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Journal Article

Application of Corona Discharge Ignition in a Boosted Direct-Injection Single Cylinder Gasoline Engine: Effects on Combustion Phasing, Fuel Consumption, and Emissions

The downsizing of internal combustion engines to increase fuel economy leads to challenges in both obtaining ignition and stabilizing combustion at boosted intake pressures and high exhaust gas recirculation dilution conditions. The use of non-thermal plasma ignition technologies has shown promise as a means to more reliably ignite dilute charge mixtures at high pressures. Despite progress in fundamental research on this topic, both the capabilities and operation implications of emerging non-thermal plasma ignition technologies in internal combustion engine applications are not yet fully explored. In this work, we document the effects of using a corona discharge ignition system in a single cylinder gasoline direct injection research engine relative to using a traditional inductive spark ignition system under conditions associated with both naturally aspirated (8 bar BMEP) and boosted (20 bar BMEP) loads at moderate (2000 rpm) and high (4000 rpm) engine speeds.
Journal Article

Model-Based Control of Combustion Phasing in an HCCI Engine

Robust control of combustion phasing in Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines is a well-recognized challenge limiting the automotive industry for exploiting HCCI benefits in mass production vehicles. Real-time model-based control of combustion phasing is the key to tackle this daunting challenge. In this paper, a new control oriented model is developed for predicting HCCI combustion phasing over a range of engine operation. The model is validated against the experimental data from a single cylinder Ricardo engine. A model-based integral state feedback controller is designed to control HCCI combustion phasing by modulating the ratio of two Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs). The controller's performance is compared with a manually tuned proportional integral controller.
Technical Paper

A Sequential Chemical Kinetics-CFD-Chemical Kinetics Methodology to Predict HCCI Combustion and Main Emissions

This study presents the development of a new HCCI simulation methodology. The proposed method is based on the sequential coupling of CFD analysis prior to autoignition, followed by multi-zone chemical kinetics analysis of the combustion process during the closed valve period. The methodology is divided into three steps: 1) a 1-zone chemical kinetic model (Chemkin Pro) is used to determine either the intake conditions at IVC to achieve a desired ignition timing or the ignition timing corresponding with given IVC conditions, 2) the ignition timing and IVC conditions are used as input parameters in a CFD model (Fluent 6.3) to calculate the charge temperature profile and mass distribution prior to autoignition, and 3) the temperature profile and mass distribution are fed into a multi-zone chemical kinetic model (Chemkin Pro) to determine the main combustion characteristics.
Technical Paper

Ignition Delay of Combustible Materials in Space Exploration Atmospheres

Material flammability is an important factor in determining the pressure and composition (fraction of oxygen and nitrogen) of the atmosphere in the habitable volume of exploration vehicles and habitats. The method chosen in this work to quantify material flammability is by its ease of ignition and the minimum (critical) radiant heat flux for ignition. Piloted ignition delay tests were conducted in the Forced Ignition and Spread Test (FIST) apparatus subject to various atmospheric pressures and oxygen concentrations. The ignition delay time was measured as the time it takes a combustible material to ignite after it has been exposed to an external heat flux. In these tests, polymethylmethacylate (PMMA) was exposed to an oxidizer flow velocity of 1 m/s and a range of externally applied heat flux levels from 8 to 14 kW/m2.
Technical Paper

Effect of Mixing on Hydrocarbon and Carbon Monoxide Emissions Prediction for Isooctane HCCI Engine Combustion Using a Multi-zone Detailed Kinetics Solver

This research investigates how the handling of mixing and heat transfer in a multi-zone kinetic solver affects the prediction of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions for simulations of HCCI engine combustion. A detailed kinetics multi-zone model is now more closely coordinated with the KIVA3V computational fluid dynamics code for simulation of the compression and expansion processes. The fluid mechanics is solved with high spatial and temporal resolution (40,000 cells). The chemistry is simulated with high temporal resolution, but low spatial resolution (20 computational zones). This paper presents comparison of simulation results using this enhanced multi-zone model to experimental data from an isooctane HCCI engine.
Technical Paper

Piston-Liner Crevice Geometry Effect on HCCI Combustion by Multi-Zone Analysis

A multi-zone model has been developed that accurately predicts HCCI combustion and emissions. The multi-zone methodology is based on the observation that turbulence does not play a direct role on HCCI combustion. Instead, chemical kinetics dominates the process, with hotter zones reacting first, and then colder zones reacting in rapid succession. Here, the multi-zone model has been applied to analyze the effect of piston crevice geometry on HCCI combustion and emissions. Three different pistons of varying crevice size were analyzed. Crevice sizes were 0.26, 1.3 and 2.1 mm, while a constant compression ratio was maintained (17:1). The results show that the multi-zone model can predict pressure traces and heat release rates with good accuracy. Combustion efficiency is also predicted with good accuracy for all cases, with a maximum difference of 5% between experimental and numerical results.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Oxygenates on Diesel Engine Particulate Matter

