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Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of Two-Phase Flow in the Second Header of MAC Condenser

2019-04-02
2019-01-1065
Phase separation circuiting have been proved in the past to effectively improve the performance of mobile air conditioning (MAC) condensers. In the vertical second header of the condenser, liquid separates from vapor mainly due to gravity, leaving vapor-rich flow with higher heat transfer coefficient to go into the upper passes. The condenser effectiveness is improved in this way. However, separation is usually not perfect, expressed through the separation efficiency (ηl and ηv). This paper presents the numerical study of phase separation phenomena in the second header. The Euler-Euler method of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used. Simulations are conducted for two-phase refrigerant R-134a for MAC application. Inlet mass flow rate is simulated at values of 16 g∙s-1, 20 g∙s-1, and 30 g∙s-1 for 21 inlet microchannel tubes, which is the same 1st-pass tube number as of a real separation condenser. Corresponding mass fluxes are 166 kg∙m-2∙s-1, 207 kg∙m-2∙s-1, and 311 kg∙m-2∙s-1.
Technical Paper

Software Reliability Growth Modeling: Comparison between Non-Linear- Regression Estimation and Maximum-Likelihood-Estimator Procedures

2018-09-10
2018-01-1772
Automotive software complexity has been growing rapidly with time. The demand for automation in automotive segment including autonomous automobiles and software based products has caught the attention of researchers. Hence, it is necessary to check the complexity of automotive software and their reliability growth. Testing in the field of software artifact is resource intensive exercise. If project managers are able to put forward testing activities well then the testing resource consumptions may be much more resource/cost efficient. Reliability can be estimated during testing phase of software using software reliability growth models (SRGMs). A software package Computer Aided Software Reliability Estimation (CASRE) has many important SRGMs. These SRGMs are based on Non-Homogeneous Poisson Process (NHPP), Markov process or Bayesian models.
Technical Paper

The Effect of In-Cylinder Temperature on the Ignition Initiation Location of a Pre-Chamber Generated Hot Turbulent Jet

2018-04-03
2018-01-0184
Ignition location is one of the important factors that affect the thermal efficiency, exhaust emissions and knock sensitivity in premixed-charge ignition engines. However, the ignition initiation locations of pre-chamber generated turbulent jet ignition, which is a promising ignition enhancement method, are not clearly understood due to the complex physics behind it. Motivated by this, the ignition initiation location of a transient turbulent jet in a constant volume combustor is analyzed by the use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. In the CFD simulations of this work, commercial codes KIVA-3 V release 2 and an in-house-developed chemical solver with a detailed mechanism for H2/air mixtures are used. Comparisons are performed between simulated and experimental ignition initiation locations, and they agree well with one another. A detailed parametric study of the influence of in-cylinder temperature on the ignition initiation location is also performed.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Quasi-1D Multi-Component Fuel Droplet Vaporization using Discrete Approach with Experimental Validation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0287
An efficient multi-component fuel droplet vaporization model has been developed in this work using discrete approach. The precise modeling of droplet vaporization process is divided into two parts: vapor-phase and liquid-phase sub-models. Temporal evolution of flow inside the droplet is considered to describe the transient behavior introduced by the slow diffusion process. In order to account for the internal circulation motion, surface regression and finite diffusion without actually resolving the spatial governing equations within the liquid phase, a set of ordinary differential equations is applied to describe the evolution of the non-uniform distributions of universal diffusional variables, i.e. temperature and species mass fraction. The differences between the droplet surface and bulk mean states are modeled by constructing a quasi-1D frame; the effect of the internal circulations is taken into consideration by using the effective diffusivity rather than physical diffusivity.
Technical Paper

An Efficient and Unified Combustion Model for CFD of SI and CI Engine Operation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0572
In this work, an efficient and unified combustion model is introduced to simulate the flame propagation, diffusion-controlled combustion, and chemically-driven ignition in both SI and CI engine operation. The unified model is constructed upon a G-equation model which addresses the premixed flame propagation. The concept of the Livengood-Wu integral is used with tabulated ignition delay data to account for the chemical kinetics which is responsible for the spontaneous ignition of fuel-air mixture. A set of rigorously defined operations are used to couple the evolution of the G scalar field and the Livengood-Wu integral. The diffusion-controlled combustion is simulated equivalent to applying the Burke-Schumann limit. The combined model is tested in the simulation of the premixed SI combustion in a constant volume chamber, as well as the CI combustion in a conventional small bore diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Modeling of Liquid Cooling Networks in Vehicle Thermal Management Systems

2008-04-14
2008-01-0386
This paper describes a ‘toolbox’ for modeling liquid cooling system networks within vehicle thermal management systems. Components which can be represented include pumps, coolant lines, control valves, heat sources and heat sinks, liquid-to-air and liquid-to-refrigerant heat exchangers, and expansion tanks. Network definition is accomplished through a graphical user interface, allowing system architecture to be easily modified. The elements of the toolbox are physically based, so that the models can be applied before hardware is procured. The component library was coded directly into MATLAB / SIMULINK and is intended for control system development, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation, and as a system emulator for on-board diagnostics and controls purposes. For HIL simulation and on-board diagnostics and controls, it is imperative that the model run in real-time.
Technical Paper

