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Technical Paper

Sensitivity of Flamelet Combustion Model to Flame Curvature for IC Engine Application

2017-09-04
2017-24-0038
Engines with reduced emissions and improved efficiency are of high interest for road transport. However, achieving these two goals is challenging and various concepts such as PFI/DI/HCCI/PCCI are explored by engine manufacturers. The computational fluid dynamics is becoming an integral part of modern engine development programme because this method provides access to in-cylinder flow and thermo-chemical processes to develop a closer understanding to tailor tumble and swirling motions to construct green engines. The combustion modelling, its accuracy and robustness play a vital role in this. Out of many modelling methods proposed in the past flamelet based methods are quite attractive for SI engine application. In this study, FlaRe (Flamelets revised for physical consistencies) approach is used to simulate premixed combustion inside a gasoline PFI single-cylinder, four-stroke SI engine. This approach includes a parameter representing the effects of flame curvature on the burning rate.
Technical Paper

Application of a New Turbulent Flame Speed Combustion Model on Burn Rate Simulation of Spark Ignition Engines

2016-04-05
2016-01-0588
This work presents turbulent premixed combustion modeling in spark ignition engines using G-equation based turbulent combustion model. In present study, a turbulent flame speed expression proposed and validated in recent years by two co-authors of this paper is applied to the combustion simulation of spark ignition engines. This turbulent flame speed expression has no adjustable parameters and its constants are closely tied to the physics of scalar mixing at small scales. Based on this flame speed expression, a minor modification is introduced in this paper considering the fact that the turbulent flame speed changes to laminar flame speed if there is no turbulence. This modified turbulent flame speed expression is implemented into Ford in-house CFD code MESIM (multi-dimensional engine simulation), and is validated extensively.
Technical Paper

Spark Ignition Engine Simulation Using a Flamelet Based Combustion Model

2015-09-06
2015-24-2402
Three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become an integral part in analysing engine in-cylinder processes since it provides detailed information on the flow and combustion, which helps to find design improvements during the development of modern engine concepts. The predictive capability of simulation tools depends largely on the accuracy, fidelity and robustness of the various models used, in particular concerning turbulence and combustion. In this study, a flamelet model with a physics based closure for the progress variable dissipation rate is applied for the first time to a spark ignited IC engine. The predictive capabilities of the proposed approach are studied for one operating condition of a gasoline port fuel injected single-cylinder, four-stroke spark ignited full-metal engine running at 3,500 RPM close to full load (10 bar BMEP) at stoichiometric conditions.
Technical Paper

Application of Fast Oxygen Sensors for Investigations into Air-Path Dynamics and EGR Distribution in a Diesel Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1177
The control of NOX emissions by exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is of widespread application. However, despite dramatic improvements in all aspects of engine control, the subtle mixing processes that determine the cylinder-to-cylinder distribution of the recirculated gas often results in a mal-distribution that is still an issue for the engine designer and calibrator. In this paper we demonstrate the application of a relatively straightforward technique for the measurement of the absolute and relative dilution quantity in both steady state and transient operation. This was achieved by the use of oxygen sensors based on standard UEGO (universal exhaust gas oxygen) sensors but packaged so as to give good frequency response (∼ 10 ms time constant) and be completely insensitivity to the sample pressure and temperature. Measurements can be made at almost any location of interest, for example exhaust and inlet manifolds as well as EGR path(s), with virtually no flow disturbance.
Technical Paper

Impact of Lubricant Composition on Low-speed Pre-Ignition

2014-04-01
2014-01-1213
One of the limits on the maximum fuel efficiency benefit to be gained from turbocharged, downsized gasoline engines is the occurrence of pre-ignitions at low engine speed. These pre-ignitions may lead to high pressures and extreme knock (megaknock or superknock) which can cause severe engine damage. Though the mechanism leading to megaknock is not completely resolved, pre-ignitions are thought to arise from local autoignition of areas in the cylinder which are rich in low ignition delay “contaminants” such as engine oil and/or heavy ends of gasoline. These contaminants are introduced to the combustion chamber at various points in the engine cycle (e.g. entering from the top land crevice during blow-down or washed from the cylinder walls during DI wall impingement).
Journal Article

