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Technical Paper

Split Injection Spray Development, Mixture Formation, and Combustion Processes in a Diesel Engine Piston Cavity: Rig Test and Real Engine Results

2018-09-10
2018-01-1698
The objectives of this study are to investigate the effects of premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) strategies with split injection on soot emission characteristics. The split injection conditions included three injection intervals (1.1 ms, 1.3 ms, and 1.5 ms) and three injection quantity fraction ratios (Q1/Q2 = 10.0/14.6 mm3/st, 15.2/9.4 mm3/st, and 20.0/4.6 mm3/st). The results in real engine tests showed that shorter injection intervals, and the 1st injection quantity contributes to reduced soot emissions. A rig test with high-pressure and high-temperature constant-volume vessel (CVV) and a two-dimensional (2D) model piston cavity were used to determine correlations between injection conditions and soot emissions. During the rig test, fuel was injected into the CVV by a single-hole nozzle under split injection strategies. The injection strategies include the same injection intervals and quantity fraction ratios as in the real engine test.
Technical Paper

Injection Strategy to Enhance Mixture Formation and Combustion of Fuel Spray in Diesel Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-0241
Increasing the injection pressure and splitting the injection stage are the major approaches for a diesel engine to facilitate the fuel-air mixture formation process, which determines the subsequent combustion and emission formation. In this study, the free spray was injected by a single-hole nozzle with a hole-diameter of 0.111 mm. The impinging spray, formed by a two-dimensional (2D) piston cavity having the same shape as a small-bore diesel engine, was also investigated. The injection process was performed by both with and without pre-injection. The main injection was carried out either as a single main injection with injection pressure of 100 MPa (Pre + S100) or a split main injection with 160 MPa defined by the mass fraction ratio of 3:1 (Pre + D160_3-1). The tracer Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique was adopted to observe the spray mixture formation process. The ignition delay/location and the soot formation in the spray flame were analyzed by the two-color method.
Technical Paper

Effects of Hole Diameter and Injection Pressure on Fuel Spray and Its Evaporation Characteristics of Multi-Hole Nozzle for Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2305
The performance of a diesel engine largely depends on the spray behavior and mixture formation. Nozzle configurations and operating conditions are important factors that influence spray development. Using numerical and experimental methods, this study focused on the spray development of multi-hole nozzles under non-evaporating and evaporating conditions to compare the influence of nozzle hole diameter and injection pressure on spray characteristics. High-speed video observation was employed to study the properties of spray development under the non-evaporating condition, while the Laser Absorption Scattering technique was used in the observation and quantitative analysis of evaporating spray characteristics in the evaporating condition. In addition, computational fluid dynamics study results published previously [1] were correlated with the current experimental results to provide more detailed explanations about the mechanism of the characteristics of spray behavior.
Journal Article

Characterization of Internal Flow and Spray Behaviors of Hole-Type Nozzle under Tiny and Normal Injection Quantity Conditions for Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0862
The tiny and normal injection quantity instances usually happen under the multi-injection strategy condition to restrain the uncontrollability of the ignition timing of the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion concept. Meanwhile, instead of the traditional and fundamental single-hole diesel injector, the axisymmetric multi-hole injectors are usually applied to couple with the combustion chamber under most practical operating conditions. In the current paper, the internal flow and spray characteristics generated by single-hole and multi-hole (10 holes) nozzles under normal (2 mm3/hole) and tiny (0.3 mm3/hole) injection quantity conditions were investigated in conjunction with a series of experimental and computational methods. High-speed video observation was conducted at 10000 and 100000 fps under the condition of 120 MPa rail pressure, 1.5 MPa ambient pressure, room temperature, and nitrogen environment to visualize different spray properties.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Diesel Spray with Temporally-Splitting High-Pressure Injection

2015-11-17
2015-32-0825
The effect of temporally-splitting high pressure injection on Diesel spray combustion and soot formation processes was studied by using the high-speed video camera. The spray was injected by the single-hole nozzle with a hole diameter of 0.11mm into the high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume vessel. The free spray and the spray impingement on the two dimensional (2D) piston cavity wall were examined. Injection pressures of 100 and 160 MPa for the single injection and 160 MPa for the split injection were selected. The flame structure and soot formation process were examined by using the two-color pyrometry. The soot generated in the flame under the split injection under 160 MPa becomes higher than that of the single injection under 160 MPa.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Nozzle Internal Flow and Near-Field Spray of Multi-Hole Injectors for Diesel Engines

