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Technical Paper

Building Multiple Resolution Modeling Systems Using the High-Level Architecture

2019-09-16
2019-01-1917
The modeling and simulation pyramid in defense states it clearly: Multi-Level modeling and simulation are required. Models and simulations are often classified by the US Department of Defense into four levels-campaign, mission, engagement, and engineering. Campaign simulation models are applied for evaluation; mission-level simulations to experiment with the integration of several macro agents; engagement simulations in engineered systems development; and engineering-level simulation models with a solid foundation in structural physics and components. Models operating at one level must be able to interact with models at another level. Therefore, the cure (“silver bullet”) is very clear: a comprehensive framework for Multiple Resolution Modeling (MRM) is needed. In this paper, we discuss our research about how to construct MRM environments.
Journal Article

Simulation and Systems Engineering: Lessons Learned

2019-03-19
2019-01-1331
Aerospace projects live a long time. Around the turn of the century, NASA first began to discuss multi-decadal projects with respect to the tools, methods, infrastructure and culture necessary to successfully establish outposts and bases both on the Moon as well as in adjacent space. Pilot projects were completed, capabilities developed and solutions were shared across the Agency. A decade later the Mars discussion was multi-generational with planning milestones 50 years in the future. The 1970’s Requirements Document, or the 1990’s System Model are nowhere near suitable for planning, development, integration and operations of multi-national, highly complex, incredibly expensive development efforts planned to outlast not only the careers of the developers but that of their children as well. Simulation in the different forms has become very important for this multi-decadal projects. The challenge will be to device ways to create formats and views which can stand time.
Journal Article

Weapon Combat Effectiveness Analytics Using Big Data and Simulations: A Literature Review

2019-03-19
2019-01-1365
The Weapon Combat Effectiveness (WCE) analytics is very expensive, time-consuming, and dangerous in the real world because we have to create data from the real operations with a lot of people and weapons in the actual environment. The Modeling and Simulation (M&S) of many techniques are used for overcoming these limitations. Although the era of big data has emerged and achieved a great deal of success in a variety of fields, most of WCE research using the Defense Modeling and Simulation (DM&S) techniques studied have considered a lot of assumptions and limited scenarios without the help of big data technologies. Furthermore, WCE analytics using previous methodologies cannot help but get the bias results. This paper reviews and combines the basic knowledge for the new WCE analytics methodology using big data and M&S to overcome these problems of bias. Then this paper reviews the general overview of WCE, DM&S, and big data.
Technical Paper

The Distributed Simulation of Intelligent Terrain Exploration

2018-10-30
2018-01-1915
In this study we consider the coordinated exploration of an unfamiliar Martian landscape by a swarm of small autonomous rovers, called Swarmies, simulated in a distributed setting. With a sustainable program of return missions to and from Mars in mind, the goal of said exploration is to efficiently prospect the terrain for water meant to be gathered and then utilized in the production of rocket fuel. The rovers are tasked with relaying relevant data to a home base that is responsible for maintaining a mining schedule for an arbitrarily large group of rovers extracting water-rich regolith. For this reason, it is crucial that the participants maintain a wireless connection with one another and with the base throughout the entire process. We describe the architecture of our simulation which is composed of HLA-compliant components that are visualized via the Distributed Observer Network tool developed by NASA.
Technical Paper

Development of the Multi-Resolution Modeling Environment through Aircraft Scenarios

2018-10-30
2018-01-1923
Multi-Resolution Modeling (MRM) is one of the key technologies for building complex and large-scale simulations using legacy simulators. MRM has been developed continuously, especially in military fields. MRM plays a crucial role to describe the battlefield and gathering the desired information efficiently by linking various levels of resolution. The simulation models interact across different local and/or distance area networks using the High Level Architecture (HLA) regardless of their operating systems and hardware. The HLA is a standard architecture developed by the US Department of Defense (DoD) and is meant to create interoperability among different types of simulators. Therefore, MRM implementations are very dependent on Interoperability and Composability. This paper summarizes the definition of MRM-related terminology and proposes a basic form of MRM system using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) simulators and HLA.
Technical Paper