Atomization Characteristics of Multi-component Bio-fuel Systems under Micro-explosion Conditions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0937
A numerical study of micro-explosion in multi-component droplets is presented. The homogeneous nucleation theory is used in describing the bubble generation process. A modified Rayleigh equation is then used to calculate the bubble growth rate. The breakup criterion is then determined by applying a linear stability analysis on the bubble-droplet system. After the explosion/breakup, the atomization characteristics, including Sauter mean radius and averaged velocity of the secondary droplets, are calculated from conservation equations. Micro-explosion can be enhanced by introducing biodiesel into the fuel blends of ethanol and tetradecane. Micro-explosion is more likely to occur at high ambient pressure. However, increasing the ambient temperature does not have a significant effect on micro-explosion. There exists an optimal composition in the liquid mixture for micro-explosion.
Technical Paper

Testing Heuristic Tools for Life Support System Analysis

2007-07-09
2007-01-3225
BioSim is a simulation tool which captures many basic life support functions in an integrated simulation. Conventional analyses can not efficiently consider all possible life support system configurations. Heuristic approaches are a possible alternative. In an effort to demonstrate efficacy, a validating experiment was designed to compare the configurational optima discovered by heuristic approaches and an analytical approach. Thus far, it is clear that a genetic algorithm finds reasonable optima, although an improved fitness function is required. Further, despite a tight analytical fit to data, optimization produces disparate results which will require further validation.
Technical Paper

Modeling Stochastic Performance and Random Failure

2007-07-09
2007-01-3027
High costs and extreme risks prevent the life testing of NASA hardware. These unavoidable limitations prevent the determination of sound reliability bounds for NASA hardware; thus the true risk assumed in future missions is unclear. A simulation infrastructure for determining these risks is developed in a configurable format here. Positive preliminary results in preparation for validation testing are reported. A stochastic filter simulates non-deterministic output from the various unit processes. A maintenance and repair module has been implemented with several levels of complexity. Two life testing approaches have been proposed for use in future model validation.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Model for Predicting Hand Prehensile Movements

2006-07-04
2006-01-2329
A prediction model for hand prehensile movements was developed and validated. The model is based on a new approach that blends forward dynamics and a simple parametric control scheme. In the development phase, model parameters were first estimated using a set of hand grasping movement data, and then statistically analyzed. In the validation phase, the model was applied to novel conditions created by varying the subject group and size of the object grasped. The model performance was evaluated by the prediction errors under various novel conditions as compared to the benchmark values with no extrapolation. Analyses of the model parameters led to insights into human movement production and control. The resulting model also offers computational simplicity and efficiency, a much desired attribute for digital applications.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Blow-by in a Small-Bore High-Speed Direct-Injection Optically Accessible Diesel Engine

2006-04-03
2006-01-0649
The blow-by phenomenon is seldom acquainted with diesel engines, but for a small bore HSDI optical diesel engine, the effects are significant. A difference in peak pressure up to 25% can be observed near top-dead-center. To account for the pressure differences, a 0-D crevice flow model with a dynamic ring pack model was incorporated into the KIVA code to determine the amount of blow-by. The ring pack model will take into account the forces acting on the piston rings, the position of the piston rings, and the pressure located at each region of the crevice volume at every time step. The crevice flow model takes into consideration the flow through the circumferential gap, ring gap, and the ring side clearance. As a result, the cylinder mass, trapped mass in the crevice regions, and the blow-by values are known. Validation of the crevice model is accomplished by comparing the in-cylinder motoring pressure trace with the experimental motoring data.
Technical Paper

Comparisons of Computed and Measured Results for a HSDI Diesel Engine Operating Under HCCI Mode

2006-04-03
2006-01-1519
As engine researchers are facing the task of designing more powerful, more fuel efficient and less polluting engines, a large amount of research has been focused towards homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation for diesel engines. Ignition timing of HCCI operation is controlled by a number of factors including intake temperatures, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and injection timing to name a few. This study focuses on the computational modeling of an optically accessible high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) small bore diesel engine. In order to capture the phenomena of HCCI operation, the KIVA computational code package has been outfitted with an improved and optimized Shell autoignition model, the extended Zeldovich thermal NOx model, and soot formation and oxidation models. With the above named models in place, several cases were computed and compared to experimentally measured data and captured images of the DIATA test engine.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Tripod Constant Velocity (CV) Joint Friction

2006-04-03
2006-01-0582
Constant Velocity (CV) joints are an integral part of modern vehicles, significantly affecting steering, suspension, and vehicle vibration comfort levels. Each driveshaft comprises of two types of CV joints, namely fixed and plunging types connected via a shaft. The main friction challenges in such CV joints are concerned with plunging CV joints as their function is to compensate for the length changes due to steering motion, wheel bouncing and engine movement. Although CV joints are common in vehicles, there are aspects of their internal friction and contact dynamics that are not fully understood or modeled. Current research works on modeling CV joint effects on vehicle performance assume constant empirical friction coefficient values. Such models, however are not always accurate, especially under dynamic conditions which is the case for CV tripod joints.
Technical Paper

