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Technical Paper

A 1D Real-Time Engine Manifold Gas Dynamics Model using Orthogonal Collocation Coupled with the Method of Characteristics

2019-04-02
2019-01-0190
In this paper, a new solution method is presented to study the effect of wave propagation in engine manifolds, which includes solving one-dimensional models for compressible flow of air inside an engine manifold. Velocity, pressure, and density profiles are found by solving a system of non-linear Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) in space and time derived from Euler’s equations. The considered 1D model includes frictional losses, area change, and heat transfer. The solution is traditionally found by utilizing the Method of Characteristics and applying finite difference solutions on the resulting system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) over a discretized grid. In this work, orthogonal collocation is used to solve the system of ODEs that is defined along the characteristic curves. Orthogonal polynomials are utilized to approximate velocity, pressure, sound speed, and the characteristic curves along which the system of PDEs reduce to a system of ODEs.
Technical Paper

Notch plasticity and fatigue modelling of AZ31B-H24 magnesium alloy sheet

2019-04-02
2019-01-0530
Vehicle weight reduction through the use of components made of magnesium alloys is an effective way to reduce carbon dioxide emission and improve fuel economy. In the design of these components, which are mostly under cyclic loading, notches are inevitably present. In this study, surface strain distribution and crack initiation sites in the notch region of AZ31B-H24 Mg alloy specimens under uniaxial load are recorded via digital image correlation. Predicted strains from finite-element analysis using LS-DYNA material types 124 (MAT_PLASTICITY_COMPRESSION_TENSION) and 233 (MAT_CAZACU_BARLAT) are compared against experimental measurements during quasi-static and cyclic loadings. It is concluded that MAT_233, when calibrated using cyclic tensile and compressive stress-strain curves, is capable of predicting strain at the notch root.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of the Transmission System for Electric Vehicles Considering the Dynamic Efficiency of the Regenerative Brake

2018-04-03
2018-01-0819
In this paper, gear ratios of a two-speed transmission system are optimized for an electric passenger car. Quasi static system models, including the vehicle model, the motor, the battery, the transmission system, and drive cycles are established in MATLAB/Simulink at first. Specifically, since the regenerative braking capability of the motor is affected by the SoC of battery and motors torque limitation in real time, the dynamical variation of the regenerative brake efficiency is considered in this study. To obtain the optimal gear ratios, iterations are carried out through Nelder-Mead algorithm under constraints in MATLAB/Simulink. During the optimization process, the motor efficiency is observed along with the drive cycle, and the gear shift strategy is determined based on the vehicle velocity and acceleration demand. Simulation results show that the electric motor works in a relative high efficiency range during the whole drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Road Classification Based on System Response with Consideration of Tire Enveloping

2018-04-03
2018-01-0550
This paper presents a road classifier based on the system response with consideration of the tire enveloping. The aim is to provide an easily applicable yet accurate road classification approach for automotive engineers. For this purpose, tire enveloping effect is firstly modeled based on the flexible roller contact (FRC) theory, then transfer functions between road input and commonly used suspension responses i.e. the sprung mass acceleration, unsprung mass acceleration, and rattle space, are calculated for a quarter vehicle model. The influence of parameter variations, vehicle velocity, and measurement noise on transfer functions are comprehensively analyzed to derive the most suitable system response thereafter. In addition, this paper proposes a vehicle speed correction mechanism to further improve the classification accuracy under complex driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Modeling and Model Predictive Longitudinal Dynamics Control for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0996
This paper discusses modeling of a power-split hybrid electric vehicle and the design of a longitudinal dynamics controller for the University of Waterloo’s self-driving vehicle project. The powertrain of Waterloo’s vehicle platform, a Lincoln MKZ Hybrid, is controlled only by accelerator pedal actuation. The vehicle’s power management strategy cannot be altered, so a novel approach to grey-box modeling of the OEM powertrain control architecture and dynamics was developed. The model uses a system of multiple neural networks to mimic the response of the vehicle’s torque control module and estimate the distribution of torque between the powertrain’s internal combustion engine and electric motors. The vehicle’s power-split drivetrain and longitudinal dynamics were modeled in MapleSim, a modeling and simulation software, using a physics-based analytical approach.
Technical Paper

