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Technical Paper

Software Reliability Growth Modeling: Comparison between Non-Linear- Regression Estimation and Maximum-Likelihood-Estimator Procedures

2018-09-10
2018-01-1772
Automotive software complexity has been growing rapidly with time. The demand for automation in automotive segment including autonomous automobiles and software based products has caught the attention of researchers. Hence, it is necessary to check the complexity of automotive software and their reliability growth. Testing in the field of software artifact is resource intensive exercise. If project managers are able to put forward testing activities well then the testing resource consumptions may be much more resource/cost efficient. Reliability can be estimated during testing phase of software using software reliability growth models (SRGMs). A software package Computer Aided Software Reliability Estimation (CASRE) has many important SRGMs. These SRGMs are based on Non-Homogeneous Poisson Process (NHPP), Markov process or Bayesian models.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Quasi-1D Multi-Component Fuel Droplet Vaporization using Discrete Approach with Experimental Validation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0287
An efficient multi-component fuel droplet vaporization model has been developed in this work using discrete approach. The precise modeling of droplet vaporization process is divided into two parts: vapor-phase and liquid-phase sub-models. Temporal evolution of flow inside the droplet is considered to describe the transient behavior introduced by the slow diffusion process. In order to account for the internal circulation motion, surface regression and finite diffusion without actually resolving the spatial governing equations within the liquid phase, a set of ordinary differential equations is applied to describe the evolution of the non-uniform distributions of universal diffusional variables, i.e. temperature and species mass fraction. The differences between the droplet surface and bulk mean states are modeled by constructing a quasi-1D frame; the effect of the internal circulations is taken into consideration by using the effective diffusivity rather than physical diffusivity.
Journal Article

Flow Visualization and Experimental Measurement of Compressor Oil Separator

2018-04-03
2018-01-0067
This article presents basic separation mechanisms with coalescing/impinging separators studied as the add-on to current popular centrifugal designs. The coalescence and impingement of oil on wire mesh and wave-plates are visualized and tested to investigate the impact of geometry and flow conditions on oil separation efficiency. Re-entrainment phenomenon is explained based on the mass balance. Oil mist flow at the swashplate reciprocating compressor discharge is quantified by video processing method to provide detailed information of the oil droplets. The physics behind oil separator is illustrated by visualization and measurement in this study, which gives useful guidelines for oil separator design and operation. The flow visualization shows the details of oil passing through different oil separation structures. Videos are quantified to provide information like droplet size distribution and liquid volume fraction.
Technical Paper

Using R744 (CO2) to Cool an Up-Armored M1114 HMMWV

2005-05-10
2005-01-2024
The US Army uses a light tactical High-Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) which, due to the amount of armor added, requires air conditioning to keep its occupants comfortable. The current system uses R134a in a dual evaporator, remote-mounted condenser, engine-driven compressor system. This vehicle has been adapted to use an environmentally friendly refrigerant (carbon dioxide) to provide performance, efficiency, comfort and logistical benefits to the Army. The unusual thermal heat management issues and the fact that the vehicle is required to operate under extreme ambient conditions have made the project extremely challenging. This paper is a continuation of work presented at the SAE Alternate Refrigerants Symposium held in Phoenix last June [1].
Technical Paper

Continuous Multicomponent Fuel Film Vaporization Model for Multidimensional Engine Modeling

2005-04-11
2005-01-0209
A multicomponent fuel film vaporization model using continuous thermodynamics is developed for multidimensional spray and wall film modeling. The vaporization rate is evaluated using the turbulent boundary-layer assumption and a quasi-steady approximation. Third-order polynomials are used to model the fuel composition profiles and the temperature within the liquid phase in order to predict accurate surface properties that are important for evaluating the mass and moment vaporization rates and heat flux. By this approach, the governing equations for the film are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations and thus offer a significant reduction in computational cost while maintaining adequate accuracy compared to solving the governing equations for the film directly.
Technical Paper