A summary is presented of experimental results obtained from a Cummins B5.9 175 hp, direct-injected diesel engine fueled with oxygenated diesel blends. The oxygenates tested were dimethoxy methane (DMM), diethyl ether, a blend of monoglyme and diglyme, and ethanol. The experimental results show that particulate matter (PM) reduction is controlled largely by the oxygen content of the blend fuel. For the fuels tested, the effect of chemical structure was observed to be small. Isotopic tracer tests with ethanol blends reveal that carbon from ethanol does contribute to soot formation, but is about 50% less likely to form soot when compared to carbon from the diesel portion of the fuel. Numerical modeling was carried out to investigate the effect of oxygenate addition on soot formation. This effort was conducted using a chemical kinetic mechanism incorporating n-heptane, DMM and ethanol chemistry, along with reactions describing soot formation.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of the Effect of Fuel-Air Mixedness on the Emissions from an HCCI Engine

This research work has focused on measuring the effect of fuel/air mixing on performance and emissions for a homogeneous charge compression ignition engine running on propane. A laser instrument with a high-velocity extractive probe was used to obtain time-resolved measurements of the fuel concentration both at the intake manifold and from the cylinder for different levels of fuel-air mixing. Cylinder pressure and emissions measurements have been performed at these mixing levels. From the cylinder pressure measurements, the IMEP and peak cylinder pressure were found. The fuel-air mixing level was changed by adding the fuel into the intake system at different distances from the intake valve (40 cm and 120 cm away). It was found that at the intake manifold, the fuel and air were better mixed for the 120 cm fuel addition location than for the 40 cm location.
Technical Paper

1.9-Liter Four-Cylinder HCCI Engine Operation with Exhaust Gas Recirculation

We present the effect of EGR, at a set fuel flow rate and intake temperature, on the operating parameters of timing of combustion, duration of combustion, power output, thermal efficiency, and NOx emission; which is remarkably low. We find that addition of EGR at constant inlet temperature and constant fuel flow rate has little effect on HCCI parameter of start of combustion (SOC). However, burn duration is highly dependent on the amount of EGR inducted. The experimental setup at UC Berkeley uses a 1.9-liter 4-cylinder diesel engine with a compression ratio of 18.8:1 (offered on a 1995 VW Passat TDI). The engine was converted to run in HCCI mode by addition of an 18kW air pre-heater installed in the intake system. Pressure traces were obtained using four water-cooled quartz pressure transducers, which replaced the Diesel fuel injectors. Gaseous fuel (propane or butane) flowed steadily into the intake manifold.
Technical Paper

Nanorobots for Mars EVA Repair

Current trends in technology indicate that nanometer-scale devices will be feasible within two decades. It is likely that NASA will attempt a manned Mars mission within the next few decades. Manned Mars activities will be relatively labor-intensive, presenting significant risk of damage to the Marssuit. We have investigated two possible architectures for nanotechnology applied to the problem of damage during Mars surface activity. Nanorobots can be used to actively repair damaged suit materials while an astronaut is in the field, reducing the need to return immediately to a pressurized area. Assembler nanorobots reproduce both themselves and the more specialized Marssuit Repair Nanorobots (MRN). MRN nanorobots operate as space-filling polyhedra to repair damage to a Marssuit. Both operate with reversible mechanical logic, though only assemblers utilize chemical data storage.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Zone Model for Prediction of HCCI Combustion and Emissions

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion is a process dominated by chemical kinetics of the fuel-air mixture. The hottest part of the mixture ignites first, and compresses the rest of the charge, which then ignites after a short time lag. Crevices and boundary layers generally remain too cold to react, and result in substantial hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. Turbulence has little effect on HCCI combustion, and may be most important as a factor in determining temperature gradients and boundary layer thickness inside the cylinder. The importance of thermal gradients inside the cylinder makes it necessary to use an integrated fluid mechanics-chemical kinetics code for accurate predictions of HCCI combustion. However, the use of a fluid mechanics code with detailed chemical kinetics is too computationally intensive for today's computers.
Technical Paper

Dynamics of Combustion in a Diesel Engine Under the Influence of Air/Fuel Ratio

The dynamic stage of combustion - the intrinsic process for pushing the compression polytrope away from the expansion polytrope to generate the indicator work output of a piston engine - was studied to reveal the influence of the air/fuel ratio on the effectiveness with which the fuel was utilized. The results of tests carried out for this purpose, using a 12 liter diesel engine, were reported last year [SAE 1999-01-0517]. Presented here is an analytic interpretation of the data obtained for part-load operation at 1200 and 1800 rpm. A solution is thus provided for an inverse problem: deduction of information on the dynamic features of the exothermic process of combustion from measured pressure record. Provided thereby, in particular, is information on the effectiveness with which fuel was utilized in the course of this process - a parameter reflecting the effect of energy lost by heat transfer to the walls.
Technical Paper

