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Journal Article

Modeling Forming Limit in Low Stress Triaxiality and Predicting Stretching Failure in Draw Simulation by an Improved Ductile Failure Criterion

2018-04-03
2018-01-0801
A ductile failure criterion (DFC), which defines the stretching failure at localized necking (LN) and treats the critical damage as a function of strain path and initial sheet thickness, was proposed in a previous study. In this study, the DFC is revisited to extend the model to the low stress triaxiality domain and demonstrates on modeling forming limit curve (FLC) of TRIP 690. Then, the model is used to predict stretching failure in a finite element method (FEM) simulation on a TRIP 690 steel rectangular cup draw process at room temperature. Comparison shows that the results from this criterion match quite well with experimental observations.
Technical Paper

Paint Bake Influence on AA7075 and AA7085

2017-03-28
2017-01-1265
The typical paint bake cycle includes multiple ramps and dwells of temperature through e-coat, paint, and clear coat with exposure equivalent to approximately 190°C for up to 60 minutes. 7xxx-series aluminum alloys are heat treatable, additional thermal exposure such as a paint bake cycle could alter the material properties. Therefore, this study investigates the response of three 7xxx-series aluminum alloys with respect to conductivity, hardness, and yield strength when exposed to three oven curing cycles of a typical automotive paint operation. The results have indicated that alloy composition and artificial aging practice influence the material response to the various paint bake cycles.
Technical Paper

Synchronous Motor with Silicon Steel Salient Poles Rotor and All Coils Placed on the Stator

2017-03-28
2017-01-1606
In this paper, we consider a new design of synchronous motor with salient poles rotor and all coils placed on the stator. This design, uses a laminated silicon steel rotor, which is not so expensive as a rotor with super strong permanent magnets. This design of machine eliminates copper rings on the rotor and brushes which is used in regular synchronous motors, and eliminates disadvantages involved with these arrangements. In an earlier publication, authors considered the opportunity realization of synchronous mode operation in the machine with salient pole rotor and DC stator excitation. Now, we consider the new synchronous mode operation with individual DC excitation of each the alternative current (AC) windings for realization the first, second and third phase synchronous machines. In theoretical basics of analyses and design of synchronous motors we pay more attention to the single-phase motor because it is the basis for design polyphase synchronous machines.
Technical Paper

A Structural Stress Recovery Procedure for Fatigue Life Assessment of Welded Structures

2017-03-28
2017-01-0343
Over the decades, several attempts have been made to develop new fatigue analysis methods for welded joints since most of the incidents in automotive structures are joints related. Therefore, a reliable and effective fatigue damage parameter is needed to properly predict the failure location and fatigue life of these welded structures to reduce the hardware testing, time, and the associated cost. The nodal force-based structural stress approach is becoming widely used in fatigue life assessment of welded structures. In this paper, a new nodal force-based structural stress recovery procedure is proposed that uses the least squares method to linearly smooth the stresses in elements along the weld line. Weight function is introduced to give flexibility in choosing different weighting schemes between elements. Two typical weighting schemes are discussed and compared.
Technical Paper

Predicting Forming Limit Curve Using a New Ductile Failure Criterion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0312
Based on findings from micromechanical studies, a Ductile Failure Criterion (DFC) was proposed. The proposed DFC treats localized necking as failure and critical damage as a function of strain path and initial sheet thickness. Under linear strain path assumption, a method to predict Forming Limit Curve (FLC) is derived from this DFC. With the help of predetermined effect functions, the method only needs a calibration at uniaxial tension. The approach was validated by predicting FLCs for sixteen different aluminum and steel sheet metal materials. Comparison shows that the prediction matches quite well with experimental observations in most cases.
Technical Paper

The Multiobjective Optimal Design Problems and their Pareto Optimal Fronts for Li-Ion Battery Cells

2016-04-05
2016-01-1199
This paper begins with a baseline multi-objective optimization problem for the lithium-ion battery cell. Maximizing the energy per unit separator area and minimizing the mass per unit separator area are considered as the objectives when the thickness and the porosity of the positive electrode are chosen as design variables in the baseline problem. By employing a reaction zone model of a Graphite/Iron Phosphate Lithium-ion Cell and the Genetic Algorithm, it is shown the shape of the Pareto optimal front for the formulated optimization takes a convex form. The identified shape of the Pareto optimal front is expected to guide Design of Experiments (DOE) and product design. Compared with the conventional studies whose optimizations are based on a single objective of maximizing the specific energy, the proposed multi-objective optimization approach offers more flexibility to the product designers when trade-off between conflicting objectives is required.
Technical Paper

Effect of Biodiesel on the Tensile Properties of Nylon-6

2012-04-16
2012-01-0752
With increasing use of biofuels in the automotive industry, it has become necessary to evaluate their effects on the properties of polymers used in the fuel delivery systems. In this study, we have considered the effect of biodiesel on the tensile properties of nylon-6, 30% E-glass fiber reinforced nylon-6 and impact-modified nylon-6. The tensile specimens were immersed in 100% biodiesel for up to 7 days before determining their tensile properties. Another set of specimens were immersed in 100% biodiesel under stressed condition and then their tensile properties were determined. The absorption of biodiesel and their effects on tensile modulus, tensile strength and failure strain are reported in this paper.
Journal Article

