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Technical Paper

Facial, Periorbital and Ocular Injuries Related to Steering-Wheel Airbag Deployments

1997-02-24
970490
To determine the frequency of facial injuries from steering-wheel airbag deployments, 540 consecutive steering-wheel airbag deployments, investigated by the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) personnel, were reviewed. About 1 in 3 drivers sustain an injury to the face. Injuries to the area surrounding the eye (periorbital) or to the eyeball (ocular) rarely occur. The frequencies of facial or ocular injuries are the same for belted and unbelted drivers. Drivers of short stature had a higher frequency of facial injury. Females sustained ocular injuries more frequently than males. Untethered airbags were not overly involved in drivers with an ocular injury. No specific make or model car were overly represented in the ocular injury cases.
Technical Paper

Upper-Extremity Injuries From Steering Wheel Airbag Deployments

1997-02-24
970493
In a review of 540 crashes in which the steering-wheel airbag deployed, 38% of the drivers sustained some level of upper extremity injury. The majority of these were AIS-1 injuries including abrasions, contusions and small lacerations. In 18 crashes the drivers sustained AIS-2 or-3 level upper extremity injuries, including fractures of the radius and/or ulna, or of the metacarpal bones, all related to airbag deployments. It was determined that six drivers sustained the fracture(s) directly from the deploying airbag or the airbag module cover. The remaining 12 drivers had fractures from the extremity being flung into interior vehicle structures, usually the instrument panel. Most drivers were taller than 170 cm and, of the 18 drivers, 10 were males.
Technical Paper

Upper Extremity Injuries Related to Air Bag Deployments

1994-03-01
940716
From our crash investigations of air bag equipped passenger cars, a subset of upper extremity injuries are presented that are related to air bag deployments. Minor hand, wrist or forearm injuries-contusions, abrasions, and sprains are not uncommonly reported. Infrequently, hand fractures have been sustained and, in isolated cases, fractures of the forearm bones or of the thumb and/or adjacent hand. The close proximity of the forearm or hand to the air bag module door is related to most of the fractures identified. Steering wheel air bag deployments can fling the hand-forearm into the instrument panel, rearview mirror or windshield as indicated by contact scuffs or tissue debris or the star burst (spider web) pattern of windshield breakage in front of the steering wheel.
Technical Paper

Car Crashes and Non-Head Impact Cervical Spine Injuries in Infants and Children

1992-02-01
920562
The effects of child safety seats have been well documented in the medical literature. Scattered throughout the medical literature are individual case reports of cervical injury to children restrained in child restraint systems. A review of the literature is provided identifying previous documented cases. The authors also provide new case details of children with cervical spine injury without head contact. An overview of the growth of the infant and specific details in the cervical spine that may contribute to significant cervical injury without head impact is presented.
Technical Paper

Non-Head Impact Cervical Spine Injuries in Frontal Car Crashes to Lap-Shoulder Belted Occupants

1992-02-01
920560
Crash injury reduction via lap-shoulder belt use has been well documented. As any interior car component, lap-shoulder belts may be related to injury in certain crashes. Relatively unknown is the fact that cervical fractures or fracture-dislocations to restrained front seat occupants where, in the crash, no head contact was evidenced by both medical records and car inspection. An extensive review of the available world's literature on car crash injuries revealed more than 100 such cases. A review of the NASS 80-88 was also conducted, revealing more examples. Cases from the author's own files are also detailed.
Technical Paper

Lower Extremity Injuries in Frontal Crashes: Injuries, Locations, AIS and Contacts

1991-02-01
910811
Frontal crashes (11-1 o'clock) were reviewed from the National Accident Severity Study file (NASS) for years 1980-87. Adult drivers and front right passengers, with lower extremity injuries of the pelvis, thigh, knee, leg or ankle/foot were reviewed. Analysis of age differences, injury contacts, and effectiveness of the 3-point restraint system were studied. Unrestrained drivers have a higher frequency of knee injuries than passengers, fewer leg injuries than passengers and both have the same frequency of ankle/foot injuries. Older unbelted drivers have more injuries to the pelvis, leg, and ankle/foot region than do young drivers. Passengers have more leg injuries. The instrument panel is the major contact for most of the lower extremity injuries. Lap/shoulder belts significantly reduce lower extremity injury frequency.
Technical Paper

Side Impacts to the Passenger Compartment — Clinical Studies from Field Accident Investigations

1989-02-01
890379
The side impact, recently and currently the subject to of much debate, controversy and proposed NHTSA rule making, is a difficult type of crash to significantly reduce serious injuries and fatalites. Results from real-world crash investigations presents a confusing picture for the near-side passenger compartment crash. A direct relationship between the amount of crush and injury severity levels (MAIS) is not apparent. Exemplar cases of tow-a-way/injury crashes are presented at all AIS injury level of drivers in crashes with direct driver door crush damage.
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