2015-09-01
2015-01-1920
The combustion process, emission formation and the resulting engine performance in a diesel engine are well known to be governed mainly by spray behaviors and the consequent mixture formation quality. One of the most important factors that affect the spray development is the nozzle configuration. Originally, single-hole diesel injector is usually applied in fundamental research to provide insights into the spray characteristics. However, the spray emerging from a realistic multi-hole injector approaches the practical engine operation situation better. Meanwhile, previous research has shown that the reduced nozzle hole diameter is effective for preparing more uniform mixture. In the current paper, a study about the effects of nozzle configuration and hole diameter on the internal flow and spray properties was conducted in conjunction with a series of experimental and computational methods.
Technical Paper

Spray and Flame Behaviors of Ethanol-Gasoline Blend Injected by Hole-Type Nozzle for DISI Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1950
Different ethanol-gasoline blended fuels, namely the E0 (100% gasoline), E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline mixed in volume basis) and E100 (100% ethanol) were injected by a valve-covered-orifice (VCO) hole-type nozzle in a condition simulating the near top dead center (TDC). Two typical injection pressures of 10 and 20MPa were adopted to clarify the spray and flame behaviors. The correlation of the upstream unburned fuel and the flame propagation was analyzed by the high-speed imaging of shadowgraph. Moreover, the effects of ignition timing and location on the flame propagation were discussed based on the imaging of OH* chemiluminescence.
Journal Article

Small Injection Amount Fuel Spray Characteristics Injected by Hole-Type Nozzle for D.I. Diesel Engine

2014-11-11
2014-32-0124
Spray characteristics under very small injection amount injected by the hole-type nozzle for a D.I. Diesel engine were investigated using the spray test rig consisting a high-pressure and high-temperature constant volume vessel with optical accesses and a common rail injection system. The Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique was used to visualize the liquid and vapor phase distributions in the evaporating spray. In the very small injection amount condition of the evaporating and free (no wall impingement) spray, the both spray tip penetration and spray angle are larger than those of the non-evaporating free spray. This tendency contradicts the previous observation of the diesel spray with large injection amount and the quasi steady state momentum theory. In the case of the spray impinging on a 2-dimensional piston cavity wall, the spray tip penetration of the evaporating spray is larger than that of the non-evaporating spray.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Diesel Spray Flame under Flat Wall Impinging Condition --LAS, OH* Chemiluminescence and Two Color Pyrometry Results

2014-10-13
2014-01-2636
The effect of spray/wall interaction on diesel spray flame characteristics was investigated by applying LAS (Laser Absorption-Scattering) technique, OH* chemiluminescence and two color pyrometry in a constant volume vessel. To insure the precision of this investigation, following necessary verification experiments were carried out: (1) OH* chemiluminescence and two color pyrometry were synchronously employed to analyze the influence of soot incandescence on OH* chemiluminescence signal intensity; and (2) frontal view and side view OH* images of a linearly arranged three holes injector were concentrated on to investigate the effect of soot on optical intensity attenuation under line-of-sight image recording condition. And then the effect of impinging distance (30,40,50,60 mm and free) on diesel spray and combustion behaviors were studied. The results reveal that the impinging distance plays a significant role in mixture formation.
Technical Paper

Numerical Studies of Spray Combustion Processes of Palm Oil Biodiesel and Diesel Fuels using Reduced Chemical Kinetic Mechanisms

2014-04-01
2014-01-1143
Spray combustion processes of palm oil biodiesel (PO) and conventional diesel fuels were simulated using the CONVERGE CFD code. Thermochemical and reaction kinetic data (115 species and 460 reactions) by Luo et al. (2012) and Lu et al. (2009) (68 species and 283 reactions) were implemented in the CONVERGE CFD to simulate the spray and combustion processes of the two fuels. Tetradecane (C14H30) and n- heptane (C7H16) were used as surrogates for diesel. For the palm biodiesel, the mixture of methyl decanoate (C11H20O2), methyl-9-decenoate (C11H19O2) and n-heptane was used as surrogate. The palm biodiesel surrogates were combined in proportions based on the previous GC-MS results for the five major biodiesel components namely methyl palmitate, methyl stearate, methyl oleate, methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate.
Journal Article

Effect of Spray/Wall Interaction on Diesel Combustion and Soot Formation in Two-Dimensional Piston Cavity

