Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

Demonstration of Single-Fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Using Reformed Exhaust Gas Recirculation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0262
A key challenge for the practical introduction of dual-fuel reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) combustion modes in diesel engines is the requirement to store two fuels on-board. This work demonstrates that partially reforming diesel fuel into less reactive products is a promising method to allow RCCI to be implemented with a single stored fuel. Experiments were conducted using a thermally integrated reforming reactor in a reformed exhaust gas recirculation (R-EGR) configuration to achieve RCCI combustion using a light-duty diesel engine. The engine was operated at a low engine load and two reformed fuel percentages over ranges of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rate and main diesel fuel injection timing. Results show that RCCI-like emissions of NOx and soot were achieved load using the R-EGR configuration. It was also shown that complete fuel conversion in the reforming reactor is not necessary to achieve sufficiently low fuel reactivity for RCCI combustion.
Technical Paper

Exploration of Dual Fuel Diesel Engine Operation with On-Board Fuel Reforming

2017-03-28
2017-01-0757
Many dual fuel technologies have been proposed for diesel engines. Implementing dual fuel modes can lead to emissions reductions or increased efficiency through using partially premixed combustion and fuel reactivity control. All dual fuel systems have the practical disadvantage that a secondary fuel storage and delivery system must be included. Reforming the primary diesel to a less reactive vaporized fuel on-board has potential to overcome this key disadvantage. Most previous research regarding on-board fuel reforming has been focused on producing significant quantities of hydrogen. However, only partially reforming the primary fuel is sufficient to vaporize and create a less volatile fuel that can be fumigated into an engine intake. At lower conversion efficiency and higher equivalence ratio, reforming reactors retain higher percentage of the inlet fuel’s heating value thus allowing for greater overall engine system efficiency.
Journal Article

Energy Analysis of Low-Load Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion with Auxiliary-Fueled Negative Valve Overlap

2017-03-28
2017-01-0729
In-cylinder reforming of injected fuel during an auxiliary negative valve overlap (NVO) period can be used to optimize main-cycle auto-ignition phasing for low-load Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC), where highly dilute mixtures can lead to poor combustion stability. When mixed with fresh intake charge and fuel, these reformate streams can alter overall charge reactivity characteristics. The central issue remains large parasitic heat losses from the retention and compression of hot exhaust gases along with modest pumping losses that result from mixing hot NVO-period gases with the cooler intake charge. Accurate determination of total cycle energy utilization is complicated by the fact that NVO-period retained fuel energy is consumed during the subsequent main combustion period. For the present study, a full-cycle energy analysis was performed for a single-cylinder research engine undergoing LTGC with varying NVO auxiliary fueling rates and injection timing.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Species from Negative Valve Overlap Reforming Using a Stochastic Reactor Model

2017-03-28
2017-01-0529
Fuel reforming during a Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) period is an effective approach to control Low Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) ignition. Previous work has shown through experiments that primary reference fuels reform easily and produce several species that drastically affect ignition characteristics. However, our previous research has been unable to accurately predict measured reformate composition at the end of the NVO period using simple single-zone models. In this work, we use a stochastic reactor model (SRM) closed cycle engine simulation to predict reformate composition accounting for in-cylinder temperature and mixture stratification. The SRM model is less computationally intensive than CFD simulations while still allowing the use of large chemical mechanisms to predict intermediate species formation rates.
Journal Article

Investigation of Fuel Effects on In-Cylinder Reforming Chemistry Using Gas Chromatography

2016-04-05
2016-01-0753
Negative Valve Overlap (NVO) is a potential control strategy for enabling Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) at low loads. While the thermal effects of NVO fueling on main combustion are well-understood, the chemical effects of NVO in-cylinder fuel reforming have not been extensively studied. The objective of this work is to examine the effects of fuel molecular structure on NVO fuel reforming using gas sampling and detailed speciation by gas chromatography. Engine gas samples were collected from a single-cylinder research engine at the end of the NVO period using a custom dump-valve apparatus. Six fuel components were studied at two injection timings: (1) iso-octane, (2) n-heptane, (3) ethanol, (4) 1-hexene, (5) cyclohexane, and (6) toluene. All fuel components were studied neat except for toluene - toluene was blended with 18.9% nheptane by liquid volume to increase the fuel reactivity.
Journal Article

