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Technical Paper

Energy Efficiency of Autonomous Car Powertrain

2018-04-03
2018-01-1092
This paper investigates the energy efficiency and emissions benefits possible with connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs). Such benefits could be instrumental in decarbonising the transport sector. The impact of CAV technology on operation, usage and specification of vehicles for optimised energy efficiency is considered. Energy consumption reductions of 55% – 66% are identified for a fully autonomous road transport system versus the present. 46% is possible for a CAV on today’s roads. Smoothing effects and reduced stoppage in the drive cycle achieve a 31% reduction in travel time if speed limits are not reduced. CAV powertrain optimised for different scenarios requires just 10 kW – 40 kW maximum power whilst the vehicle mass is reduced by up to 40% relative to current cars. Urban-optimised powertrain, with only 10 kW – 15 kW maximum power, allows energy consumption reductions of over 71%.
Technical Paper

Improving Cold Start and Transient Performance of Automotive Diesel Engine at Low Ambient Temperatures

2016-04-05
2016-01-0826
Ambient temperature has significant impact on engine start ability and cold start emissions from diesel engines. These cold start emissions are accounted for substantial amount of the overall regulatory driving cycle emissions like NEDC or FTP. It is likely to implement the low temperature emissions tests for diesel vehicles, which is currently applicable only for gasoline vehicles. This paper investigates the potential of the intake heating strategy on reducing the driving cycle emissions from the latest generation of turbocharged common rail direct injection diesel engines at low ambient temperature conditions. For this investigation an air heater was installed upstream of the intake manifold and New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) tests were conducted at -7°C ambient temperature conditions for the different intake air temperatures. Intake air heating reduced the cranking time and improved the fuel economy at low ambient temperatures.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on Truck Side-Skirt Flow

2016-04-05
2016-01-1593
The underbody of a truck is responsible for an appreciable portion of the vehicle’s aerodynamic drag, and thus its fuel consumption. This paper investigates experimentally the flow around side-skirts, a common underbody aerodynamic device which is known to be effective at reducing vehicle drag. A full, 1/10 scale European truck model is used. The chassis of the model is designed to represent one that would be found on a typical trailer, and is fully reconfigurable. Testing is carried out in a water towing tank, which allows the correct establishment of the ground flow and rotating wheels. Optical access into the underbody is possible through the clear working section of the facility. Stereoscopic and planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) set-ups are used to provide both qualitative images of and quantitative information on the flow field.
Technical Paper

Influence of Coolant Temperature on Cold Start Performance of Diesel Passenger Car in Cold Environment

2016-02-01
2016-28-0142
Diesel engines are the versatile power source and is widely used in passenger car and commercial vehicle applications. Environmental temperature conditions, fuel quality, fuel injection strategies and lubricant have influence on cold start performance of the diesel engines. Strategies to overcome the cold start problem at very low ambient temperature include preheating of intake air, coolant, cylinder block. The present research work investigates the effect of coolant temperatures on passenger car diesel engine’s performance and exhaust emission characteristics during the cold start at cold ambient temperature conditions. The engine is soaked in the -7°C environment for 6 hours. The engine coolant is preheated to the desired coolant temperatures of 10 and 20°C by an external heater and the start ability tests were performed.
Technical Paper

Visualization of the Gas Flow Field within a Diesel Particulate Filter Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

2015-09-01
2015-01-2009
In recent years magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been shown to be an attractive method for fluid flow visualization. In this work, we show how MRI velocimetry techniques can be used to non-invasively investigate and visualize the hydrodynamics of exhaust gas in a diesel particulate filter (DPF), both when clean and after loading with diesel engine exhaust particulate matter. The measurements have been used to directly measure the gas flow in the inlet and outlet channels of the DPF, both axial profiles along the length and profiles across the channel diameter. Further, from this information we show that it is possible to indirectly ascertain the superficial wall-flow gas velocity and the soot loading profiles along the filter channel length.
Technical Paper

Investigations into Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition Mode Fuelled with Different Mixtures of Gasoline and Diesel