Continuous Multicomponent Fuel Film Vaporization Model for Multidimensional Engine Modeling

2005-04-11
2005-01-0209
A multicomponent fuel film vaporization model using continuous thermodynamics is developed for multidimensional spray and wall film modeling. The vaporization rate is evaluated using the turbulent boundary-layer assumption and a quasi-steady approximation. Third-order polynomials are used to model the fuel composition profiles and the temperature within the liquid phase in order to predict accurate surface properties that are important for evaluating the mass and moment vaporization rates and heat flux. By this approach, the governing equations for the film are reduced to a set of ordinary differential equations and thus offer a significant reduction in computational cost while maintaining adequate accuracy compared to solving the governing equations for the film directly.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Air Fuel Mixing in a Stratified Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Using Multicomponent Fuel Representation

2003-03-03
2003-01-0067
This paper describes a numerical study on air/fuel preparation process in a direct-injected spark-ignition engine under partial load stratified conditions. The fuel is represented as a mixture of four components with a distillation curve similar to that of actual gasoline, and its vaporization processes are simulated by two recently formulated multicomponent vaporization models for droplet and film, respectively. The models include major mechanisms such as non-ideal behavior in high-pressure environments, preferential vaporization, internal circulation, surface regression, and finite diffusion in the liquid phase. A spray/wall impingement model with the effect of surface roughness is used to represent the interaction between the fuel spray and the solid wall. Computations of single droplet and film on a flat plate were first performed to study the impact of fuel representation and vaporization model on the droplet and film vaporization processes.
Technical Paper

An Angle of Attack Correction Scheme for the Design of Low Aspect Ratio Wings With Endplates

2002-12-02
2002-01-3292
Low aspect ratio wings are used extensively on open-wheeled race cars to generate aerodynamic downforce. Consequently, a great deal of effort is invested in obtaining wing profiles that provide high values of lift coefficient. If the wings are designed using 2-D methods, then it is necessary to take into account the change in operating angle of a typical airfoil section that occurs when it operates in the downwash generated by the wing. Accounting for this change during the design phase will ensure that the airfoil sections are optimized for their intended operating conditions. The addition of endplates to the wing serves to counteract the magnitude of the change in operating angle by effectively producing an increase in wing aspect ratio. During the design process at UIUC, an empirical method was used to provide an estimate of the effective aspect ratio of the wing and endplate combination.
Technical Paper

Development of a Programmable E/H Valve with a Hybrid Control Algorithm

2002-03-19
2002-01-1463
This paper presents a programmable E/H control valve consisting of five individually proportional flow control valves. With a hybrid control algorithm, this valve has programmable valve characteristics, such as adjustable valve deadband and flow control gain, and programmable valve functions, such as different center functions. System analyses and experimental evaluations indicate that this programmable valve is capable of replacing conventional E/H control valves in practical applications.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Realism Versus Algorithmic Efficiency: A Trade-off in Human Motion Simulation Modeling

2001-06-26
2001-01-2090
The purpose this paper is to delineate why there exists a trade-off between biomechanical realism and algorithmic efficiency for human motion simulation models, and to illustrate how empirical human movement data and findings can be integrated with novel modeling techniques to overcome such a realism-efficiency tradeoff. We first review three major classes of biomechanical models for human motion simulation. The review of these models is woven together by a common fundamental problem of redundancy—kinematic and/or muscle redundancy. We describe how this problem is resolved in each class of models, and unveil how the trade-off arises, that is, how the computational demand associated with solving the problem is amplified as a model evolves from small scale to large scale, or from less realism to more realism.
Technical Paper

Modeling of Spray Vaporization and Air-Fuel Mixing in Gasoline Direct-Injection Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-0537
A numerical investigation of air-fuel mixing in gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines is presented in this paper. The primary goal of this study is to demonstrate the importance of fuel representation. In the past studies, fuel has been usually modeled as a single component substance. However, most fuels are mixtures of hydrocarbons with diverse boiling points, resulting in mixture vaporization behavior substantially different from single-component behavior. This study presents a newly developed multicomponent vaporization model, which takes into account important mechanisms such as preferential vaporization, internal circulation, surface regression, and non-ideal behavior in high-pressure environments. A sheet spray atomization model was also used to calculate the disintegration of the liquid sheet and the breakup of the subsequent droplets. The results of a single-component fuel representation and a multicomponent fuel representation were compared.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Cylinder Head Deformation and Asymmetry on Exhaust Valve Thermo-Mechanical Stresses

1998-02-23
981034
A geometrically accurate, three-dimensional finite element model of a Diesel engine exhaust valve and cylinder head assembly has been developed to analyze the effect of cylinder head interactions on exhaust valve stresses. Results indicate that a multi-lobed stress pattern occurs around the exhaust valve head due to cylinder head deformation, stiffness variations, and thermal asymmetry. Consequently, peak valve bending and hoop stresses from the three-dimensional model are 48% and 40% higher, respectively, than for the two-dimensional, axisymmetric model. These results indicate the degree of model complexity required for more accurate analyses of exhaust valve operating stresses.
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