An Aerosolization Method for Characterizing Particle Contaminants in Diesel Fuel

2013-10-14
2013-01-2668
Diesel fuel injection systems are operating at increasingly higher pressure (up to 250 MPa) with smaller clearances, making them more sensitive to diesel fuel contaminants. Most liquid particle counters have difficulty detecting particles <4 μm in diameter and are unable to distinguish between solid and semi-solid materials. The low conductivity of diesel fuel limits the use of the Coulter counter. This raises the need for a new method to characterize small (<4 μm) fuel contaminants. We propose and evaluate an aerosolization method for characterizing solid particulate matter in diesel fuel that can detect particles as small as 0.5 μm. The particle sizing and concentration performance of the method were calibrated and validated by the use of seed particles added to filtered diesel fuel. A size dependent correction method was developed to account for the preferential atomization and subsequent aerosol conditioning processes to obtain the liquid-borne particle concentration.
Journal Article

A Bayesian Approach to Cross-Validation in Pedestrian Accident Reconstruction

2011-04-12
2011-01-0290
In statistical modeling, cross-validation refers to the practice of fitting a model with part of the available data, and then using predictions of the unused data to test and improve the fitted model. In accident reconstruction, cross-validation is possible when two different measurements can be used to estimate the same accident feature, such as when measured skidmark length and pedestrian throw distance each provide an estimate of impact speed. In this case a Bayesian cross-validation can be carried out by (1) using one measurement and Bayes theorem to compute a posterior distribution for the impact speed, (2) using this posterior distribution to compute a predictive distribution for the second measurement, and then (3) comparing the actual second measurement to this predictive distribution. An actual measurement falling in an extreme tail of the predictive distribution suggests a weakness in the assumptions governing the reconstruction.
Technical Paper

Hydrogen as a Combustion Modifier of Ethanol in Compression Ignition Engines

2009-11-02
2009-01-2814
Ethanol, used widely as a spark-ignition (SI) engine fuel, has seen minimal success as a compression ignition (CI) engine fuel. The lack of success of ethanol in CI engines is mainly due to ethanol's very low cetane number and its poor lubricity properties. Past researchers have utilized nearly pure ethanol in a CI engine by either increasing the compression ratio which requires extensive engine modification and/or using an expensive ignition improver. The objective of this work was to demonstrate the ability of a hydrogen port fuel injection (PFI) system to facilitate the combustion of ethanol in a CI engine. Non-denatured anhydrous ethanol, mixed with a lubricity additive, was used in a variable compression ratio CI engine. Testing was conducted by varying the amount of bottled hydrogen gas injected into the intake manifold via a PFI system. The hydrogen flowrates were varied from 0 - 10 slpm.
Technical Paper

The Advanced Design of a Liquid Cooling Garment Through Long-Term Research: Implications of the Test Results on Three Different Garments

2009-07-12
2009-01-2517
The most recent goal of our research program was to identify the optimal features of each of three garments to maintain core temperature and comfort under intensive physical exertion. Four males and 2 females between the ages of 22 and 46 participated in this study. The garments evaluated were the MACS-Delphi, Russian Orlan, and NASA LCVG. Subjects were tested on different days in 2 different environmental chamber temperature/humidity conditions (24°C/H∼28%; 35°C/H∼20%). Each session consisted of stages of treadmill walking/running (250W to 700W at different stages) and rest. In general, the findings showed few consistent differences among the garments. The MACS-Delphi was better able to maintain subjects within a skin and core temperature comfort zone than was evident in the other garments as indicated by a lesser fluctuation in temperatures across physical exertion levels.
Technical Paper

Subjective Perception of Thermal and Physical Comfort in Three Liquid Cooling Garments

2009-07-12
2009-01-2516
The subjective aspects of comfort in three different cooling garments, the MACS-Delphi, Russian Orlan, and LCVG were evaluated. Six subjects (4 males and 2 females) were tested in separate sessions in each garment and in one of two environmental chamber conditions: 24°C and 35°C. Subjects followed a staged exercise/rest protocol with different levels of physical exertion at different stages. Thermal comfort and heat perception were assessed by ratings on visual analog scales. Ratings of physical comfort of the garment and also garment flexibility in positions simulating movements during planetary exploration were also obtained. The findings indicated that both overall thermal comfort and head thermal comfort were rated highest in the MACS-Delphi at 24°C. The Orlan was rated lowest on physical comfort and less flexible in different body positions.
Journal Article