2013-10-15
2013-32-9021
The effects of spray/wall interaction on diesel combustion and soot formation in a two-dimensional piston cavity were studied with a high speed color video camera in a constant volume combustion vessel. The two-dimensional piston cavity was applied to generate the impinging spray flame. In the cavity, the flat surface which plays a role as the cylinder head has a 13.5 degree angle with the injector axis and the impinging point was located 30 mm away from the nozzle tip. Three injection pressures of 100, 150, and 200 MPa and a single hole diesel injector (hole diameter: 0.133mm) were selected. The flame structure and combustion process were examined by using the color luminosity images. Two-color pyrometry was used to measure the line-of sight soot temperature and concentration by using the R and B channels of the color images. The soot mass generated by impinging spray flame is higher than that of the free spray flame.
Journal Article

Fuel Spray Evaporation and Mixture Formation Processes of Ethanol/Gasoline Blend Injected by Hole-Type Nozzle for DISI Engine

2012-10-23
2012-32-0018
Ethanol is regarded as the promising alternative fuel for gasoline to meet the strict low emission standard for spark ignition engines. In this study, the spray mixture formation process for different ethanol blended fuels, including E0 (gasoline), E85 (85% volume of ethanol and 15% volume of gasoline) and E100 (ethanol), has been evaluated using hole-type nozzle by the measurement of Laser Absorption Scattering (LAS) technique in a constant volume vessel. Based on the principle of LAS, the quantitative vapor and liquid phase distribution from different ethanol blended fuel can be obtained by the light extinction regime. Aiming to analyze the effect of mixture formation and evaporation for different components of blended fuel or pure gasoline and ethanol, the vapor distribution of gasoline was determined by using p-xylene, which had similar physical properties to gasoline, especially higher boiling temperature components, and higher absorption for ultraviolet.
Journal Article

Experimental Study on Mixture Formation and Ignition Processes of Spray Injected by Hole-Type Nozzle for DISI Engine

2011-11-08
2011-32-0523
The purpose of this study is to investigate the spray characteristics and ignition stability of gasoline sprays injected from a hole-type nozzle. Using a single-hole VCO (Valve-Covered-Orifice) nozzle, the spray characteristics were studied with LAS (Laser Absorption Scattering) technique, and then flame propagation and ignition stability were investigated inside a high temperature high pressure constant volume vessel using a high speed video camera. The spatial ignition stability of the spray at different locations was tested by adjusting the position of the electrodes. By adjusting the ignition timings, the stable ignition windows for 3 determined locations where the ignition stability was high at a fixed ignition timing were studied. The flame propagation process was examined using high speed shadowgraph method. Experimental results show that when the ignition points are located on the spray axis, the ignition probability is low.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Pressure and Ambient Gas Density on Fuel - Ambient Gas Mixing and Combustion Characteristics of D.I. Diesel Spray

2011-08-30
2011-01-1819
The fuel-ambient gas interaction process of the free diesel spray injected from the micro-hole nozzle (0.08 mm) into the quiescent and engine-like ambient gas condition was investigated by means of the laser-induced fluorescence - particle image velocimetry (LIF-PIV) technique in non-evaporating condition. Direct photography with high speed video camera and two color pyrometry were applied to analyze the evaporation spray and flame characteristics. Three injection pressures from 100, 200 to 300 MPa and two ambient gas densities of 11 and 15 kg/m₃ were selected as testing conditions. The entrained mass flow rate of the ambient gas through the whole spray boundary, the ratio of the total ambient gas entrainment rate to the fuel injection rate, etc., were calculated by using the ambient gas velocity data obtained by the LIF-PIV technique and used to correlate the combustion behavior.
Technical Paper

Effects of Nozzle Hole Diameter and Injection Pressure on Flame Lift-Off and Soot Formation in D.I. Diesel Combustion

2011-08-30
2011-01-1813
Previous research has shown that the reduced nozzle hole diameter and elevated injection pressure are effective for preparing a uniform fuel-air mixture in a direct injection (D.I.) Diesel engine. A micro-hole nozzle with a hole diameter of 0.08 mm and an ultra-high injection pressure of 300 MPa have been employed to investigate the mixture formation process under various conditions. The aim of the current work is to clarify the effect of nozzle hole diameter and injection pressure on flame lift-off and soot formation processes. The free sprays from the micro-hole and conventional nozzles were investigated at a high-temperature, high-pressure constant volume vessel. A high-speed video camera system was employed to record the non-vaporizing sprays and combustion. The direct photography of OH chemiluminescence was used to provide information about the high temperature combustion process and to measure the flame lift-off length.
Journal Article