Simulation Optimization of the NASA Mars Fuel In-Situ Resource Utilization and Its Infrastructure

2018-10-30
2018-01-1963
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA) current objectives include expanding space exploration and planning a manned expedition to Mars. In order to meet the latter objective, it is imperative that humans generate their own products by harnessing space resources, a process referred to as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU). ISRU will enable NASA to reduce both payload mass and mission cost by reducing the number of consumables required to be launched from Earth. The discrete-event simulation discussed focuses primarily on one ISRU system, the production of fuel for a return trip to Earth by utilizing Mar’s atmosphere and regolith. This ISRU system primarily uses autonomous rovers for exploration, excavation, processing of Mar’s regolith to produce fuel, and disposal of the processed regolith. This study explores individual rover and component requirements including rover speeds, travel distances, functional periods, charging, and maintenance times.
Technical Paper

A Distributed Simulation of a Martian Fuel Production Facility

2017-09-19
2017-01-2022
The future of human exploration in the solar system is contingent on the ability to exploit resources in-situ to produce mission consumables. Specifically, it has become clear that the success of a manned mission to Mars will likely depend on fuel components created on the Martian surface. While several architectures for an unmanned fuel production surface facility on Mars exist in theory, a simulation of the performance and operation of these architectures has not been created. In this paper, the framework describing a simulation of one such architecture is defined. Within this architecture, each component of the base is implemented as a state machine, with the ability to communicate with other base elements as well as a supervisor. An environment supervisor is also created which governs low level aspects of the simulation such as movement and resource distribution, in addition to higher-level aspects such as location selection with respect to operations specific behavior.
Technical Paper

A Discrete-Event Simulation of the NASA Fuel Production Plant on Mars

2017-09-19
2017-01-2017
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is preparing for a manned mission to Mars to test the sustainment of civilization on the planet Mars. This research explores the requirements and feasibility of autonomously producing fuel on Mars for a return trip back to Earth. As a part of NASA’s initiative for a manned trip to Mars, our team’s work creates and analyzes the allocation of resources necessary in deploying a fuel station on this foreign soil. Previous research has addressed concerns with a number individual components of this mission such as power required for fuel station and tools; however, the interactions between these components and the effects they would have on the overall requirements for the fuel station are still unknown to NASA. By creating a baseline discrete-event simulation model in a simulation software environment, the research team has been able to simulate the fuel production process on Mars.
Journal Article

A Methodology on Guiding Effectiveness-Focused Training of the Weapon Operator Using Big Data and VC Simulations

2017-09-19
2017-01-2018
Operator training using a weapon in a real-world environment is risky, expensive, time-consuming, and restricted to the given environment. In addition, governments are under intense scrutiny to provide security, yet they must also strive for efficiency and reduce spending. In other words, they must do more with less. Virtual simulation, is usually employed to solve these limitations. As the operator is trained to maximize weapon effectiveness, the effectiveness-focused training can be completed in an economical manner. Unfortunately, the training is completed in limited scenarios without objective levels of training factors for an individual operator to optimize the weapon effectiveness. Thus, the training will not be effective. For overcoming this problem, we suggest a methodology on guiding effectiveness-focused training of the weapon operator through usability assessments, big data, and Virtual and Constructive (VC) simulations.
Technical Paper

Electromechanical Actuator Cooling Fan Reliability Analysis and Safety Improvement