2015-04-14
2015-01-0833
A study of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) with mixtures of gasoline and diesel is performed on a light-duty single cylinder diesel engine. The engine is operated at a speed of 1600rpm with the same fuel mass per cycle. By keeping the same intake pressure and EGR ratio, the influence of different blending ratios in gasoline and diesel mixtures (90vol%, 80vol% and 70vol% gasoline) is investigated. Combustion and emission characteristics are compared by sweeping the first (−95 ∼ −35deg ATDC) and the second injection timing (−1 ∼ 9deg ATDC) with an injection split ratio of 80/20 and an injection pressure of 80MPa. The results show that compared with diesel combustion, the gasoline and diesel mixtures can reduce NOx and soot emissions simultaneously while maintaining or achieving even higher indicated thermal efficiency, but the HC and CO emissions are high for the mixtures.
Technical Paper

Performance of Naphtha in Different Compression Ignition Combustion Modes under Various EGR Rates

2015-04-14
2015-01-0804
Experimental research were carried out on a compression ignition engine with compression ratio of 17.5 with direct-run Naphtha. Exhaust recirculation ratio sweeps were carried out with three injection strategies. Premixed charge compression ignition, partially premixed combustion and low temperature combustion modes were realized and compared with each other. The first injection strategy is single injection. The injection timing is scanned to form partially premixed combustion and low temperature combustion. The second injection strategy features a large early first injection with fixed timing to form premixed charge and a small second injection near top dead center, which was scanned. The third injection strategy is similar to the traditional diesel injection strategy, which has a small pilot injection with fixed interval before the main injection. Results show that all injection strategies could realize both low NOx and low particulate matter emissions simultaneously.
Journal Article

Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers (PODE3-4)/ Wide Distillation Fuel (WDF) Blends in Premixed Low Temperature Combustion (LTC)

2015-04-14
2015-01-0810
Wide Distillation Fuel (WDF) refers to the fuels with a distillation range from Initial Boiling Point (IBP) of gasoline to Final Boiling Point (FBP) of diesel. Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers (PODEn) have high oxygen content and cetane number, are promising green additive to diesel fuel. In this paper, WDF was prepared by blending diesel and gasoline at ratio of 1:1, by volume; the mass distribution of oligomers in the PODE3-4 product was 88.9% of PODE3 and 8.46% of PODE4. Diesel fuel (Diesel), WDF (G50D50) and WDF (80%)-PODE3-4 (20%) (G40D40P20) were tested in a light-duty single-cylinder diesel engine, combustion characteristic, fuel consumption and exhaust emissions were measured. The results showed that: at idling condition, G40D40P20 has better combustion stability, higher heat release rate, higher thermal efficiency compared with G50D50.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Performance of Diesel Oxidation Catalyst during Cold Start at L ow Temperature Conditions

2014-10-13
2014-01-2712
Cold start is a critical operating condition for diesel engines because of the pollutant emissions produced by the unstable combustion and non-performance of after-treatment at lower temperatures. In this research investigation, a light-duty turbocharged diesel engine equipped with a common rail injection system was tested on a transient engine testing bed to study the starting process in terms of engine performance and emissions. The engine (including engine coolant, engine oil and fuel) was soaked in a cold cell at −7°C for at least 8 hours before starting the test. The engine operating parameters such as engine speed, air/fuel ratio, and EGR rate were recorded during the tests. Pollutant emissions (Hydrocarbon (HC), NOx, and particles both in mode of nucleation and accumulation) were measured before and after the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC). The results show that conversion efficiency of NOx was higher during acceleration period at −7°C start than the case of 20°C start.
Technical Paper

Impact of Cold Ambient Conditions on Cold Start and Idle Emissions from Diesel Engines

2014-10-13
2014-01-2715
The cold start performance of a diesel engine has been receiving more attention as the European Commission emission regulations directed to include cold start emissions in the legislative emission driving cycles. The cold start performance of diesel engines is influenced by the ambient temperature conditions, engine design, fuel, lubricant and engine operating conditions. The present research work investigates the effect of cold ambient conditions on the diesel engine's performance and the exhaust emission (gaseous and particulate emissions) characteristics during the cold start and followed by idle. The engine startability and idling tests were carried out on the latest generation of diesel engine in a cold cell at various ambient temperatures ranging between +20°C and −20°C. Higher fuel consumption and peak speed were observed at very cold ambient compared to those at normal ambient during the cold start.
Technical Paper