Degradation Testing and Modeling of 200 Ah LiFePO4 Battery

2018-04-03
2018-01-0441
In this paper, a degradation testing of a lithium-ion battery used for an electric vehicle (EV) is performed and the capacity fade is measured over 400 cycles. For this, a 200 Ah LiFePO4 battery cell is tested under ambient temperature conditions with charge-discharge cycles at rate of 1C (constant current). Additionally, individual cell characterization is conducted using a C/25 (0.8A) charge-discharge cycle and hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC). Later, the Thevenin battery model was constructed in MATLAB along with an empirical degradation model and validated in terms of voltage for all cycles. It is also found that the presented model closely estimated the profiles observed in the experimental data. Data collected from the experimental results showed that a capacity fade occurred over the 400 cycles and the discharge capacity at the end of 400th cycle is found to be 137.73 Ah. The error between model/experiments is found to be less than 3.5% for all cycles.
Technical Paper

Efficient Electro-Thermal Model for Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries

2018-04-03
2018-01-0432
The development of a comprehensive battery simulator is essential for future improvements in the durability, performance and service life of lithium-ion batteries. Although simulations can never replace actual experimental data, they can still be used to provide valuable insights into the performance of the battery, especially under different operating conditions. In addition, a single-cell model can be easily extended to the pack level and can be used in the optimization of a battery pack. The first step in building a simulator is to create a model that can effectively capture both the voltage response and thermal behavior of the battery. Since these effects are coupled together, creating a robust simulator requires modeling both components. This paper will develop a battery simulator, where the entire battery model will be composed of four smaller submodels: a heat generation model, a thermal model, a battery parameter model and a voltage response model.
Technical Paper

Parameter Identification for Combined Slip Tire Models using Vehicle Measurement System

2018-04-03
2018-01-1339
It is imperative to have accurate tire models when trying to control the trajectory of a vehicle. With the emergence of autonomous vehicles it is more important than ever before to have accurate models that represent exactly how the vehicle will operate in any situation. Many different types of tire models have been developed and validated, including physics based models such as brush models, black box models, finite element based models, and empirical models driven by data such as the magic formula model. The latter is widely acknowledged to be one of the most accurate tire models available however collecting data for this model is not an easy task. Collecting data is often accomplished through rigorous testing in a dedicated facility. This is a long and expensive procedure that will generally destroy many tires before a comprehensive dataset is acquired. Using a Vehicle Measurement System (VMS), tires can be modeled through on-road data alone.
Journal Article

The Influence of the Through-Thickness Strain Gradients on the Fracture Characterization of Advanced High Strength Steels

2018-04-03
2018-01-0627
The development and calibration of stress-state dependent failure criteria for advanced high strength steel (AHSS) and aluminum alloys requires characterization under proportional loading conditions. Traditional tests to construct a forming limit diagram (FLD), such as Marciniak or Nakazima tests, are based upon identifying the onset of strain localization or a tensile instability (neck). However, the onset of localization is strongly dependent on the through-thickness strain gradient that can delay or suppress the formation of a tensile instability so that cracking may occur before localization. As a result, the material fracture limit becomes the effective forming limit in deformation modes with severe through-thickness strain gradients and this is not considered in the traditional FLD. In this study, a novel bending test apparatus was developed based upon the VDA 238-100 specification to characterize fracture in plane strain bending using digital image correlation (DIC).
Technical Paper

An Analysis of ISO 26262: Machine Learning and Safety in Automotive Software

2018-04-03
2018-01-1075
Machine learning (ML) plays an ever-increasing role in advanced automotive functionality for driver assistance and autonomous operation; however, its adequacy from the perspective of safety certification remains controversial. In this paper, we analyze the impacts that the use of ML within software has on the ISO 26262 safety lifecycle and ask what could be done to address them. We then provide a set of recommendations on how to adapt the standard to better accommodate ML.
Technical Paper

