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Technical Paper

Integration of Active and Passive Safety Technologies - A Method to Study and Estimate Field Capability

2015-11-09
2015-22-0010
The objective of this study is to develop a method that uses a combination of field data analysis, naturalistic driving data analysis, and computational simulations to explore the potential injury reduction capabilities of integrating passive and active safety systems in frontal impact conditions. For the purposes of this study, the active safety system is actually a driver assist (DA) feature that has the potential to reduce delta-V prior to a crash, in frontal or other crash scenarios. A field data analysis was first conducted to estimate the delta-V distribution change based on an assumption of 20% crash avoidance resulting from a pre-crash braking DA feature. Analysis of changes in driver head location during 470 hard braking events in a naturalistic driving study found that drivers’ head positions were mostly in the center position before the braking onset, while the percentage of time drivers leaning forward or backward increased significantly after the braking onset.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Considerations for Assessing Interactions of Children and Small Occupants with Inflatable Seat Belts

2013-11-11
2013-22-0004
NHTSA estimates that more than half of the lives saved (168,524) in car crashes between 1960 and 2002 were due to the use of seat belts. Nevertheless, while seat belts are vital to occupant crash protection, safety researchers continue efforts to further enhance the capability of seat belts in reducing injury and fatality risk in automotive crashes. Examples of seat belt design concepts that have been investigated by researchers include inflatable, 4-point, and reverse geometry seat belts. In 2011, Ford Motor Company introduced the first rear seat inflatable seat belts into production vehicles. A series of tests with child and small female-sized Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and small, elderly female Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) was performed to evaluate interactions of prototype inflatable seat belts with the chest, upper torso, head and neck of children and small occupants, from infants to young adolescents.
Technical Paper

Interactions of Out-of-Position Small-Female Surrogates with a Depowered Driver Airbag

2008-11-03
2008-22-0008
The objectives of this study were to examine the response, repeatability, and injury predictive ability of the Hybrid III small-female dummy to static out-of-position (OOP) deployments using a depowered driver-side airbag. Five dummy tests were conducted in two OOP configurations by two different laboratories. The OOP configurations were nose-on-rim (NOR) and chest-on-bag (COB). Four cadaver tests were conducted using unembalmed small-female cadavers and the same airbags used in the dummy tests under similar OOP conditions. One cadaver test was designed to increase airbag loading of the face and neck (a forehead-on-rim, or FOR test). Comparison between the dummy tests of Lab 1 and of Lab 2 indicated the test conditions and results were repeatable. In the cadaver tests no skull fractures or neck injuries occurred. However, all four cadavers had multiple rib fractures.
Technical Paper

Development of ATD Installation Procedures Based on Rear-Seat Occupant Postures

2005-11-09
2005-22-0018
The initial positioning of anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) can influence the outcomes of crash tests. Current procedures for positioning ATDs in rear seats are not based on systematic studies of passenger postures. This paper compares the postures of three side-impact ATDs to the postures of 24 men and women in three vehicle rear seats and 16 laboratory conditions. When positioned using current procedures, the locations of the ES-2 and SID-HIII ATD heads are generally rearward of those observed with similar-size passengers. The SID-IIs head locations matched the expected locations of heads of passengers of similar size more closely. As the seat back angle was increased, people reclined less than the ATDs. Based on these findings, a new ATD positioning procedure for rear seats was developed. The primary objective of the new procedure is to place the ATD head in the location that is most likely for people of similar size.
Technical Paper

Cervical Spine Geometry in the Automotive Seated Posture: Variations with Age, Stature, and Gender

2004-11-01
2004-22-0014
In the mid 1970s, UMTRI investigated the biomechanical properties of the head and neck using 180 “normal” adult subjects selected to fill eighteen subject groups based on age (young, mid-aged, older), gender, and stature (short, medium, and tall by gender). Lateral-view radiographs of the subjects’ cervical spines and heads were taken with the subjects seated in a simulated automotive neutral posture, as well as with their necks in full-voluntary flexion and full-voluntary extension. Although the cervical spine and lower head geometry were previously measured manually and documented, new technologies have enabled computer digitization of the scanned x-ray images and a more comprehensive and detailed analysis of the variation in cervical spine and lower head geometry with subject age, stature, and gender. After scanning the radiographic images, 108 skeletal landmarks on the cervical vertebrae and 10 head landmarks were digitized.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Occupant Restraints Based on Injury-Producing Contact Rates

1994-11-01
942219
The objective of this analysis is to evaluate the effectiveness of restraints in preventing injury-producing contacts of specific body regions, such as the head or chest, with specific interior components. In order to make comparisons by restraint use, an injury rate is calculated as the number of injury-producing contacts per hundred involved occupants. Data, including the Occupant Injury Classification (OIC), are from the 1988-92 National Accident Sampling System (NASS) Crashworthiness Data System (CDS). The analysis presented is limited to passenger vehicle drivers in towaway, frontal impacts. Injury-producing contact rates are compared for four restraint configurations: unrestrained, three-point belted, driver airbag alone, and driver airbag plus three-point belt. For each restraint configuration, contact rates are compared by three categories of injury severity, AIS 1, AIS 2, and AIS 3-6, body region injured, and contact area producing the injury.
Technical Paper

A Laboratory Technique for Assessing the Skin Abrasion Potential of Airbags

1993-03-01
930644
In recent investigations of airbag deployments, drivers h v c reported abrasions to the face, neck, and forearms due to deploying airbags, A study of the airbag design and deployments parameters affecting the incidence and severity of abrasions caused by driver-side airbags has led to the development of a laboratory test procedure to evaluate the potential of an airbag design m cause skin injury This report describes the procedure, which is based an static deployments of airbags into a cylindrical lest fixture. The target area is covered with a material that responds to abrasion-producing events in a manner related to human skin tolerance. Test results show excellent correlation with abrasion injuries produced by airbag deployments into the skin of human volunteers.
Technical Paper

UMTRI Experimental Techniques in Head Injury Research

1985-06-01
851244
This paper discusses techniques developed and used by the Biosciences Group at the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) for measuring three-dimensional head motion, skull bone strain, epidural pressure, and internal brain motion of repressurized cadavers and Rhesus monkeys during head impact. In the experimental design, a stationary test subject is struck by a guided moving impactor of 10 kg (monkeys) and 25 or 65 kg (cadavers). The impactor striking surface is fitted with padding to vary the contact force-time characteristics. The experimental technique uses a nine-accelerometer system rigidly affixed to the skull to measure head motion, transducers placed at specific points below the skull to record epidural pressure, repressurization of both the vascular and cerebrospinal systems, and high-speed cineradiography (at 1000 frames per second) of radiopaque targets.
Technical Paper

Cervical Spine Injury Mechanisms

1983-10-17
831616
A test series using eight unembalmed cadavers was conducted to investigate factors affecting the creation of cervical spine damage from impact to the crown of the head. The crown impact was accomplished by a free-fall drop of the test subject onto a load plate. The load plate striking surface was covered with padding to vary the contact force time characteristics. The orientations of the head, cervical spine, and torso were adjusted relative to a laboratory coordinate system to investigate the effects of head and spinal configuration on the damage patterns. Load and acceleration data are presented as a function of time and as a function of frequency in the form of mechanical impedance.
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