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Technical Paper

Methods for Laboratory Investigation of Airbag-Induced Thermal Skin Burns

1999-03-01
1999-01-1064
Two new techniques for investigating the thermal skin-burn potential of airbags are presented. A reduced-volume airbag test procedure has been developed to obtain airbag pressures that are representative of a dynamic ridedown event during a static deployment. Temperature and heat flux measurements made with this procedure can be used to predict airbag thermal burn potential. Measurements from the reduced-volume procedure are complemented by data obtained using two gas-jet simulators, called heatguns. Gas is vented in controlled bursts from a large, heated, pressurized tank of gas onto a target surface. Heat flux measurements on the target surface have been used to develop quantitative models of the relationships between gas jet characteristics and burn potential.
Technical Paper

Development of an Improved Airbag-Induced Thermal Skin Burn Model

1999-03-01
1999-01-1065
The UMTRI Airbag Skin Burn Model has been improved through laboratory testing and the implementation of a more flexible heat transfer model. A new impinging jet module based on laboratory measurements of heat flux due to high-velocity gas jets has been added, along with an implicit finite-difference skin conduction module. The new model can be used with airbag gas dynamics simulation outputs, or with heat flux data measured in the laboratory, to predict the potential for thermal skin burn due to exposure to airbag exhaust gas.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Investigations and Mathematical Modeling of Airbag-Induced Skin Burns

1994-11-01
942217
Although driver-side airbag systems provide protection against serious head and chest injuries in frontal impacts, injuries produced by the airbag itself have also been reported. Most of these injuries are relatively minor, and consist primarily of skin abrasions and burns. Previous investigations have addressed the mechanisms of airbag-induced skin abrasion. In the current research, laboratory studies related to the potential for thermal burns due to high-temperature airbag exhaust gas were conducted. A laboratory apparatus was constructed to produce a 10-mm-diameter jet of hot air that was directed onto the leg skin of human volunteers in time-controlled pulses. Skin burns were produced in 70 of 183 exposures conducted using air temperatures ranging from 350 to 550°C, air velocities from 50 to 90 m/s, and exposure durations from 50 to 300 ms.
Technical Paper

A Laboratory Technique for Assessing the Skin Abrasion Potential of Airbags

1993-03-01
930644
In recent investigations of airbag deployments, drivers h v c reported abrasions to the face, neck, and forearms due to deploying airbags, A study of the airbag design and deployments parameters affecting the incidence and severity of abrasions caused by driver-side airbags has led to the development of a laboratory test procedure to evaluate the potential of an airbag design m cause skin injury This report describes the procedure, which is based an static deployments of airbags into a cylindrical lest fixture. The target area is covered with a material that responds to abrasion-producing events in a manner related to human skin tolerance. Test results show excellent correlation with abrasion injuries produced by airbag deployments into the skin of human volunteers.
Technical Paper

Seated Posture of Vehicle Occupants

1983-10-17
831617
This paper describes the methodology and results from a project involving development of anthropometrically based design specifications for a family of advanced adult anthropomorphic dummies. Selection of family members and anthropometric criteria for subject sample selection were based on expected applications of the devices and on an analysis of U.S. population survey data. This resulted in collection of data for dummy sizes including a small female, a mid-sized male, and a large male. The three phases of data collection included: 1. in-vehicle measurements to determine seat track position and seating posture preferred by the subjects for use in development of laboratory seat bucks; 2. measurement of subject/seat interface contours for fabrication of an average hard seat surface for use in the buck; and 3. measurement of standard anthropometry, seated anthropometry (in the buck), and three-dimensional surface landmark coordinates using standard and photogrammetric techniques.
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