Measuring the Impact of Engine Oils and Fuels on Low-Speed Pre-Ignition in Downsized Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1219
One of the limits on the maximum fuel efficiency benefit to be gained from turbocharged, downsized gasoline engines is the occurrence of low speed pre-ignition (LSPI). LSPI may lead to high pressures and extreme knock (megaknock or superknock) which can cause severe engine damage. Though the mechanism leading to megaknock is not completely resolved, LSPI is thought to arise from local auto-ignition of areas in the cylinder which are rich in low ignition delay “contaminants” such as engine oil and/or heavy ends of gasoline. These contaminants are introduced to the combustion chamber at various points in the engine cycle (e.g. entering from the top land crevice during blow-down or washed from the cylinder walls during DI wall impingement). This paper describes a method for testing the propensity of different contaminants to cause a local pre-ignition in a gasoline engine. During one cycle, a small amount of contaminant is injected into one cylinder of a 4 cylinder engine.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on Engine Dynamics Model Based In-Cylinder Pressure Estimation

2012-04-16
2012-01-0896
The information provided by the in-cylinder pressure signal is of great importance for modern engine management systems. The obtained information is implemented to improve the control and diagnostics of the combustion process in order to meet the stringent emission regulations and to improve vehicle reliability and drivability. The work presented in this paper covers the experimental study and proposes a comprehensive and practical solution for the estimation of the in-cylinder pressure from the crankshaft speed fluctuation. Also, the paper emphasizes the feasibility and practicality aspects of the estimation techniques, for the real-time online application. In this study an engine dynamics model based estimation method is proposed. A discrete-time transformed form of a rigid-body crankshaft dynamics model is constructed based on the kinetic energy theorem, as the basis expression for total torque estimation.
Technical Paper

HCCI Combustion Control Using Dual-Fuel Approach: Experimental and Modeling Investigations

2012-04-16
2012-01-1117
A dual-fuel approach to control combustion in HCCI engine is investigated in this work. This approach involves controlling the combustion heat release rate by adjusting fuel reactivity according to the conditions inside the cylinder. Experiments were performed on a single-cylinder research engine fueled with different ratios of primary reference fuels and operated at different speed and load conditions, and results from these experiments showed a clear potential for the approach to expand the HCCI engine operation window. Such potential is further demonstrated dynamically using an optimized stochastic reactor model integrated within a MATLAB code that simulates HCCI multi-cycle operation and closed-loop control of fuel ratio. The model, which utilizes a reduced PRF mechanism, was optimized using a multi-objective genetic algorithm and then compared to a wide range of engine data.
Technical Paper

Automated IC Engine Model Development with Uncertainty Propagation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0237
This paper describes the development of a novel data model for storing and sharing data obtained from engine experiments, it then outlines a methodology for automatic model development and applies it to a state-of-the-art engine combustion model (including chemical kinetics) to reduce corresponding model parameter uncertainties with respect engine experiments. These challenges are met by adopting the latest developments in the semantic web to create a shared data model resource for the IC engine development community. The relevant data can be extracted and then used to set-up simulations for parameter estimation by passing it to the relevant application models. A methodology for incorporating experimental and model uncertainties into the model optimization procedure is presented.
Technical Paper

Optimisation of Injection Strategy, Combustion Characteristics and Emissions for IC Engines Using Advanced Simulation Technologies

2011-01-19
2011-26-0080
Regulations concerning emissions from diesel- and gasoline-fuelled engines are becoming ever more stringent in all parts of the world. Historically these targets have been achieved through on-going technological development using an iterative process of computational modeling, design, build and test. Computational modeling is certainly the cheapest aspect within this process and if employed to meet more of the challenges associated with development, has the potential to significantly reduce developmental cost and time scales. Furthermore, computational models are an effective means to retain and apply often highly focused technical knowledge of complex processes within development teams thus delivering greater insight into processes.
Journal Article

Analysis of In-Cylinder Hydrocarbons in a Multi-Cylinder Gasoline HCCI Engine Using Gas Chromatography