A Study of Methodology for the Investigation of Engine Transient Performance

2014-10-13
2014-01-2714
Automotive engines especially turbocharged diesel engines produce higher level of emissions during transient operation than in steady state. In order to improve understanding of the engine transients and develop advanced technologies to reduce the transient emissions, the engine researchers require accurate data acquisition and appropriate post-processing techniques which are capable of dealing with noise and synchronization issues. Four alternative automated methods namely FFT (Fast Fourier Transform), low-pass, linear and zero-phase filters were implemented on in-cylinder pressure. The data of each individual cycle was compared and analyzed for the suitability of combustion diagnostic. FFT filtering was the best suited method since it eliminated most pressure fluctuation and provided smooth rate of heat release profiles for each cycle.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition Engine Fueled with Heavy Naphtha for High Efficiency and Low Emissions

2014-10-13
2014-01-2678
A study of Multiple Premixed Compression Ignition (MPCI) with heavy naphtha is performed on a light-duty single cylinder diesel engine. The engine is operated at a speed of 1600rpm with the net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP) from 0.5MPa to 0.9MPa. Commercial diesel is also tested with the single injection for reference. The combustion and emissions characteristics of the heavy naphtha are investigated by sweeping the first (−200 ∼ −20 deg ATDC) and the second injection timing (−5 ∼ 15 deg ATDC) with an injection split ratio of 50/50. The results show that compared with diesel combustion, the naphtha MPCI can reduce NOx, soot emissions and particle number simultaneously while maintaining or achieving even higher indicated thermal efficiency. A low pressure rise rate can be achieved due to the two-stage combustion character of the MPCI mode but with the penalty of high HC and CO emissions, especially at 0.5MPa IMEP.
Technical Paper

Thermal Performance of Diesel Aftertreatment: Material and Insulation CFD Analysis

2014-10-13
2014-01-2818
Recent developments in diesel engines lead to increased fuel efficiency and reduced exhaust gas temperature. Therefore more energy efficient aftertreatment systems are required to comply with tight emission regulations. In this study, a computational fluid dynamics package was used to investigate the thermal behaviour of a diesel aftertreatment system. A parametric study was carried out to identify the most influential pipework material and insulation characteristics in terms of thermal performance. In the case of the aftertreatment pipework and canning material effect, an array of different potential materials was selected and their effects on the emission conversion efficiency of a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) were numerically investigated over a driving cycle. Results indicate that although the pipework material's volumetric heat capacity was decreased by a factor of four, the total emission reduction was only considerable during the cold start.
Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Different Blends of Diesel and Gasoline (Dieseline) in a CI Engine

2014-10-13
2014-01-2686
Combustion behaviour and emissions characteristics of different blending ratios of diesel and gasoline fuels (Dieseline) were investigated in a light-duty 4-cylinder compression-ignition (CI) engine operating on partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) mode. Experiments show that increasing volatility and reducing cetane number of fuels can help promote PPCI and consequently reduce particulate matter (PM) emissions while oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions reduction depends on the engine load. Three different blends, 0% (G0), 20% (G20) and 50% (G50) of gasoline mixed with diesel by volume, were studied and results were compared to the diesel-baseline with the same combustion phasing for all experiments. Engine speed was fixed at 1800rpm, while the engine load was varied from 1.38 to 7.85 bar BMEP with the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) application.
Journal Article

Low Ambient Temperature Effects on a Modern Turbocharged Diesel engine running in a Driving Cycle

2014-10-13
2014-01-2713
Engine transient operation has attracted a lot of attention from researchers due to its high frequency of occurrence during daily vehicle operation. More emissions are expected compared to steady state operating conditions as a result of the turbo-lag problem. Ambient temperature has significant influences on engine transients especially at engine start. The effects of ambient temperature on engine-out emissions under the New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) are investigated in this study. The transient engine scenarios were carried out on a modern 3.0 L, V6 turbocharged common rail diesel engine fuelled with winter diesel in a cold cell within the different ambient temperature ranging between +20 °C and −7 °C. The engine with fuel, coolant, combustion air and lubricating oil were soaked and maintained at the desired test temperatures during the transient scenarios.
Journal Article

The Use of a Partial Flow Filter to Assist the Diesel Particulate Filter and Reduce Active Regeneration Events

