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Technical Paper

Driver Workload in an Autonomous Vehicle

2019-04-02
2019-01-0872
As intelligent automated vehicle technologies evolve, there is a greater need to understand and define the role of the human user, whether completely hands-off (L5) or partly hands-on. At all levels of automation, the human occupant may feel anxious or ill-at-ease. This may reflect as higher stress/workload. The study in this paper further refines how perceived workload may be determined based on occupant physiological measures. Because of great variation in individual personalities, age, driving experiences, gender, etc., a generic model applicable to all could not be developed. Rather, individual workload models that used physiological and vehicle measures were developed.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Optimization of Seat and Suspension Parameters for Occupant Ride Comfort in a Passenger Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-1404
This study presents a methodology for comparative analysis of seat and suspension parameters on a system level to achieve minimum occupant head displacement and acceleration, thereby improving occupant ride comfort. A lumped-parameter full-vehicle ride model with seat structures, seat cushions and five occupants has been used. Two different vehicle masses are considered. A low amplitude pulse signal is provided as the road disturbance input. The peak vertical displacement and acceleration of the occupant’s head due to the road disturbance are determined and used as measures of ride comfort. Using a design of experiments approach, the most critical seat cushion, seat structure and suspension parameters and their interactions affecting the occupant head displacement and acceleration are determined. An optimum combination of parameters to achieve minimum peak vertical displacement and acceleration of the occupant’s head is identified using a response surface methodology.
Technical Paper

Corrosion-Fatigue Modeling and Materials Performance Ranking

2018-04-03
2018-01-1409
Corrosion-fatigue (CF) and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) have long been recognized as the major degradation and failure mechanisms of engineering materials under combined mechanical loading and corrosive environments. How to model and characterize these failure phenomena and how to screen, rank, and select materials in corrosion-fatigue and stress corrosion cracking resistance is a significant challenge in the automotive industry and many engineering applications. In this paper, the mathematical structure of a superposition-theory based corrosion-fatigue model is investigated and possible closed-form and approximate solutions are sought. Based on the model and the associated solutions and test results, screening and ranking of the materials in fatigue, corrosion-fatigue are discussed.
Technical Paper

Warpage Prediction on Injection Molded Semi-Crystalline Thermoplastics

2018-04-03
2018-01-0149
Warpage is the distortion induced by inhomogeneous shrinkage during injection molding of plastic parts. Uncontrolled warpage will result in dimensional instability and bring a lot of challenges to the mold design and part assembly. Current commercial simulation software for injection molding cannot provide consistently accurate warpage prediction, especially for semi-crystalline thermoplastics. In this study, the root cause of inconsistency in warpage prediction has been investigated by using injection molded polypropylene plaques with a wide range of process conditions. The warpage of injection molded plaques are measured and compared to the numerical predictions from Moldex3D. The study shows that with considering cooling rate effect on crystallization kinetics and using of the improved material model for residual stress calculations, good agreements are obtained between experiment and simulation results.
Journal Article

Modeling Forming Limit in Low Stress Triaxiality and Predicting Stretching Failure in Draw Simulation by an Improved Ductile Failure Criterion

2018-04-03
2018-01-0801
A ductile failure criterion (DFC), which defines the stretching failure at localized necking (LN) and treats the critical damage as a function of strain path and initial sheet thickness, was proposed in a previous study. In this study, the DFC is revisited to extend the model to the low stress triaxiality domain and demonstrates on modeling forming limit curve (FLC) of TRIP 690. Then, the model is used to predict stretching failure in a finite element method (FEM) simulation on a TRIP 690 steel rectangular cup draw process at room temperature. Comparison shows that the results from this criterion match quite well with experimental observations.
Technical Paper

Integrated Brake Squeal with Induced Thermal Stress Analysis

2017-06-05
2017-01-1900
Brake squeal is an instability issue with many parameters. This study attempts to assess the effect of thermal load on brake squeal behavior through finite element computation. The research can be divided into two parts. The first step is to analyze the thermal conditions of a brake assembly based on ANSYS Fluent. Modeling of transient temperature and thermal-structural analysis are then used in coupled thermal-mechanical analysis using complex eigenvalue methods in ANSYS Mechanical to determine the deformation and the stress established in both the disk and the pad. Thus, the influence of thermal load may be observed when using finite element methods for prediction of brake squeal propensity. A detailed finite element model of a commercial brake disc was developed and verified by experimental modal analysis and structure free-free modal analysis.
Technical Paper

Paint Bake Influence on AA7075 and AA7085

2017-03-28
2017-01-1265
The typical paint bake cycle includes multiple ramps and dwells of temperature through e-coat, paint, and clear coat with exposure equivalent to approximately 190°C for up to 60 minutes. 7xxx-series aluminum alloys are heat treatable, additional thermal exposure such as a paint bake cycle could alter the material properties. Therefore, this study investigates the response of three 7xxx-series aluminum alloys with respect to conductivity, hardness, and yield strength when exposed to three oven curing cycles of a typical automotive paint operation. The results have indicated that alloy composition and artificial aging practice influence the material response to the various paint bake cycles.
Technical Paper

