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Technical Paper

Modelling the Effects of Seat Belts on Occupant Kinematics and Injury Risk in the Rollover of a Sports Utility Vehicle (SUV)

The aims of this study are to investigate the responses of a Hybrid III dummy and a human body model in rollover crashes of an SUV, and to assess the effect of seat belts on occupant kinematics in rollover events. A SAEJ2114 rollover test of a 1994 Ford Explorer for two front row dummies with an inflatable tubular structure (ITS) is reconstructed and validated in MADYMO. By removing the ITS, the simulations of the Hybrid III dummy occupants with and without seat belts are obtained. By replacing the dummy models with human body models, with and without seat belts, two other combinations are also modelled. The kinematics and injury risks of two kinds of occupant models are compared and evaluated. Significant differences exist in the motions, and injury levels of the dummies and human body models with and without seat belts. Seat belts can significantly mitigate against occupant ejection.
Technical Paper

The Risk Posed to Vehicle Occupants and Rescue Personnel by Dual-Fuelled Vehicles Fitted with Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) Tanks

In recent years in the United Kingdom, dual-fuelled vehicles incorporating Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) have become more prevalent, as there are the perceived benefits of reduced fuelling costs, whilst also reducing the harmful emissions that effect air quality and climate change. In 2001, over 75,000 vehicles were registered as being powered by LPG and it is estimated that nearly 250,000 conversions were made to UK cars by the end of 2004. It is considered that the world population of such vehicles is in the order of 5 million vehicles, 2 million of which are being driven within EU countries.1 This paper will therefore examine the incidence of car fires in the area covered by Hereford and Worcester Fire and Rescue Service (HWFRS) in the UK. The data was used to establish the travel time for fire pumps to such incidents, the amount of time those units were detained at the scene and the possible cause of the fires themselves.