Measuring Diesel Ash Emissions and Estimating Lube Oil Consumption Using a High Temperature Oxidation Method

2009-06-15
2009-01-1843
Diesel engine ash emissions are composed of the non-combustible portions of diesel particulate matter derived mainly from lube oil, and over time can degrade diesel particulate filter performance. This paper presents results from a high temperature oxidation method (HTOM) used to estimate ash emissions, and engine oil consumption in real-time. Atomized lubrication oil and diesel engine exhaust were used to evaluate the HTOM performance. Atomized fresh and used lube oil experiments showed that the HTOM reached stable particle size distributions and concentrations at temperatures above 700°C. The HTOM produced very similar number and volume weighted particle size distributions for both types of lube oils. The particle number size distribution was unimodal, with a geometric mean diameter of about 23 nm. The volume size distribution had a geometric volume mean diameter of about 65 nm.
Technical Paper

Particle and Gaseous Emission Characteristics of a Formula SAE Race Car Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1400
The focus of this work was the physical characterization of exhaust aerosol from the University of Minnesota Formula SAE team's engine. This was done using two competition fuels, 100 octane race fuel and E85. Three engine conditions were evaluated: 6000 RPM 75% throttle, 8000 RPM 50% throttle, and 8000 RPM 100% throttle. Dilute emissions were characterized using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) and a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). E85 fuel produced more power and had lower particulate matter emissions at all test conditions, but more fuel was consumed.
Technical Paper

Off-shoring EMS and the Barrier of Test-in-Reliability

2008-10-07
2008-01-2712
The history of off-road equipment manufacturing has been based on proven designs and long times between model updates. In sharp contrast with this strategy is the electronic manufacturing services (EMS) industry. The EMS industry is driven by the larger consumer product industry's continuing pressure for lower costs. Because of this, EMS tools, processes, and practices have evolved to support rapid technology and component changes. However the increasing consumer demand for features like better user-interfaces, more efficient fuel consumption, and the desire for increased operational controls in equipment have forced the off-road industry to increase the frequency of product updates to meet customers' needs. Equipment manufacturers make running changes leading to a “Learning-by-doing” development and manufacturing process. But rapid changes sometimes have an unpredictable impact on the reliability of the final product.
Technical Paper

Cooling and Thermal Control Strategies in the Space Suit for Routine and Emergency Situations

2008-06-29
2008-01-1993
A series of demonstration studies were conducted with the aim of better understanding how to regulate body heat and thus enhance thermal comfort of astronauts during EVA requiring intensive physical exertion. The first study evaluated body zone heat transfer under different cooling temperatures in a liquid cooling garment (LCG), confirming the effectiveness of areas with high density tissue. The second study evaluated different configurations of hoods and neck scarves to maximize heat extraction from these key areas for heat release. The third study explored the possibility of regulating body heat by control of the water temperature circulating through selected body zones in the LCG, or blocking heat dissipation from particular body areas. The potential of heat insertion/removal from the head, hands, and feet to stabilize body comfort was evaluated in terms of the ability to advance this heat current “highway” from the core.
Technical Paper

Trade Study of an Exploration Cooling Garment

2008-06-29
2008-01-1994
A trade study was conducted with a goal to develop relatively high TRL design concepts for an Exploration Cooling Garment (ExCG) that can accommodate larger metabolic loads and maintain physiological limits of the crewmembers health and work efficiency during all phases of exploration missions without hindering mobility. Effective personal cooling through use of an ExCG is critical in achieving safe and efficient missions. Crew thermoregulation not only impacts comfort during suited operations but also directly affects human performance. Since the ExCG is intimately worn and interfaces with comfort items, it is also critical to overall crewmember physical comfort. Both thermal and physical comfort are essential for the long term, continuous wear expected of the ExCG.
Journal Article