Development of Lightweight Hanger Rods for Vehicle Exhaust Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-1709
Recent stringent government regulations on emission control and fuel economy drive the vehicles and their associated components and systems to the direction of lighter weight. However, the achieved lightweight must not be obtained by sacrificing other important performance requirements such as manufacturability, strength, durability, reliability, safety, noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). Additionally, cost is always a dominating factor in the lightweight design of automotive products. Therefore, a successful lightweight design can only be accomplished by better understanding the performance requirements, the potentials and limitations of the designed products, and by balancing many conflicting design parameters. The combined knowledge-based design optimization procedures and, inevitably, some trial-and-error design iterations are the practical approaches that should be adopted in the lightweight design for the automotive applications.
Technical Paper

A Modular Designed Three-phase ~98%-Efficiency 5kW/L On-board Fast Charger for Electric Vehicles Using Paralleled E-mode GaN HEMTs

2017-03-28
2017-01-1697
Most of the present electric vehicle (EV) on-board chargers utilize a conventional design, i.e., a boost-type Power Factor Correction (PFC) controller followed by an isolated DC/DC converter. Such design usually yields a ~94% wall-to-battery efficiency and 2~3kW/L power density at most, which makes a high-power charger, e.g., 20kW module difficult to fit in the vehicle. As described in this paper, first, an E-mode GaN HEMT based 7.2kW single-phase charger was built. Connecting three such modules to the three-phase grid allows a three-phase >20kW charger to be built, which compared to the conventional three-phase charger, saves the bulky DC-bus capacitor by using the indirect matrix converter topology. To push the efficiency and power density to the limit, comprehensive optimization is processed to optimize the single-phase module through incorporating the GaN HEMT switching performance and securing its zero-voltage switching.
Technical Paper

Predicting Forming Limit Curve Using a New Ductile Failure Criterion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0312
Based on findings from micromechanical studies, a Ductile Failure Criterion (DFC) was proposed. The proposed DFC treats localized necking as failure and critical damage as a function of strain path and initial sheet thickness. Under linear strain path assumption, a method to predict Forming Limit Curve (FLC) is derived from this DFC. With the help of predetermined effect functions, the method only needs a calibration at uniaxial tension. The approach was validated by predicting FLCs for sixteen different aluminum and steel sheet metal materials. Comparison shows that the prediction matches quite well with experimental observations in most cases.
Technical Paper

A Structural Stress Recovery Procedure for Fatigue Life Assessment of Welded Structures

2017-03-28
2017-01-0343
Over the decades, several attempts have been made to develop new fatigue analysis methods for welded joints since most of the incidents in automotive structures are joints related. Therefore, a reliable and effective fatigue damage parameter is needed to properly predict the failure location and fatigue life of these welded structures to reduce the hardware testing, time, and the associated cost. The nodal force-based structural stress approach is becoming widely used in fatigue life assessment of welded structures. In this paper, a new nodal force-based structural stress recovery procedure is proposed that uses the least squares method to linearly smooth the stresses in elements along the weld line. Weight function is introduced to give flexibility in choosing different weighting schemes between elements. Two typical weighting schemes are discussed and compared.
Technical Paper

Secure and Privacy-Preserving Data Collection Mechanisms for Connected Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1660
Nowadays, the automotive industry is experiencing the advent of unprecedented applications with connected devices, such as identifying safe users for insurance companies or assessing vehicle health. To enable such applications, driving behavior data are collected from vehicles and provided to third parties (e.g., insurance firms, car sharing businesses, healthcare providers). In the new wave of IoT (Internet of Things), driving statistics and users’ data generated from wearable devices can be exploited to better assess driving behaviors and construct driver models. We propose a framework for securely collecting data from multiple sources (e.g., vehicles and brought-in devices) and integrating them in the cloud to enable next-generation services with guaranteed user privacy protection.
Technical Paper

Evaluating the Effect of Two-Stage Turbocharger Configurations on the Perceived Vehicle Acceleration Using Numerical Simulation

2016-04-05
2016-01-1029
Charge boosting strategy plays an essential role in improving the power density of diesel engines while meeting stringent emissions regulations. In downsized two-stage turbocharged engines, turbocharger matching is critical to achieve desired boost pressure while maintaining sufficiently fast transient response. A numerical simulation model is developed to evaluate the effect of two-stage turbocharger configurations on the perceived vehicle acceleration. The simulation model developed in GT-SUITE consists of engine, drivetrain, and vehicle dynamics sub-models. A model-based turbocharger control logic is developed in MATLAB using an analytical compressor model and a mean-value engine model. The components of the two-stage turbocharging system evaluated in this study include a variable geometry turbine in the high-pressure stage, a compressor bypass valve in the low-pressure stage and an electrically assisted turbocharger in the low-pressure stage.
Journal Article

Measurement and Modeling of Perceived Gear Shift Quality for Automatic Transmission Vehicles

