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Technical Paper

Advanced Manufacturing of Ceramic Matrix Composites for Disk Brake Rotors

The strong demand for advanced lightweight structures in the automotive industry has increased activities in the development of new structural materials with low densities and tailored properties. Weight savings in the wheel suspension by the use of lightweight materials provide the additional benefit of an improvement in comfort behavior and driveability. The replacement of iron based materials with ceramics offers the possibility for a significant mass reduction. In the case of high tribological, environmental and thermal loads, ceramics provide the additional advantages of excellent wear, corrosion and temperature resistance with tailored properties for application as brake disk material. Silicon carbide (SiC) ceramics are promising structural materials in various high temperature and tribological applications.
Technical Paper

Pulsating Blankholder Technology

In this paper the effects of pulsating blankholder forces in deep draw processes for sheet metal parts are discussed. Areas with and without tangential compressive stresses in the flanges, which are located between the binders, are discussed separately. Areas without tangential compressive stresses can be simulated by a special friction strip-draw test using a pulsating normal force ( representing the blankholder force ). Investigations using this equipment show that by pulsating blankholder forces it is possible to avoid galling and to reduce the friction force. Areas with tangential compressive stresses can be simulated by deep drawing axissymmetric cups using a pulsating blankholder force. Investigations with this equipment show that without increasing the danger of wrinkling the friction forces can be reduced by pulsating blankholder forces, when a certain frequency limit is reached.
Technical Paper

New Machine Concept for Hydroforming Tubes and Extrusions, Part 2

In cooperation with industrial companies at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology (IFU) of the University of Stuttgart, Germany, a new press concept specially for hydroforming tubes and extrusions was developed. The press has a capacity of 3500 tons closing force and a press table size of 2500 mm × 900 mm. A great reduction in costs can be achieved by integrating spacers between the frame of the press and the ram. This paper introduces this new press.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Engineering of a Three-Way-Catalyst System as an Approach for Government Consultation

Cars cause a lot of pollutants during the utilization phase. Within the last years environmental legislation tried to reduce the emissions by the introduction of very tight laws. The results are impressive: Most of the car exhaust emissions like carbonmonoxid and nitrous oxides have been reduced. At this stage new emission reduction limits in Europe as well as in the United States can only be achieved if the formulation of the catalyst system is significantly changed. An increased use of precious metals and rare earth materials is the result of such a modification which succeeds in a more expensive design of the total catalyst systems. More expensive means not only cost aspects but also the environmental burdens related to the increased production of precious metals and other catalyst components. The Life Cycle Engineering (LCE) of the catalyst system which achieves the new legislation is demonstrated as well as the effects to the usage phase.
Technical Paper

Thixoforming Of Aluminum

Thixoforming is another word for Semi-Solid-Metalforming (SSM) which means that metal will be formed between solid and liquid temperature. In this state the material behavior is thixotropic. Aluminum alloys can be formed in this thixotropic state when 30 to 40% of the material is liquid. In this case it is possible to form the aluminum in a process that is located between the die-casting and the forging technology. The thixoforming process allows it to produce Near Net Shape aluminum-parts with high quality for the automotive industry. This paper is intended to give the reader some examples about and some insights into the possible applications of the thixoforming process.
Technical Paper

Pulsating Blankholder Force

In sheet metal stamping some industrial applications have shown that it is possible to achieve larger drawn depth by using a pulsating blankholder force. In deep drawing, areas with and without tangential stresses have to be distinguished. Areas without tangential stresses can be described by the strip drawing test. Areas with tangential stresses are described by using a deep drawing die for the production of cups which are axisymmetric. With the strip drawing test it could be shown that it is possible to reduce the increase of the friction force, caused by adhesion. Another effect is the reduction of the peak of the transition of static to dynamic friction. It was shown by experimental research, that the wrinkle height of parts, produced with pulsating blankholder force is in the range of the wrinkle height of parts produced with a constant blankholder force which is equal to the maximum force of the pulsation.
Technical Paper

3-Dimensional Description of Sheet Metal Surfaces

During sheet metal forming processes, the friction conditions have a decisive influence on forming limits, the robustness of the production process and the quality of the parts produced, with significant forces required to overcome friction between the sheet and the tools. If lot-to-lot reproducibility is to be guaranteed, an appropriate method of characterizing the sheet surface topography is needed to monitor the sheet metal fabrication process. Newly developed optical measurement techniques and computer workstation technology are presented which enable the topography of sheet surfaces to be described in three dimensions.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Research and Draw Die Concepts for Deep Drawing of Tailored Blanks

According to the present state of knowledge, the use of “Tailored Blanks” with different sheet thicknesses and/or grades represents an interesting manufacturing alternative in the design and development of sheet metal parts in the automotive industry. In order to assess the forming behavior, fundamental research was conducted on laser and mash seam welded blanks. Based on this experimental findings, a segmented draw die was designed and built to determine the limits of the metal forming process by deep drawing of car body parts. The results with this draw die showed that a uniform blankholder pressure must be guaranteed during the forming process in the flange region of the part. This necessitated definite slots in the region of the weld line for the mash seam welded blanks. Furthermore, a die concept was presented to enable an equalization of both sheet thickness steps and sheet thickness fluctuations, without requiring replacement of the respective draw die components.