Refinement of Heat Release Analysis

The refinement of heat release analysis stems from the recognition that a combustion system is intrinsically non-linear. Thus, as appropriate for such an entity, its properties are expressed in terms of a thermochemical phase (or state) space, of which the thermodynamic aspects are exposed on a so-called Le Chatelier diagram, providing the fundamental background for the development of micro-electronic control to attain the most effective utilization of fuel. Implementation of this method of approach is illustrated by the analysis of the exothermic process taking place in two typical internal combustion engines, spark-ignition and diesel.
Technical Paper

Automotive Piston-Engine Noise And Its Reduction - A Literature Survey

This paper reviews the sources of externally radiated automotive piston engine and vehicle noise and describes them in detail. The effects of various design and operational characters on intensity and character of noise, noise measurement, and analysis and identifications procedures are given extensive examination. A summary of current research on the reduction of engine noise is presented.
Technical Paper

Oxides of Nitrogen in the Combustion Products of an Ammonia Fueled Reciprocating Engine

A single cylinder investigation was conducted to determine concentration of oxides of nitrogen resulting from combustion of ammonia and air in a spark ignition engine over a range of fuel-air ratios typical of normal engine operation with ammonia. Nitric oxide concentrations exceeded that with hydrocarbons. Spectroscopic observations during the expansion process gave concentrations in some instances an order of magnitude greater than exhaust gas determinations. The results imply a different mechanism for nitric oxide formation with ammonia fuel than with hydrocarbons and that some equilibrating process may take place between combustion and exhaust to reduce otherwise even greater than measured exhaust gas concentrations.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Properties of Methane and Air, and Propane and Air for Engine Performance Calculations

This is a continuation of the presentation of thermodynamic properties of selected fuel-air mixtures in chart form, suitable for utilization in engine performance calculations. Methane and propane, representative of natural gas and LPG are the two fuels considered. Using these charts, comparisons are made between the performance to be expected with these gaseous fuels compared to octane, as representative of gasoline. Reduced engine power is predicted and this is confirmed by experience of other investigators.
Technical Paper

Gas Turbine Combustion of Ammonia

A theoretical and experimental study was undertaken to establish whether or not parametric correlations could be satisfactorily applied to combustion of ammonia in gas turbine combustors. It was found that a usual parameter of the form I (Re)0.7 was satisfactory for establishing blowout limits in modeling. However, the attainable values of chemical loading I were at least an order of magnitude less than those attainable with hydrocarbon fuels.
Technical Paper

Ammonia as a Spark Ignition Engine Fuel: Theory and Application

Anhydrous ammonia has been demonstrated to operate successfully as a fuel for spark ignition engines. Principal requirements are that it be introduced in the vapor phase and partly decomposed to hydrogen and nitrogen. Spark timing for maximum performance must be advanced slightly for ammonia but sensitivity to spark timing is little greater than with hydrocarbons. Increasing the cylinder wall temperature aids in effecting successful and reliable operation. The maximum theoretically possible indicated output using ammonia vapor is about 77% of that with hydrocarbon. Specific fuel consumption increase twofold at maximum power and 2-1/2 fold at maximum economy when using ammonia as a replacement for hydrocarbon.
Technical Paper

Comparative Performance of Alcohol and Hydrocarbon Fuels

Three factors are of consequence when considering the comparative performance of alcohols and hydrocarbons as spark ignition engine fuels. These are: relative amounts of products of combustion produced per unit of inducted charge, energy inducted per unit of charge, and latent heat differences among the fuels. Simple analysis showed significant increases in output can be expected from the use of methyl alcohol as compared to hydrocarbon and somewhat lesser improvement can be expected from ethyl alcohol. Attendant increases in fuel consumption, disproportionate to the power increase, can also be predicted. More sophisticated analysis, based upon thermodynamic charts of combustion products, do not necessarily improve correspondence between prediction and engine results.
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Properities of Octane and Air for Engine Performance Calculations

A digital computer and special program were used, along with new thermodynamic data, to recalculate and extend the scope and range of the classic combustion gas charts of Hottel and co-workers. A series of hydrocarbon and nonhydrocarbon fuels was treated over a range of fuel-air ratios, with temperatures extended up to 7200 R and pressures up to 15,000 psia. This, the first paper of a series, incorporates the resulting charts for isooctane at four mixture ratios ranging from 20% lean to 40% rich. Auxiliary charts for inducted mixture properties determination and a set of sample calculations are also included.