Safety Concerns in Automatic Control of Heavy-Duty Articulated Vehicles

2004-10-26
2004-01-2717
Control system design is one of the most critical issues for implementation of intelligent vehicle systems. Wide ranged fundamental research has been undertaken in this area and the safety issues of the fully automated vehicles are clearly recognized. Study of vehicle performance constrains is essential for a good understanding of this problem. This paper discusses safety issues of heavy-duty vehicles under automatic steering control. It focuses on the analysis of the effect of tire force saturation. Vehicle handling characteristics are also analyzed to improve understanding of the truck dynamics and control tasks. A simple differential brake control is formulated to show its effect of on reducing trailer swing.
Technical Paper

Feasibility of Modifying an Existing Semi-Trailer Air Suspension Into an Anti-Rollover System

2001-11-12
2001-01-2733
This paper examines the feasibility of modifying an existing semi-trailer air suspension system to function as an anti-rollover system in addition to its normal suspension operation. The semi-trailer model used is a dynamic, two-dimensional system. The anti-rollover system controller is formulated using projective control theory. All other factors being equal, simulations show that use of the modified suspension system decreases the weight shift when the semi-trailer undergoes lateral acceleration. By decreasing weight shift, the modified suspension system decreases the possibility of rollover.
Technical Paper

Multicomponent Liquid and Vapor Fuel Distribution Measurements in the Cylinder of a Port-Injected, Spark-Ignition Engine

2000-03-06
2000-01-0243
A 2.5L, V-6, port-injected, spark-ignition engine was modified for optical access by separating the head from the block and installing a Bowditch extended piston with a fused-silica top and a fused-silica liner in one of the cylinders. Two heads were employed in the study. One produced swirl and permitted modulation of the swirl level, and another produced a tumbling flow in the cylinder. Planar laser-induced exciplex fluorescence, which allows the simultaneous, but separate, imaging of liquid and vapor fuel, was extended to capture components of different volatilities in a model fuel designed to simulate the distillation curve of a typical gasoline. The exciplex fluorescence technique was calibrated in a separate cell where careful control of mixture composition, temperature and pressure was possible. The results show that large-scale motion induced during intake is critical for good mixing during the intake and compression strokes.
Technical Paper

A Prototype Computer Based Test System to Test Commercial Vehicle Air Brake Systems: Application and Test Results

1999-11-15
1999-01-3782
This paper describes a practical and efficient approach for determining complete transient, as well as steady state response of tractor-trailer air brake systems by recording pushrod displacement and air brake service line pressure as a function to time. The test hardware utilizes easy to fabricate “clip on” transducers to measure pushrod stroke length. Data acquisition is via LABVIEW‚. All transducers are easy to temporarily affix to any tractor- trailer and require no alteration to the vehicle. A complete system check takes less time than manually measuring pushrod stroke as required under FMCSA. This system with one treadle application and release gives digital timing and displacement history of all brakes. Useful information includes: application and release profiles (pushrod velocity), shoe compliance upon seating and crack pressure release points for both tractor and trailer relay valves.
Technical Paper

System Identification of an Electrohydraulic Steering System

1999-09-14
1999-01-2854
This paper presents system identification methods of using both frequency and time domain analyses to estimate system parameters for a nonlinear electrohydraulic (E/H) tractor steering system. The frequency domain method identified parameters of the system using a linear model with a nonlinear gain function. The time domain method identified those parameters using a discrete time expression. A method of multiple models was used to represent the nonlinear system for both frequency and time domain analyses. Simulation and test results showed that the modified identification method could satisfactorily identify the parameters of the nonlinear E/H tractor steering system.
Technical Paper

Automated Guidance Control for Agricultural Tractor Using Redundant Sensors

1999-04-14
1999-01-1874
The development of automated guidance for agricultural tractors has addressed several basic and applied issues of agricultural equipment automation. Basic analyses have included the dynamics of steering systems and posture sensors for guidance. Applied issues have evaluated the potential of several commercial sensing systems and a commercial mechanical guidance system. A research platform has been developed based on a Case 7220 Magnum1 2-wheel drive agricultural tractor. An electrohydraulic steering system was used and characterized in support of automated guidance control. Posture sensing methods were developed using GPS, geomagnetic direction sensors (GDS), inertial, and machine vision sensing systems. Sensor fusion of GPS-inertial-machine vision and GPS-GDS-machine vision provided the most flexible and accurate guidance and capable for operation under dynamically changing field conditions.
Technical Paper