2014-05-09
2014-01-9125
This study was conducted to develop and validate a multidimensional measure of shift quality as perceived by drivers during kick-down shift events for automatic transmission vehicles. As part of the first study, a survey was conducted among common drivers to identify primary factors used to describe subjective gear-shifting qualities. A factor analysis on the survey data revealed four semantic subdimensions. These subdimensions include responsiveness, smoothness, unperceivable, and strength. Based on the four descriptive terms, a measure with semantic scales on each subdimension was developed and used in an experiment as the second study. Twelve participants drove and evaluated five vehicles with different gear shifting patterns. Participants were asked to make kick-down events with two different driving intentions (mild vs. sporty) across three different speeds on actual roadway (local streets and highway).
Technical Paper

Simulating an Integrated Business Environment that Supports Systems Integration

2010-10-19
2010-01-2305
This paper describes the design and application of a business simulation to help train employees about the new business model and culture that for an automotive supplier company that designs connected vehicle and other advanced electronic products for the automotive industry. The simulation, called SIM-i-TRI, is a three to four day collaborative learning activity that simulates the executive, administrative, engineering, manufacturing, and marketing functions in three divisions of a manufacturer that supplies parts and systems to customers in industries similar to the automotive industry. It was originally designed to support the new employee orientation at the Tier 1 supplier and to provide the participants a safe environment to practice the lessons from the orientation. The simulation has been used several times a month in the US, England, and Germany for over four years.
Technical Paper

Effect of Surface Pretreatments on Adhesive Bonding and Corrosion Resistance of AM60B, AZ31-H24, and AM30 Magnesium

2009-04-20
2009-01-0037
This study reports the performance of three different automotive magnesium substrate materials (AM60B diecastings, AZ31-H24 sheet, and AM30 extrusions), each bonded to a common aluminum reference material with two different toughened adhesives. The magnesium substrates were pretreated with six different commercial pretreatments both with and without a final fused-powder polymeric topcoat. These samples were then evaluated by comparing initial lap-shear strength to the lap-shear strength after cyclic-corrosion testing. Additionally, use of a scribe through the polymer primer permitted assessment of: 1) distance of corrosion undercutting from the scribe (filiform), and 2) percent corrosion over the area of the coupon. The results showed that the performance of each magnesium pretreatment varied on cast AM60B, sheet AZ31-H24, and extruded AM30 substrates.
Technical Paper

The Electric Drive of a Tram with an Average Floor

2008-06-23
2008-01-1828
The urban trams with a low floor are more convenient for the passengers, and with a high floor - more cheaply and more technologically during manufacturing and operation. The combined advantages those and others in themselves are trams with average height of a floor, but for this purpose it is necessary to lower height of tram carriages, that is reached by application of electric motors with a small stator external diameter. It is offered in this the perspective electric drive on the base of the synchronous motor with independent excitation. The salient rotor poles of the motor do not contain windings. The motors stator is carried out on the base of the stator body of regular AC electric motor. The multiphase winding is located in the stator. A winding section, which conductors settle down above the between rotor poles, carry out a role of the excitation winding, and others, which conductors lay above poles, - a role of the armature winding.
Technical Paper

PEM Fuel Cell Stack Characterization and its Integration in Simulating a Fuel Cell Powertrain

2008-06-23
2008-01-1796
Fuel cell based powertrains are considered as potential candidates for future vehicles. Modeling of vehicle powertrains, using a combination of components and energy storage media, are widely used to predict vehicle performances under different duty cycles. This paper deals with performance analysis of a light-duty vehicle comprised of a PEM fuel cell stack, in combination with different energy storage systems using Powertrain Simulation Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). The performance of the stack was characterized by experimental data on a smaller PEM stack and was used in the simulation. The stack data was collected at controlled loading and thermal parameters. Three energy storage systems are considered in the analysis: nickel metal hydride battery storage, lithium-ion battery storage and ultra capacitor energy storage. The simulation results were analyzed for comparative evaluations and to optimize the performance of the fuel cell powertrain configurations.
Technical Paper

Spot Friction Welding of Mg-Mg, Al-Al and Mg-Al Alloys

2008-04-14
2008-01-0144
Spot friction welding is considered a cost-effective method for joining lightweight automotive alloys, such as magnesium and aluminum alloys. An experimental study was conducted to investigate the strength of spot friction welded joints of magnesium to magnesium, aluminum to aluminum, magnesium to aluminum and aluminum to magnesium. The joint structures and failure modes were also studied.
Technical Paper

A Value Analysis Tool for Automotive Interior Door Trim Panel Materials and Process Selection

2007-04-16
2007-01-0453
This paper describes a computerized value analysis tool (VAT) developed to aid automotive interior designers, engineers and planners to achieve the high levels of perceived quality of materials used in automotive door trim panels. The model requires a number of inputs related to types of materials, their manufacturing processes and customer perceived quality ratings, costs and importance of materials, features located in different areas of the door trim panel, etc. It allows the user to conduct iterative evaluation of total cost, total weighted customer perceived quality ratings, and estimates of perceived value (perceived quality divided by cost) for different door trim areas as well as the entire door trim panel. The VAT, thus, allows value and cost management related to materials and processing choices for automotive interiors.
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