2009-11-02
2009-01-2698
Gasoline Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion has been studied widely in the past decade. However, in HCCI engines using negative valve overlap (NVO), there is still uncertainty as to whether the effect of pilot injection during NVO on the start of combustion is primarily due to heat release of the pilot fuel during NVO or whether it is due to pilot fuel reformation. This paper presents data taken on a 4-cylinder gasoline direct injection, spark ignition/HCCI engine with a dual cam system, capable of recompressing residual gas. Engine in-cylinder samples are extracted at various points during the engine cycle through a high-speed sampling system and directly analysed with a gas chromatograph and flame ionisation detector. Engine parameter sweeps are performed for different pilot injection timings and quantities at a medium load point.
Technical Paper

HCCI Combustion Phasing Transient Control by Hydrogen-Rich Gas: Investigation Using a Fast Detailed-Chemistry Full-Cycle Model

2009-04-20
2009-01-1134
A novel modeling approach is applied to investigate the use of hydrogen-rich gas (HRG) for controlling the combustion process in a Homogenous-Charge Compression-Ignition (HCCI) engine. A detailed-chemistry stochastic reactor model is coupled with a one-dimensional gas dynamics model to account for the full engine cycle. The integrated model simulates the steady-state and transient operation of a single-cylinder HCCI engine. A previously developed tabulation scheme is utilized to speed up the detailed-chemistry simulations, which, though computationally cheap compared to many other approaches, are impractical for simulations involving a large number of cycles. A control strategy based on HRG addition is implemented using a closed-loop controller built within the gas dynamics model. Simulations conducted at different speeds and with varying loads indicate that the HRG can be effectively used to control the combustion phasing, and hence expand the operating range of the HCCI engine.
Journal Article

Multi-dimensional Conditional Moment Closure Modelling Applied to a Heavy-duty Common-rail Diesel Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-0717
A multi-dimensional combustion code implementing the Conditional Moment Closure turbulent combustion model interfaced with a well-established RANS two-phase flow field solver has been employed to study a broad range of operating conditions for a heavy duty direct-injection common-rail Diesel engine. These conditions include different loads (25%, 50%, 75% and full load) and engine speeds (1250 and 1830 RPM) and, with respect to the fuel path, different injection timings and rail pressures. A total of nine cases have been simulated. Excellent agreement with experimental data has been found for the pressure traces and the heat release rates, without adjusting any model constants. The chemical mechanism used contains a detailed NOx sub-mechanism. The predicted emissions agree reasonably well with the experimental data considering the range of operating points and given no adjustments of any rate constants have been employed.
Journal Article

A Detailed Chemistry Multi-cycle Simulation of a Gasoline Fueled HCCI Engine Operated with NVO

2009-04-20
2009-01-0130
A previously developed Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate combustion in a four cylinder in-line four-stroke naturally aspirated direct injection Spark Ignition (SI) engine modified to run in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode with a Negative Valve Overlap (NVO). A portion of the fuel is injected during NVO to increase the cylinder temperature and enable HCCI combustion at a compression ratio of 12:1. The model is coupled with GT-Power, a one-dimensional engine simulation tool used for the open valve portion of the engine cycle. The SRM is used to model in-cylinder mixing, heat transfer and chemistry during the NVO and main combustion. Direct injection is simulated during NVO in order to predict heat release and internal Exhaust Gas Recycle (EGR) composition and mass. The NOx emissions and simulated pressure profiles match experimental data well, including the cyclic fluctuations.
Journal Article

Influence of Injection Timing and Piston Bowl Geometry on PCCI Combustion and Emissions

2009-04-20
2009-01-1102
Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI), a Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) strategy for diesel engines is of increasing interest due to its potential to simultaneously reduce soot and NOx emissions. However, the influence of mixture preparation on combustion phasing and heat release rate in LTC is not fully understood. In the present study, the influence of injection timing on mixture preparation, combustion and emissions in PCCI mode is investigated by experimental and computational methods. A sequential coupling approach of 3D CFD with a Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) is used to simulate the PCCI engine. The SRM accounts for detailed chemical kinetics, convective heat transfer and turbulent micro-mixing. In this integrated approach, the temperature-equivalence ratio statistics obtained using KIVA 3V are mapped onto the stochastic particle ensemble used in the SRM.
Technical Paper

Study of Cycle-By-Cycle Air-to-Fuel Ratio Determined from the Exhaust Gas Composition and a Novel Fast Response Device Based on a Wide Band Lambda Sensor