2014-10-13
2014-01-2806
This study investigates the potential of using a partial flow filter (PFF) to assist a wall flow diesel particulate filter (DPF) and reduce the need for active regeneration phases that increase engine fuel consumption. First, the filtration efficiency of the PFF was studied at several engine operating conditions, varying the filter space velocity (SV), through modification of the exhaust gas flow rate, and engine-out particulate matter (PM) concentration. The effects of these parameters were studied for the filtration of different particle size ranges (10-30 nm, 30-200 nm and 200-400 nm). For the various engine operating conditions, the PFF showed filtration efficiency over 25% in terms of PM number and mass. The PFF filtration behaviour was also investigated at idle engine operation producing a high concentration of nuclei particulates for which the filter was able to maintain 60% filtration efficiency.
Technical Paper

Application of Fast Oxygen Sensors for Investigations into Air-Path Dynamics and EGR Distribution in a Diesel Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1177
The control of NOX emissions by exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is of widespread application. However, despite dramatic improvements in all aspects of engine control, the subtle mixing processes that determine the cylinder-to-cylinder distribution of the recirculated gas often results in a mal-distribution that is still an issue for the engine designer and calibrator. In this paper we demonstrate the application of a relatively straightforward technique for the measurement of the absolute and relative dilution quantity in both steady state and transient operation. This was achieved by the use of oxygen sensors based on standard UEGO (universal exhaust gas oxygen) sensors but packaged so as to give good frequency response (∼ 10 ms time constant) and be completely insensitivity to the sample pressure and temperature. Measurements can be made at almost any location of interest, for example exhaust and inlet manifolds as well as EGR path(s), with virtually no flow disturbance.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Wear Behavior of Aluminum Alloy Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes Using Nonlinear Identification

2014-04-01
2014-01-0947
Aluminum metal matrix composites reinforced with particulates have attracted much attention in the automotive industry, due to their improved wear resistance in comparison to aluminum alloys, in recent years. The wear behavior is the critical factor influencing the product life and performance in engineering components. Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are one of the most promising candidates of reinforcements used to improve mechanical strength such as wear in metal matrix composites (MMCs). However, in industrial applications, wear tests are relatively expensive and prolonged. As a result, for several years, research has been increasingly concentrated on development of wear prediction models. In this study, prediction of wear behavior of aluminum (Al) matrix (MMCs) reinforced with different amounts (0, 0.5, 1 and 2 wt%) of CNTs was investigated. A nonlinear autoregressive exogenous (NARX) model structure was chosen for the modeling.
Journal Article

An Aerosolization Method for Characterizing Particle Contaminants in Diesel Fuel

2013-10-14
2013-01-2668
Diesel fuel injection systems are operating at increasingly higher pressure (up to 250 MPa) with smaller clearances, making them more sensitive to diesel fuel contaminants. Most liquid particle counters have difficulty detecting particles <4 μm in diameter and are unable to distinguish between solid and semi-solid materials. The low conductivity of diesel fuel limits the use of the Coulter counter. This raises the need for a new method to characterize small (<4 μm) fuel contaminants. We propose and evaluate an aerosolization method for characterizing solid particulate matter in diesel fuel that can detect particles as small as 0.5 μm. The particle sizing and concentration performance of the method were calibrated and validated by the use of seed particles added to filtered diesel fuel. A size dependent correction method was developed to account for the preferential atomization and subsequent aerosol conditioning processes to obtain the liquid-borne particle concentration.
Journal Article

Research on Unregulated Emissions from an Alcohols-Gasoline Blend Vehicle Using FTIR, HPLC and GC-MS Measuring Methods

2013-04-08
2013-01-1345
Unregulated emissions have become an important factor restricting the development of methanol and ethanol alternative alcohols fuels. Using two light-duty vehicles fuelled with pure gasoline, gasoline blend of 10% and 20% volume fraction of ethanol fuels, gasoline blend of 15% and 30% volume fraction of methanol fuels, New European Driving Cycle (NEDC) emission tests were carried on a chassis dynamometer according to ECE R83-05. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Gas chromatography - Mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) were used to measure methanol, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylene, propylene, 1,3-butadiene and isobutene emissions in the exhaust during the NEDC.
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