in 2 stroke engines.
Technical Paper

Effect of Temperature Stratification on the Auto-ignition of Lean Ethanol/Air Mixture in HCCI engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1669
It has been known from multi-zone simulations that HCCI combustion can be significantly affected by temperature stratification of the in-cylinder gas. With the same combustion timing (i.e. crank angles at 50% heat release, denoted as CA50), large temperature stratification tends to prolong the combustion duration and lower down the in-cylinder pressure-rise-rate. With low pressure-rise-rate HCCI engines can be operated at high load, therefore it is of practical importance to look into more details about how temperature stratification affects the auto-ignition process. It has been realized that multi-zone simulations can not account for the effects of spatial structures of the stratified temperature field, i.e. how the size of the hot and cold spots in the temperature field could affect the auto-ignition process. This question is investigated in the present work by large eddy simulation (LES) method which is capable of resolving the in-cylinder turbulence field in space and time.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Mg AZ80 Alloy Forging Behaviour

2008-04-14
2008-01-0214
Magnesium AZ80 is a medium strength alloy with good corrosion resistance and very good forging capability which offers an affordable commercial alternative to the Mg ZK60 alloy used for wheels in racing cars. Extending the market of Mg AZ80 alloy to automotive wheels requires a better understanding of macro- and micro-properties of this structural material, especially its forging behaviour. In this study the deformation behaviour of Mg AZ80 alloy is characterized by uniaxial compression tests from ambient to 420°C at a variety of strain rates using a Gleeble 1500 simulator. A constitutive relationship coupling materials work hardening and strain rate and temperature dependences is calibrated based on test results. This flow behaviour is input into a finite element model to simulate the forging operation of an automotive wheel with ABAQUS codes.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Wall Temperature and Combustion Chamber Geometry on the Performance and Emissions of a Mini HCCI Engine Fueled with Diethyl Ether

2008-04-14
2008-01-0008
Nowadays for small-scale power generation there are electrochemical batteries and mini engines. Many efforts have been done for improving the power density of the batteries but unfortunately the value of 1 MJ/kg seems to be asymptotic. If the energy source is an organic fuel which has an energy density of around 29 MJ/kg with a minimum overall efficiency of only 3.5%, this device would surpass the batteries. This paper is the fifth of a series of publications aimed to study the HCCI combustion process in the milli domain at high engine speed in order to design and develop VIMPA, Vibrating Microengine for Low Power Generation and Microsystems Actuation. Previous studies ranged from general characterization of the HCCI combustion process by using metal and optical engines, to more specific topics for instance the influence of the boundary layer and quenching distance on the quality of the combustion.
Technical Paper

Reformer Gas Composition Effect on HCCI Combustion of n-Heptane, iso-Octane, and Natural Gas

2008-04-14
2008-01-0049
Although HCCI engines promise low NOx emissions with high efficiency, they suffer from a narrow operating range between knock and misfire because they lack a direct means of controlling combustion timing. A series of previous studies showed that reformer gas, (RG, defined as a mixture of light gases dominated by hydrogen and carbon monoxide), can be used to control combustion timing without changing mixture dilution, (λ or EGR) which control engine load. The effect of RG blending on combustion timing was found to be mainly related to the difference in auto-ignition characteristics between the RG and base fuel. The practical effectiveness of RG depends on local production using a fuel processor that consumes the same base fuel as the engine and efficiently produces high-hydrogen RG as a blending additive.
Journal Article

Oxygenated Fuel Considerations for In-Shop Fuel System Leak Testing Hazards

2008-04-14
2008-01-0554
Because of domestic production from renewable sources and their clean burning nature, alcohols, especially ethanol, have seen growing use as a blending agent and replacement for basic hydrocarbons in gasoline. The increasing use of alcohol in fuels raises questions on the safety of these fuels under certain non-operational situations. Modern vehicles use evaporative emission control systems to minimize environmental emissions of fuel. These systems must be relatively leak-free to function properly and are self-diagnosed by the vehicle On-Board Diagnostic system. When service is required, the service leak testing procedures may involve forcing test gases into the “evap” system and also exposure of the fuel vapors normally contained in the system to atmosphere. Previous work has discussed the hazards involved when performing shop leak testing activities for vehicles fuelled with conventional hydrocarbon gasoline [1, 2].
Journal Article