Effect of Temperature Variation on Stresses in Adhesive Joints between Magnesium and Steel

2012-04-16
2012-01-0771
This study considers the thermal stresses in single lap adhesive joints between magnesium and steel. The source of thermal stresses is the large difference in the coefficients of thermal expansion of magnesium and steel. Two different temperature differentials from the ambient conditions (23°C) were considered, namely -30°C and +50°C. Thermal stresses were determined using finite element analysis. In addition to Mg-steel substrate combination, Mg-Mg and steel-steel combinations were also studied. Combined effect of temperature variation and applied load was also explored. It was observed that temperature increase or decrease can cause significant thermal stresses in the adhesive layer and thermal stress distribution in the adhesive layer depends on the substrate combination and the applied load.
Technical Paper

Application of Fatigue Life Prediction Methods for GMAW Joints in Vehicle Structures and Frames

2011-04-12
2011-01-0192
In the North American automotive industry, various advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are used to lighten vehicle structures, improve safety performance and fuel economy, and reduce harmful emissions. Relatively thick gages of AHSS are commonly joined to conventional high strength steels and/or mild steels using Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) in the current generation body-in-white structures. Additionally, fatigue failures are most likely to occur at joints subjected to a variety of different loadings. It is therefore critical that automotive engineers need to understand the fatigue characteristics of welded joints. The Sheet Steel Fatigue Committee of the Auto/Steel Partnership (A/S-P) completed a comprehensive fatigue study on GMAW joints of both AHSS and conventional sheet steels including: DP590 GA, SAE 1008, HSLA HR 420, DP 600 HR, Boron, DQSK, TRIP 780 GI, and DP780 GI steels.
Technical Paper

Effect of Surface Pretreatments on Adhesive Bonding and Corrosion Resistance of AM60B, AZ31-H24, and AM30 Magnesium

2009-04-20
2009-01-0037
This study reports the performance of three different automotive magnesium substrate materials (AM60B diecastings, AZ31-H24 sheet, and AM30 extrusions), each bonded to a common aluminum reference material with two different toughened adhesives. The magnesium substrates were pretreated with six different commercial pretreatments both with and without a final fused-powder polymeric topcoat. These samples were then evaluated by comparing initial lap-shear strength to the lap-shear strength after cyclic-corrosion testing. Additionally, use of a scribe through the polymer primer permitted assessment of: 1) distance of corrosion undercutting from the scribe (filiform), and 2) percent corrosion over the area of the coupon. The results showed that the performance of each magnesium pretreatment varied on cast AM60B, sheet AZ31-H24, and extruded AM30 substrates.
Technical Paper

Spot Friction Welding of Mg-Mg, Al-Al and Mg-Al Alloys

2008-04-14
2008-01-0144
Spot friction welding is considered a cost-effective method for joining lightweight automotive alloys, such as magnesium and aluminum alloys. An experimental study was conducted to investigate the strength of spot friction welded joints of magnesium to magnesium, aluminum to aluminum, magnesium to aluminum and aluminum to magnesium. The joint structures and failure modes were also studied.
Journal Article

Analysis of Trimming Processes for Advanced High Strength Steels

2008-04-14
2008-01-1446
Current die design recommendations attempt to limit the production of burrs through accurate alignment of the upper and lower edges. For common automotive exterior sheet, this translates to a gap less than 0.06mm. Unfortunately, the tolerances required by such standards often exceed the capabilities of many trim dies. The objective of the research described in this paper is to study the mechanisms of burrs generation and their impact on AHSS formability in stretch flanging. Experimental results on influence of trimming conditions on the shape of the sheared surface will be combined with the results of stretching strips after trimming.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Response of Composite Reinforced Aluminum Foam Sandwich Systems for Automotive Structures

2007-04-16
2007-01-1722
This paper presents the design and manufacture a sandwich structure bumper beam that could withstand at least the same load required to have plastic deformation in a 2002 Jeep Wrangler bumper beam at a lower weight. The dimensions from a bumper beam were scaled down in order to match the limiting length of the sandwich structure specimens. Theoretical optimization calculations were conducted in order to find the optimal dimensions and face thicknesses for the hybrid structures. Sandwich panels were based on Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene (Twintex) and an Aluminum foam core (Alporas). Three point bending tests were performed on the sandwich structures. The resulting failure modes were revealed and found to be in agreement with those offered by the analytical predictions.
Technical Paper