Emissions Effects of Hydrogen as a Supplemental Fuel with Diesel and Biodiesel

2008-04-14
2008-01-0648
A 1.9 liter Volkswagen TDI engine has been modified to accomodate the addition of hydrogen into the intake manifold via timed port fuel injection. Engine out particulate matter and the emissions of oxides of nitrogen were investigated. Two fuels,low sulfur diesel fuel (BP50) and soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel (B99), were tested with supplemental hydrogen fueling. Three test conditions were selected to represent a range of engine operating modes. The tests were executed at 20, 40, and 60 % rated load with a constant engine speed o 1700 RPM. At each test condition the percentage of power from hydrogen energy was varied from 0 to 40 %. This corresponds to hydrogen flow rates ranging from 7 to 85 liters per minute. Particulate matter (PM) emissions were measured using a scaning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a two stage micro dilution system. Oxides of nitrogen were also monitored.
Journal Article

Late Intake Valve Closing as an Emissions Control Strategy at Tier 2 Bin 5 Engine-Out NOx Level

2008-04-14
2008-01-0637
A fully flexible valve actuation (FFVA) system was developed for a single cylinder research engine to investigate high efficiency clean combustion (HECC) in a diesel engine. The main objectives of the study were to examine the emissions, performance, and combustion characteristics of the engine using late intake valve closing (LIVC) to determine the benefits and limitations of this strategy to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx requirements without after-treatment. The most significant benefit of LIVC is a reduction in particulates due to the longer ignition delay time and a subsequent reduction in local fuel rich combustion zones. More than a 95% reduction in particulates was observed at some operating conditions. Combustion noise was also reduced at low and medium loads due to slower heat release. Although it is difficult to assess the fuel economy benefits of LIVC using a single cylinder engine, LIVC shows the potential to improve the fuel economy through several approaches.
Technical Paper

Person to Person Biological Heat Bypass During EVA Emergencies

2007-07-09
2007-01-3209
During EVA and other extreme environments, mutual human support is sometimes the last way to survive when there is a failure of the life support equipment. The possibility to transfer a warming fluid from one individual to another to increase heat and support the thermal balance of the individual with system failure was assessed. The following analog scenarios were considered: 1. one subject has a cooling system that is not working well and already has a body heat deficit equal to 100-120 kcal and a finger temperature decline to 26-27ºC, the other subject is at comfort level; 2. one subject is overcooled due to system failure and the other is mildly overheated. Preliminary findings showed promise in using such thermal sharing tactics to extend the time duration of survival in extreme situations when there is an increased metabolic rate in the donor.
Technical Paper

Informativeness of the Finger Temperature/Heat Flux as an Index of Human Thermal Status Under Local Cold Influences

2006-07-17
2006-01-2237
Introduction Human thermoregulation during EVA remains a challenge. The establishment of a high correlation between the thermal status of the fingers and the heat surplus/deficit in the body provides an index with potential to more effectively monitor and control the astronaut’s thermal status. This series of studies evaluated the changes in finger temperature (Tfing) trajectories in conditions relevant to EVA. Methods In different experiments, subjects were donned in a liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG) that covered the full body surface except for the face and hands; they wore either a physiologically designed warming glove or the Phase VI glove. The experimental protocols were as follows: imposition of temperature differences in the left and right gloves; different thermal insulation levels of the gloves; sequential grasping of a highly cold rail in different glove conditions; placement of the finger thermistor on different sites of the finger.
Technical Paper

Effect of Local Hand Thermal Insulation on Total and Local Comfort Under Different Levels of Body Heat Deficit

2005-07-11
2005-01-2977
Introduction: There are contradictory opinions regarding the contribution of local hand thermal insulation to support local and total comfort during extravehicular activity (EVA). Instead of a local correction by means of thermal insulation on the periphery of the body to prevent heat dissipation, it may be optimal to prevent heat dissipation from the body core. To examine such a concept, the effects of different insulation levels on the left and right hands on the heat flux and temperature mosaic on the hands was measured. These variables were assessed in relation to the level of heat deficit forming in the core organs and tissues. Methods: Six subjects (4 males, 2 females) were donned in a liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG) that totally covered the body surface except for the face. Participants wore the Phase VI space gloves including the entire micrometeoroid garment (TMG) on the left hand, and the glove without the TMG on the right hand.
X