2016-09-20
2016-01-1997
The aircraft electromechanical actuator (EMA) cooling fan is a critical component because an EMA failure caused by overheating could lead to a catastrophic failure in aircraft. Fault tree analysis (FTA) is used to access the failure probability of EMA fans with the goal of improving their mean time to failure (MTTF) from ∼O(5×104) to ∼ O(2.5×109) hours without incurring heavy weight penalty and high cost. The dual-winding and dual-bearing approaches are analyzed and a contra rotating dual-fan design is proposed. Fan motors are assumed to be brushless direct current (BLDC) motors. To have a full understanding of fan reliability, all possible failure mechanisms and failure modes are taken into account. After summarizing the possible failure causes and failure modes of BLDC fans by focusing on each failure mechanism, the life expectancy of fan ball bearings based on a major failure mechanism of lubricant deterioration is calculated and compared to that provided in the literature.
Journal Article

Modeling Space Operations Systems Using SysML as to Enable Anomaly Detection

2015-09-15
2015-01-2388
Although a multitude of anomaly detection and fault isolation programs can be found in the research, there does not appear to be any work published on architectural templates that could take advantage of multiple programs and integrate them into the desired systems. More specifically, there is an absence of a methodological process for generating anomaly detection and fault isolation designs to either embed within new system concepts, or supplement existing schemes. This paper introduces a new approach based on systems engineering and the System Modeling Language (SysML). Preliminary concepts of the proposed approach are explained. In addition, a case study is also mentioned.
Journal Article

Utilizing Discrete Event Simulation for Schedule Analysis: Processes and Lessons Learned from NASA's GOPD Integrated Timeline Model

2015-09-15
2015-01-2397
In planning, simulation models create microcosms, small universes that operate based on assumed principles. While this can be powerful, the information it can provide is limited by the assumptions made and the designed operation of the model. When performing schedule planning and analysis, modelers are often provided with timelines representing project tasks, their relationships, and estimates related to durations, resource requirements, etc. These timelines can be created with programs such as Microsoft Excel or Microsoft Project. There are several important attributes these timelines have; they represent a nominal flow (meaning they do not represent stochastic processes), and they are not necessarily governed by dates or subjected to a calendar. Attributes such as these become important in project planning since timelines often serve as the basis for creating schedules.
Technical Paper

A Heat Pipe Assisted Air-Cooled Rotary Wankel Engine for Improved Durability, Power and Efficiency

2014-09-16
2014-01-2160
In this paper, we address the thermal management issues which limit the lifespan, specific power and overall efficiency of an air-cooled rotary Wankel engine used in Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs). Our goal is to eliminate the hot spots and reduce the temperature gradients in the engine housing and side plates by aggressive heat spreading using heat pipes. We demonstrate by simulation that, for a specific power requirement, with heat spreading and more effective heat dissipation, thermal stress and distortion can be significantly reduced, even with air cooling. The maximum temperature drop was substantial, from 231°C to 129°C. The temperature difference (measure of temperature uniformity) decreased by 8.8 times (from 159°C to 18°C) for a typical UAV engine. Our heat spreaders would not change the frontal area of the engine and should have a negligible impact on the installed weight of the propulsion assembly.
Journal Article

An Architecture for Monitoring and Anomaly Detection for Space Systems

2013-09-17
2013-01-2090
Complex aerospace engineering systems require innovative methods for performance monitoring and anomaly detection. The interface of a real-time data stream to a system for analysis, pattern recognition, and anomaly detection can require distributed system architectures and sophisticated custom programming. This paper presents a case study of a simplified interface between Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) real-time data output, signal processing, cloud computing, and tablet systems. The discussed approach consists of three parts: First, the connectivity of real-time data from PLCs to the signal processing algorithms, using standard communication technologies. Second, the interface of legacy routines, such as NASA's Inductive Monitoring System (IMS), with a hybrid signal processing system. Third, the connectivity and interaction of the signal processing system with a wireless and distributed tablet, (iPhone/iPad) in a hybrid system configuration using cloud computing.
Journal Article