Selection of Welding Parameter during Friction Stir Spot Welding

2008-04-14
2008-01-0146
The selection of parameters during friction stir spot welding of Al-alloys and Mg-alloys is discussed. The role of tool rotation speed, plunge rate, and dwell time is examined in relation to the tool heating rate,temperature, force, and torque that occur during spot welding. In order to reduce the cycle time and tool force during Al- alloy spot welding, it is necessary to increase the tool rotation speed >1500 RPM. The measured peak temperature in the stir zone is determined by the rotation speed and dwell time, and is ultimately limited by the solidus of the alloy. When tool rotation speeds >1500 RPM are employed during AZ91 Mg-alloy spot welding, the tendency for melted film formation and cracking are greatly increased.
Technical Paper

Improving Ion Current Feedback for HCCI Engine Control

2007-10-29
2007-01-4053
In HCCI you do not have the same control of the combustion like in SI and Diesel engines. Controlling the start of a combustion event is a difficult task and requires feedback from previous cycles. This feedback can be retrieved from ion current measurements. By applying a voltage over the spark gap, ions will lead a current and a signal that represents the combustion in the cylinder will be retrieved. Voltages of 450 V were used. The paper describes a new method to enhance the combustion phasing from the Ion current trace in HCCI engines. The method is using the knowledge of how the signal should look. This is known due to the fact that the shape of the ion current signal is similar from cycle to cycle. This new observation is shown in the paper. Also the correlation between the ion current and CA50 was studied. Later the signals have been used for combustion feedback.
Technical Paper

Influence of the Compression Ratio on the Performance and Emissions of a Mini HCCI Engine Fueled Ether with Diethyl

2007-10-29
2007-01-4075
Power supply systems play a very important role in applications of everyday life. Mainly, for low power generation, there are two ways of producing energy: electrochemical batteries and small engines. In the last few years many improvements have been carried out in order to obtain lighter batteries with longer duration but unfortunately the energy density of 1 MJ/kg seems to be an asymptotic value. If the energy source is an organic fuel with an energy density of around 29 MJ/kg and a minimum overall efficiency of only 3.5%, this device can surpass the batteries. Nowadays the most efficient combustion process is HCCI combustion which is able to combine high energy conversion efficiency and low emission levels with a very low fuel consumption. In this paper, an investigation has been carried out concerning the effects of the compression ratio on the performance and emissions of a mini, Vd = 4.11 [cm3], HCCI engine fueled with diethyl ether.
Technical Paper

Mini High Speed HCCI Engine Fueled with Ether: Load Range, Emission Characteristics and Optical Analysis

2007-08-05
2007-01-3606
Power supply systems play a very important role in everyday life applications. There are mainly two ways of producing energy for low power generation: electrochemical batteries and small engines. In the last few years, many improvements have been carried out in order to obtain lighter batteries with longer durations but unfortunately the energy density of 1 MJ/kg seems to be an asymptotic value. An energy source constituted of an organic fuel with an energy density around 29 MJ/kg and a minimum overall efficiency of only 3.5% could surpass batteries. Nowadays, the most efficient combustion process is HCCI combustion which has the ability to combine a high energy conversion efficiency with low emission levels and a very low fuel consumption. The present paper describes an investigation carried out on a modified model airplane engine, on how a pure HCCI combustion behaves in a small volume, Vd = 4.11 cm3, at very high engine speeds (up to 17,500 [rpm]).
Technical Paper

A Study of a Glow Plug Ignition Engine by Chemiluminescence Images

2007-07-23
2007-01-1884
An experimental study of a glow plug engine combustion process has been performed by applying chemiluminescence imaging. The major intent was to understand what kind of combustion is present in a glow plug engine and how the combustion process behaves in a small volume and at high engine speed. To achieve this, images of natural emitted light were taken and filters were applied for isolating the formaldehyde and hydroxyl species. Images were taken in a model airplane engine, 4.11 cm3, modified for optical access. The pictures were acquired using a high speed camera capable of taking one photo every second or fourth crank angle degree, and consequently visualizing the progress of the combustion process. The images were taken with the same operating condition at two different engine speeds: 9600 and 13400 rpm. A mixture of 65% methanol, 20% nitromethane and 15% lubricant was used as fuel.
Technical Paper

A Planar Cable-Driven Mechanism as a New Variable Stiffness Element

2007-05-15
2007-01-2421
Design and utilization of a planar cable-driven mechanism as a variable stiffness element is investigated for the purpose of the noise and vibration control. The components of the stiffness matrix of a cable-driven mechanism as well as the tensionability criterion and the effectiveness of the stiffness control through antagonistic force control are studied. Two designs of planar mechanisms with variable stiffness are proposed and different aspects of their stiffness are presented and compared. The results showed that the total stiffness of these two designs can be changed 57% and 26%, respectively which means it is possible to build an effective variable stiffness mechanism by controlling the antagonistic forces. The results were verified using a nonlinear simulation. Finally, the linearity is improved by introducing a dual mechanism design.
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