2008-10-06
2008-01-2439
This paper describes cyclic Air/Fuel ratio (AFR) measurements carried out with a novel device (fUEGO) based on a production Universal Exhaust Gas Oxygen sensor, but modified to give an improved frequency response. The results are compared to AFR calculated from a fast CO/CO2 analyser and a fast response flame ionization detector (FID). The direct comparison of the two different methods for determining the cyclic AFR reveals that the electrochemical device is in reasonable agreement with the more complex carbon balance method and can provide reliable cyclic AFR measurements with a reduced requirement for equipment and data post processing. The fUEGO however is sensitive to elevated levels of uHC's (unburned hydrocarbons) during misfires or partial burns and readings during such situations usually show deviations compared to the carbon balance method.
Technical Paper

Study of Steady State and Transient EGR Behaviour of a Medium Duty Diesel Engine

2008-10-06
2008-01-2438
It is well known that accurate EGR control is paramount to controlling engine out emissions during steady state and transient operation of a diesel engine. The direct measurement of EGR is however non-trivial and especially difficult in engines with no external EGR control where the intake manifold CO2 levels can be measured more readily. This work studies the EGR behaviour in a medium duty diesel engine with a passive EGR rebreathing strategy for steady state and transient operation. High speed (response time ∼1ms) in-cylinder sampling using modified GDI valves is coupled with high frequency response analysers to measure the cyclic in-cylinder CO2, from which the EGR rate is deduced. It was found that controlling the EGR using the passive rebreathing strategy during certain combined speed and load transients is challenging, causing high smoke and NO emissions.
Technical Paper

Studying the Influence of Direct Injection on PCCI Combustion and Emissions at Engine Idle Condition Using Two Dimensional CFD and Stochastic Reactor Model

2008-04-14
2008-01-0021
A detailed chemical model was implemented in the KIVA-3V two dimensional CFD code to investigate the effects of the spray cone angle and injection timing on the PCCI combustion process and emissions in an optical research diesel engine. A detailed chemical model for Primary Reference Fuel (PRF) consisting of 157 species and 1552 reactions was used to simulate diesel fuel chemistry. The model validation shows good agreement between the predicted and measured pressure and emissions data in the selected cases with various spray angles and injection timings. If the injection is retarded to -50° ATDC, the spray impingement at the edge of the piston corner with 100° injection angle was shown to enhance the mixing of air and fuel. The minimum fuel loss and more widely distributed fuel vapor contribute to improving combustion efficiency and lowering uHC and CO emissions in the engine idle condition.
Technical Paper

Investigation into Partially Premixed Combustion in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Diesel Engine Fuelled Gasoline and Diesel with a Mixture of

2007-10-29
2007-01-4058
Partially premixed compression ignition (PPCI) engines operating with a low temperature highly homogeneous charge have been demonstrated previously using conventional diesel fuel. The short ignition delay of conventional diesel fuel requires high fuel injection pressures to achieve adequate premixing along with high levels of EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) to achieve low NOx emissions. Low load operating regions are typified by substantial emissions of CO and HC and there exists an upper operating load limitation due to very high rates of in-cylinder gas pressure rise. In this study mixtures of gasoline and diesel fuel were investigated using a multi-cylinder light duty diesel engine. It was found that an increased proportion of gasoline fuel reduced smoke emissions at higher operating loads through an increase in charge premixing resulting from an increase in ignition delay and higher fuel volatility.
Technical Paper

Highly Homogeneous Compression Ignition in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine Fuelled with Diesel and Biodiesel

2007-07-23
2007-01-2020
Highly homogeneous compression ignition is difficult to achieve in a direct injection diesel engine. The difficulty of achieving adequate fuel vaporization and the problems of fuel spray wall impingement are the main factors. Limitation of the maximum operating load results from high rates of pressure rise that occur in this combustion regime. The levels of HC and CO emissions are raised substantially when compared with conventional combustion and remain a significant emission factor. In this study, two methods of achieving highly homogeneous combustion in a direct injection diesel engine were investigated, Nissan MK type and early injection. The effects of fuel injection pressure, injection timing, EGR level, EGR cooler efficiency and compression ratio were examined using a conventional 4 cylinder 2.0L common rail diesel engine with 18.4:1 and 14.4:1 compression ratios.
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