Prestrain Effect on Fatigue of DP600 Sheet Steel

2007-04-16
2007-01-0995
The component being formed experiences some type of prestrain that may have an effect on its fatigue strength. This study investigated the forming effects on material fatigue strength of dual phase sheet steel (DP600) subjected to various uniaxial prestrains. In the as-received condition, DP600 specimens were tested for tensile properties to determine the prestraining level based on the uniform elongation corresponding to the maximum strength of DP600 on the stress-strain curve. Three different levels of prestrain at 90%, 70% and 50% of the uniform elongation were applied to uniaxial prestrain specimens for tensile tests and fatigue tests. Fatigue tests were conducted with strain controlled to obtain fatigue properties and compare them with the as-received DP600. The fatigue test results were presented with strain amplitude and Neuber's factor.
Technical Paper

Formability Analysis of Thermoplastic Lightweight Fiber-Metal Laminates

2006-04-03
2006-01-0118
This study investigates numerically and experimentally the formability of two Fiber-Metal Laminate systems based on a thermoplastic self-reinforced polypropylene and a glass fiber polypropylene composite materials. These hybrid systems consist of layered arrangements of aluminum 2024-T3 sheets and thermoplastic-based composite materials. Flat panels were manufactured using a fast one step cold press manufacturing procedure. Punch-stretch forming tests and numerical simulations were performed in order to evaluate the formability of the hybrid systems. Experimental and simulation results revealed that the self reinforced thermoplastic composite-based Fiber-Metal Laminate exhibit excellent forming properties similar to that of the monolithic aluminum alloy of comparable thickness.
Technical Paper

Interfacial Fracture in Environmentally Friendly Thermoplastic Composite-Metal Laminates

2006-04-03
2006-01-0117
This paper investigates the interfacial fracture properties of composite-metal laminates by using the single-cantilever beam testing technique. The hybrid systems consisted of a layer of aluminum alloy (6061 or 2024-T3) bonded to polypropylene based composites. In this study, two non-chromate surface treatments were applied to the aluminum substrates: SafeGard CC-300 Chrome free seal (from Sanchem Inc.) and TCP-HF (from Metalast International Inc.). These are environmentally friendly surface treatments that enhance the adhesion and corrosion resistance of aluminum alloys. Flat hybrid panels were manufactured using a one step cold press manufacturing procedure. Single cantilever bend specimens were cut from the panels and tested at 1mm/min. Results have shown that the CC-300 treated Al 2024-T3 alloy and Twintex exhibited higher interfacial fracture energy values.
Technical Paper

Aqueous Corrosion of Experimental Creep-Resistant Magnesium Alloys

2006-04-03
2006-01-0257
This paper presents a comparison of aqueous corrosion rates in 5% NaCl solution for eight experimental creep-resistant magnesium alloys considered for automotive powertrain applications, as well as three reference alloys (pure magnesium, AM50B and AZ91D). The corrosion rates were measured using the techniques of titration, weight loss, hydrogen evolution, and DC polarization. The corrosion rates measured by these techniques are compared with each other as well as with those obtained with salt-spray testing using ASTM B117. The advantages and disadvantages of the various corrosion measurement techniques are discussed.
Technical Paper

Formability of Ti-TWBs at Elevated Temperatures

2006-04-03
2006-01-0353
In this paper, the formability of Ti-TWBs at different elevated temperatures is experimentally investigated. Ti-TWBs made of Ti-6Al-4V sheets with thicknesses of 0.7mm and 1.0mm are manufactured. Then, the tensile test and forming test at elevated temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 600°C, have been carried out to determine the mechanical properties and the formability of the prepared Ti-TWBs respectively. The effects of elevated temperatures on both the forming and failure behaviors of the Ti-TWBs are examined by comparing with that of the Ti-6Al-4V base metal. It is found that the formability of the Ti-TWBs at room temperature with a dissimilar thickness combination is lower than that of their base metal, whilst the formability of both the Ti-TWBs and their base metal increases with increasing forming temperature. In addition, failures have often been found at the thinner base metal during the Ti-TWB forming, provided that the quality weld is attained without defect.
Technical Paper

Cost-Benefit Analysis of Thermoplastic Matrix Composites for Structural Automotive Applications

2002-06-03
2002-01-1891
This paper presents cost-benefit analysis of glass and carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic matrix composites for structural automotive applications based on press forming operation. Press forming is very similar to stamping operation for steel. The structural automotive applications involve beam type components. The part selected for a case study analysis is a crossbeam support for instrument panels.
Technical Paper

LS-DYNA3D Simulation of Sheet Metal Forming using Damage Based User Subroutine

2001-03-05
2001-01-1129
LS-DYNA3D has been widely used to perform computer simulation of sheet metal forming. In the material library of LS-DYNA3D there are a number of user defined material models. In order to take full advantage of the material subroutines, it is important for the users to be able to display user defined history variables in the post processing and to establish user-defined failure criterion. In this report, the development of a damage coupled plastic model is firstly described. The damage model is then programmed in a user defined material subroutine. This is followed by performing finite element simulation of sheet metal forming with the LS-DYNA3D that has incorporated the damage coupled plastic model. The way to display the user defined history variables and how to deal with the failure criterion during the postprocessing of ETA/DYNAFORM are described. History variable distributions at several time steps are displayed and discussed in this paper.
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