Analytical Descriptions of Service Loading Suitable for Fatigue Analysis

1997-04-08
971535
Service loading histories have the same general character for an individual route and the magnitudes vary from driver to driver. Both the magnitude and character of the loading history change from route to route and a linear scaling of one loading history does not characterize the variability of usage over a wide range of operating conditions. In this paper a technique for measuring and extrapolating cumulative exceedance diagrams to quantify the distribution of service loading in a vehicle is described. Monte Carlo simulations are coupled with the local stress strain approach for fatigue to obtain distributions of service loading. Fatigue life estimates based on the original loading histories are compared to those obtained from statistical descriptions of exceedance diagrams.
Technical Paper

Ventilated Brake Rotor Air Flow Investigation

1997-02-24
971033
Air flow through the passages of a Chrysler LH platform ventilated brake rotor is measured. Modifications to the production rotor's vent inlet geometry are prototyped and measured in addition to the production rotor. Vent passage air flow is compared to existing correlations. The inlet modifications show significantly improved vent air flow, over the production rotor. The result improvement in heat transfer and rotor cooling is reported. These benefits in performance should be attainable at very low increases in production cost.
Technical Paper

Determining the Value of Vehicle Attributes Using a PC Based Tool

1997-02-24
970763
Product engineers and product planners are routinely faced with trade-off decisions involving the cost of adding a product feature or modifying an existing feature versus its added value to the customer. The purpose of this paper is to assess the use of a personal computer (PC) for surveying respondents' willingness to pay (WTP) for four options - two-tone color, 4x4 drive, sporty trim package, and extended cab -- available on the base 1997 Ford F-150 truck. The results show that the respondents' stated WTP reflected the value of the options as determined from their prices and fraction of sales.
Technical Paper

Oversteer/Understeer Characteristics of a Locked Differential

1994-12-01
942485
The type of differential used in a vehicle has an important and often-neglected effect on handling performance. This is particularly important in racing applications, such as in IndyCar racing, in which the type of differential chosen depends on the course being raced (superspeedway ovals, short ovals, temporary street courses and permanent road courses). In the present work, we examine the effect of a locked rear differential on oversteer/understeer behavior. Using a linear tire model, it is shown that employing a locked differential adds a constant understeer offset to the steering wheel angle (SWA) -v- lateral acceleration vehicle signature. A computer simulation of steady-state cornering behavior showed that the actual effect is much more complicated, and is strongly influenced by static weight distribution, front/rear roll couple distribution, available traction and the radius of the turn being negotiated.
Technical Paper

Test Vehicle Steering Systems

1994-09-01
941740
In order to test and design vehicle systems it is often necessary to develop prototypes. A vehicle's steering system requires a qualitative analysis since it is difficult to quantify and measure subjective quantities such as the “feel” of a steering system. The virtual prototype system (VPS) provides an effective and flexible way of developing and testing the prototypes for qualitative testing. By creating a computer model of a vehicle's steering system using a dynamic simulation package and linking it to a virtual reality vehicle, a designer can drive the virtual prototype vehicle as if he or she were operating an actual vehicle.
Technical Paper

Neural Networks in Engineering Diagnostics

1994-04-01
941116
Neural networks are massively parallel computational models for knowledge representation and information processing. The capabilities of neural networks, namely learning, noise tolerance, adaptivity, and parallel structure make them good candidates for application to a wide range of engineering problems including diagnostics problems. The general approach in developing neural network based diagnostic methods is described through a case study. The development of an acoustic wayside train inspection system using neural networks is described. The study is aimed at developing a neural network based method for detection defective wheels from acoustic measurements. The actual signals recorded when a train passes a wayside station are used to develop a neural network based wheel defect detector and to study its performance. Signal averaging and scoring techniques are developed to improve the performance of the constructed neural inspection system.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Approach to Landfill Compaction

1993-04-01
931171
Environmental concerns have obstructed development of new landfill sites making it essential to efficiently use currently available space. Finite element methods are evaluated for predicting densification by compactors with the intent of eventually optimizing vehicle design with respect to compaction. A geometrically non-linear, plane strain, quasistatic analysis is used to capture the effects of a single rigid wheel. Future work will include multiple wheels and successive passes, three-dimensional simulations, and realistic material characterization.
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