ℒ1 Adaptive Flutter Suppression Control Strategy for Highly Flexible Structure

2013-09-17
2013-01-2263
The aim of this work is to apply an innovative adaptive ℒ1 techniques to control flutter phenomena affecting highly flexible wings and to evaluate the efficiency of this control algorithm and architecture by performing the following tasks: i) adaptation and analysis of an existing simplified nonlinear plunging/pitching 2D aeroelastic model accounting for structural nonlinearities and a quasi-steady aerodynamics capable of describing flutter and post-flutter limit cycle oscillations, ii) implement the ℒ1 adaptive control on the developed aeroelastic system to perform initial control testing and evaluate the sensitivity to system parameters, and iii) perform model validation and calibration by comparing the performance of the proposed control strategy with an adaptive back-stepping algorithm. The effectiveness and robustness of the ℒ1 adaptive control in flutter and post-flutter suppression is demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Neural Network Modeling of Aircraft Synchronous Generator with High Power Density

2012-10-22
2012-01-2158
Preliminary investigations of nonlinear modeling of aircraft synchronous generators using neural networks are presented. Aircraft synchronous generators with high power density tend operate at current-levels proportional to the magnetic saturation region of the machine's material. The nonlinear model accounts for magnetic saturation of the generator, which causes the winding flux linkages and inductances to vary as a function of current. Finite element method software is used to perform a parametric sweep of direct, quadrature, and field currents to extract the respective flux linkages. This data is used to train a neural network which yields current as a function of flux linkage. The neural network is implemented in a Simulink synchronous generator model and simulation results are compared with a previously developed linear model. Results show that the nonlinear neural network model can more accurately describe the responsiveness and performance of the synchronous generator.
Journal Article

Ground and Range Operations for a Heavy-Lift Vehicle: Preliminary Thoughts

2011-10-18
2011-01-2643
This paper discusses the ground and range operations for a Shuttle derived Heavy-Lift Vehicle being launched from the Kennedy Space Center on the Eastern range. Comparisons will be made between the Shuttle and a heavy lift configuration (SLS-ETF MPCV - April 2011) by contrasting their subsystems. The analysis will also describe a simulation configuration with the potential to be utilized for heavy lift vehicle processing/range simulation modeling and the development of decision-making systems utilized by the range. In addition, a simple simulation model is used to provide the required critical thinking foundations for this preliminary analysis.
Journal Article

The Semantic Web and Space Operations

2011-10-18
2011-01-2506
In this paper, we introduce the use of ontologies to implement the information developed and organized by resource planning tools into standard project management documents covering integrated cost, resource modeling and analysis, and visualization. The basic upper ontology used for NASA Space Operations is explained and the results obtained are discussed. This ontology-centered approach is looking for tighter connections between software, hardware, and systems engineering.
Journal Article

Data Mining and Complex Problems: Case Study in Composite Materials

2009-11-10
2009-01-3182
Data mining is defined as the discovery of useful, possibly unexpected, patterns and relationships in data using statistical and non-statistical techniques in order to develop schemes for decision and policy making. Data mining can be used to discover the sources and causes of problems in complex systems. In addition, data mining can support simulation strategies by finding the different constants and parameters to be used in the development of simulation models. This paper introduces a framework for data mining and its application to complex problems. To further explain some of the concepts outlined in this paper, the potential application to the NASA Shuttle Reinforced Carbon-Carbon structures and genetic programming is used as an illustration.
Technical Paper

Case for a Multidisciplinary Modeling Platform for Space Launch Risk Analysis

2007-09-17
2007-01-3864
With the development and licensing of inland, state-owned spaceports, and the ongoing development of several new reusable launch vehicles (RLV), the space launch industry is undergoing a significant transformation. As a result, there is a need to reevaluate current launch risk analysis methodologies and practices, which so far have revolved around the conservative casualty expectation analysis developed in the 1950s. Furthermore, an important aspect of launch risk analysis which gives rise to its complexity is its multidisciplinary nature. In analyzing such risk, the physics of and interactions between the varieties of hazards produced by launch vehicles breakups must be captured, modeled and, their effects analyzed. In this paper we discuss how a well-designed multidisciplinary modeling and analysis platform could be a significant step toward reducing the complexity just mentioned.
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