Effect of Injection Pressure on Ignition, Flame Development and Soot Formation Processes of Biodiesel Fuel Spray

2010-09-28
2010-32-0053
The effect of injection pressure ranging from 100 to 300MPa on the ignition, flame development and soot formation characteristics of biodiesel fuel spray using a common rail injection system for direct injection (D.I.) diesel engine was investigated. Experiments were carried out in a constant volume vessel under conditions similar to the real engine condition using a single hole nozzle. Biodiesel fuels from two sources namely; palm oil (BDFp) and cooked oil (BDFc) with the commercial JIS#2diesel fuel were utilized in this research. The OH chemiluminescence technique was used to determine the ignition and the lift-off length of the combusting flame. The natural luminosity technique was applied to study the flame development and the two color pyrometry was applied for the soot formation processes. Ignition delay decreased as the injection pressure progressed from 100 to 300MPa. This was as a result of the enhanced mixing achieved at higher injection pressures.
Technical Paper

Entrainment, Evaporation and Mixing Characteristics of Diesel Sprays around End-of-Injection

2009-04-20
2009-01-0849
In this study, air entrainment, fuel evaporation and mixing process of diesel sprays injected by micro-orifices for direct-injection diesel engines were investigated at the end of injection transient and after the end of injection. The mixture formation process was analyzed using a laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique, providing the information of quantified liquid and vapor mass concentration, entrained air concentration and equivalence ratio. The data was obtained at the timings of quasi-steady state, sudden velocity decrease, the end of injection and after the end of injection. Two micro-orifices, which have different orifice diameters, were selected as test nozzles to investigate the end-of-injection characteristics at different nozzle geometries. In case of smaller orifice diameter, the liquid phase regression was observed around the end of injection, while it was not observed at larger orifice diameter due to denser liquid concentration near the nozzle tip.
Journal Article

Characteristics of Evaporating Diesel Spray: A Comparison of Laser Measurements and Empirical/Theoretical Predictions

2009-04-20
2009-01-0854
The objective of the paper is to characterize the diesel spray under the ambient conditions relevant for direct injection (D.I.) diesel engines. The particular emphasis is on the comparisons between laser measurements and predictions by empirical correlations and theoretical analyses. The ultraviolet-visible laser absorption-scattering (LAS) imaging technique is employed to quantitively determine the spray/mixture properties of the diesel spray injected by a hole-type injector, in terms of spray tip penetration and spatial concentration distributions of liquid and vapor phase. The structure of evaporating spray is obtained and analyzed. Based on the penetration correlations in the literature, a non-dimensional analysis of the spray tip penetration data is carried out. The results indicate that a self-similar state of the evaporating fuel spray is achieved.
Journal Article

Ignition and Combustion Characteristics of Wall-Impinging Sprays Injected by Group-Hole Nozzles for Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

2008-10-06
2008-01-2469
The concept of two closely spaced micro-orifices (group hole nozzle) has been studied as a promising technology for the reduction of soot emission from direct injection (DI) diesel engines by improving the fuel atomization and evaporation. One of the main issues on group hole nozzle is the arrangement of orifices with various distances and angles. In this study, the ignition and combustion characteristics of wall-impinging diesel sprays from group-hole nozzles were investigated with various angles between two micro-orifices (included angles). A laser absorption scattering (LAS) technique for non-axisymmetric sprays, developed based on a LAS technique for axisymmetric spray, was applied to investigate the liquid/vapor mass distribution of wall-impinging sprays. The direct flame images and OH radical images inside a high pressure constant volume vessel were captured to analyze the effect of included angle on spray ignition and combustion characteristics.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on Mixture Formation Process of Flat Wall Impinging Spray Injected by Micro-Hole Nozzle under Ultra-High Injection Pressures

2008-06-23
2008-01-1601
Increasing injection pressure and decreasing nozzle hole diameter have been proved to be two effective approaches to reduce the exhaust emissions and to improve the fuel economy. Recently, the micro-hole nozzles and ultra-high injection pressures are applicable in commercial Diesel engines. But the mechanism of these two latest technologies is still unclear. The current research aims at providing information on the spray and mixture formation processes of the micro-hole nozzle (d=0.08mm) under the ultra-high injection pressure (Pinj=300MPa). The flat wall impinging sprays were focused on and the laser absorption-scattering (LAS) technique was employed to obtain the qualitative and quantitative information at both atmospheric and elevated conditions. The spray parameters were collected, the mixing rate was discussed, and the effects of various parameters on mixture formation were clarified.
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