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Technical Paper

Safety and Lateral Dynamics Improvement of a Race Car Using Active Rear Wing Control

As the forward speed of a car increases, the safety of the vehicle and the driver becomes a more significant concern. Active aerodynamic control can effectively enhance the lateral stability of high speed vehicles over tight cornering maneuvers. A split rear wing has been proposed. By means of manipulating the attack angles for the right and/or left parts of the split rear wing, a favorable yaw moment may be achieved to ensure the lateral stability of the vehicle. However, active control of the split rear wing has not been adequately explored. This paper proposes a novel active split rear wing, which can improve the lateral stability over tight cornering maneuvers, and will not degrade the longitudinal dynamics of the vehicle. A Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) based controller for the active split rear wing is designed using a linear vehicle model.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Tire-Soil Interaction Using Finite Element Analysis and Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Techniques

This paper presents the modelling, calibration and sensitivity analysis of LETE sand soil using Visual Environment’s Pam Crash. LETE sand is modelled and converted from Finite Element Analysis mesh (FEA) to Smooth-particle hydrodynamics (SPH). The sand is then calibrated using terramechanics published data by simulating a pressure sinkage test and shear box test using the SPH LETE sand particles. The material properties such as tangent modulus, yield strength and bulk modulus are configured so the simulation’s results match those of theoretical values. Sensitivity analysis of the calibrated LETE sand material is then investigated. The sensitivity analysis includes mesh size, plate geometry, smoothing length, max smoothing length, artificial viscosity and contact thickness. The effect of these parameters on the sand behavior is analyzed.
Technical Paper

Integrated Aero-Thermal Testing of a Race Car in a Full Scale Climatic Wind Tunnel

Wind tunnels with integrated aerodynamic and thermodynamic testing with yaw capabilities are not common. In this study however, an integrated aerodynamic and thermodynamic testing system with yaw capabilities is developed and applied in the climatic wind tunnel at the University of Ontario-Institute of Technology (UOIT). This was done by installing an incremental force measuring system (FMS) on the large turntable that features a chassis dynamometer. The testing system was utilized to implement an integrated aero-thermal test on a full-scale race car. An efficient testing protocol was developed to streamline the integrated testing process. The FMS was used to enhance the test car’s stability, cornering speed, and fuel efficiency by using aerodynamic devices. These objectives were achieved by installing a high rear wing to increase the rear downforce, a modified front splitter extension to produce a front downforce gain, and front canards to contribute to drag reduction.
Journal Article

Non-Linear Bifurcation Stability Analysis for Articulated Vehicles with Active Trailer Differential Braking Systems

This paper presents nonlinear bifurcation stability analysis of articulated vehicles with active trailer differential braking (ATDB) systems. ATDB systems have been proposed to improve stability of articulated vehicle systems to prevent unstable motion modes, e.g., jack-knifing, trailer sway and rollover. Generally, behaviors of a nonlinear dynamic system may change with varying parameters; a stable equilibrium can become unstable and a periodic oscillation may occur or a new equilibrium may appear making the previous equilibrium unstable once the parameters vary. The value of a parameter, at which these changes occur, is known as “bifurcation value” and the parameter is known as the “bifurcation parameter”. Conventionally, nonlinear bifurcation analysis approach is applied to examine the nonlinear dynamic characteristics of single-unit vehicles, e.g., cars, trucks, etc.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Active Control Strategies for Improving Lateral Stability of Car-Trailer Systems

This paper examines the performance of different active control strategies for improving lateral stability of car-trailer systems using numerical simulations. For car-trailer systems, three typical unstable motion modes, including trailer swing, jack-knifing and roll-over, have been identified. These unstable motion modes represent potentially hazardous situations. The effects of passive mechanical vehicle parameters on the stability of car-trailer systems have been well addressed. For a given car-trailer system, some of these passive parameters, e.g., the center of gravity of the trailer, are greatly varied under different operating conditions. Thus, lateral stability cannot be guaranteed by selecting a specific passive parameter set. To address this problem, various active control techniques have been proposed to improve handling and stability of car-trailer systems. Feasible control methods involve active trailer steering control (ATSC) and active trailer braking (ATB).