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Technical Paper

Comparison of Child Body Dimensions with Rear Seat Geometry

2006-04-03
2006-01-1142
Children who are too large for harness restraints but too small to obtain good restraint from a vehicle seatbelt alone should be seated in a belt-positioning booster. Boosters have been shown to significantly reduce abdominal injuries caused by seatbelts. This effectiveness may be due in part to the fact that boosters reduce the effective seat cushion length, allowing children to sit more comfortably without slouching. NHTSA recommends that children who do not use harness restraints use boosters until they are at least 145 cm tall. In this paper, data from several sources were combined to assess how well children fit on rear seat cushions. Data from NASS-GES were analyzed to determine the age distribution of rear-seat occupants. Anthropometric data from several sources were analyzed to determine the distribution of buttock-popliteal length, a measure of thigh length that is a key determinant of seat fit, as a function of age and gender.
Technical Paper

Modeling Population Distributions of Subjective Ratings

2001-06-26
2001-01-2122
Most human figure models used in ergonomic analyses present postural comfort ratings based on joint angles, and present a single comfort score for the whole body or on a joint-by-joint basis. The source data for these ratings is generally derived from laboratory studies that link posture to ratings. Lacking in many of these models is a thorough treatment of the distribution of ratings for the population of users. Information about ratings distributions is necessary to make cost-effective tradeoffs when design changes affect subjective responses. This paper presents experimental and analytic methods used to develop distribution models for incorporating subjective rating data in ergonomic assessments.
Technical Paper

Computer Synthesis of Light Truck Ride Using a PC Based Simulation Program

1999-05-17
1999-01-1796
An easy-to-use computer program for ride analysis was recently developed. The result of this effort-RideSim- predicts time history responses, power spectral density (PSD) functions, and a driver oriented measure of ride comfort. RideSim employs a graphical user interface (called SGUI, for simulation graphical user interface) to control data preparation, simulation execution, animation, and data analysis. The SGUI allows the user to operate the program by pointing and clicking with a mouse, rather than by using cumbersome text commands. It also manages the vehicle dynamics parameters, the resulting simulation output, and results of post-processing analyses (i.e., PSD analysis). The vehicle dynamics model was generated with the AUTOSIM multibody dynamics program. This program uses Kane’s Method and computer algebra to create a parametric dynamics simulation that can be easily linked to the SGUI.
Technical Paper

Distribution of Automobile Trip Durations for Studies of Seat Comfort

1996-02-01
960476
Data from the 1990 U.S. Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey were analyzed to determine the distribution of trip durations and sitting times for use in the design of automobile seat comfort studies. Two measures relating to the incidence and prevalence of long-term sitting were calculated and presented for the U.S. population and various subgroups. The information can be used to select an appropriate test duration for comfort studies. The subgroup data allow the test duration to be tailored for specific market segments.
Technical Paper

Some Effects of Lumbar Support Contour on Driver Seated Posture

1995-02-01
950141
An appropriately contoured lumbar support is widely regarded as an essential component of a comfortable auto seat. A frequently stated objective for a lumbar support is to maintain the sitter's lumbar spine in a slightly extended, or lordotic, posture. Although sitters have been observed to sit with substantial lordosis in some short-duration testing, long-term postural interaction with a lumbar support has not been documented quantitatively in the automotive environment. A laboratory study was conducted to investigate driver posture with three seatback contours. Subjects† from four anthropometric groups operated an interactive laboratory driving simulator for one-hour trials. Posture data were collected by means of a sonic digitizing system. The data identify driver-selected postures over time for three lumbar support contours. An increase of 25 mm in the lumbar support prominence from a flat contour did not substantially change lumbar spine posture.
Technical Paper

Rearward Vision, Driver Confidence, and Discomfort Glare Using an Electrochromic Rearview Mirror

1991-02-01
910822
Electrochromic rearview mirrors can provide continuous levels of reflectivity and unobtrusive, automatic control. The availability of this technology has increased the importance of understanding how to select the best level of reflectivity for a given set of lighting conditions. For night driving with glare from following headlights, the best reflectivity level will always depend on a tradeoff among several variables. This study was designed to help clarify what variables are important and how they should be quantified. Twenty subjects, 10 younger and 10 older, performed a number of visual tasks while viewing stimuli through an electrochromic rearview mirror. Subjects were seated in an automobile mockup in a laboratory, and the reflectivity level of the mirror was changed before each of a series of discrete trials. On each trial, subjects saw reflected in the mirror a visual-acuity stimulus and a glare source of varying intensity.
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