Comparing the Whole Body Vibration Exposures across Three Truck Seats

2017-06-05
2017-01-1836
Whole-body vibration (WBV) is associated with several adverse health and safety outcomes including low-back pain (LBP) and driver fatigue. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three commercially-available air-suspension truck seats for reducing truck drivers’ exposures to WBV. Seventeen truck drivers operating over a standardized route were recruited for this study and three commercially-available air suspension seats were evaluated. The predominant, z-axis average weighted vibration (Aw) and Vibration Dose Values (VDV) were calculated and normalized to represent eight hours of truck operation. In addition, the Seat Effective Amplitude Transmissibility (SEAT), the ratio of the seat-measured vibration divided by the floor-measured vibration, was compared across the three seats. One seat had significantly higher on-road WBV exposures whereas there were no differences across seats in off-road WBV exposures.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Temperature Gradient (dT/dy) and Temperature Response (dT/dt) of a Prismatic Lithium-Ion Pouch Cell with LiFePO4 Cathode Material

2017-03-28
2017-01-1207
Lithium-ion batteries, which are nowadays common in laptops, cell phones, toys, and other portable electronic devices, are also viewed as a most promising advanced technology for electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs), but battery manufacturers and automakers must understand the performance of these batteries when they are scaled up to the large sizes needed for the propulsion of the vehicle. In addition, accurate thermo-physical property input is crucial to thermal modeling. Therefore, a designer must study the thermal characteristics of batteries for improvement in the design of a thermal management system and also for thermal modeling. This work presents a purely experimental thermal characterization in terms of measurement of the temperature gradient and temperature response of a lithium-ion battery utilizing a promising electrode material, LiFePO4, in a prismatic pouch configuration.
Technical Paper

Extended Range Electric Vehicle Powertrain Simulation, and Comparison with Consideration of Fuel Cell and Metal-Air Battery

2017-03-28
2017-01-1258
The automobile industry has been undergoing a transition from fossil fuels to a low emission platform due to stricter environmental policies and energy security considerations. Electric vehicles, powered by lithium-ion batteries, have started to attain a noticeable market share recently due to their stable performance and maturity as a technology. However, electric vehicles continue to suffer from two disadvantages that have limited widespread adoption: charging time and energy density. To mitigate these challenges, vehicle Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have developed different vehicle architectures to extend the vehicle range. This work seeks to compare various powertrains, including: combined power battery electric vehicles (BEV) (zinc-air and lithium-ion battery), zero emission fuel cell vehicles (FCV)), conventional gasoline powered vehicles (baseline internal combustion vehicle), and ICE engine extended range hybrid electric vehicle.
Journal Article

Longitudinal Vehicle Dynamics Modeling and Parameter Estimation for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1574
System identification is an important aspect in model-based control design which is proven to be a cost-effective and time saving approach to improve the performance of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). This study focuses on modeling and parameter estimation of the longitudinal vehicle dynamics for Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid (PHEV) with power-split architecture. This model is needed to develop and evaluate various controllers, such as energy management system, adaptive cruise control, traction and driveline oscillation control. Particular emphasis is given to the driveline oscillations caused due to low damping present in PHEVs by incorporating flexibility in the half shaft and time lag in the tire model.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Robust Lane Marking Detection and Tracking for Degraded Lane Markings

2017-03-28
2017-01-0043
Robust lane marking detection remains a challenge, particularly in temperate climates where markings degrade rapidly due to winter conditions and snow removal efforts. In previous work, dynamic Bayesian networks with heuristic features were used with the feature distributions trained using semi-supervised expectation maximization, which greatly reduced sensitivity to initialization. This work has been extended in three important respects. First, the tracking formulation used in previous work has been corrected to prevent false positives in situations where only poor RANSAC hypotheses were generated. Second, the null hypothesis is reformulated to guarantee that detected hypotheses satisfy a minimum likelihood. Third, the computational requirements have been greatly reduced by computing an upper bound on the marginal likelihood of all part hypotheses upon generation and rejecting parts with an upper bound less likely than the null hypothesis.
Journal Article

Cyber-Physical System Based Optimization Framework for Intelligent Powertrain Control

2017-03-28
2017-01-0426
The interactions between automatic controls, physics, and driver is an important step towards highly automated driving. This study investigates the dynamical interactions between human-selected driving modes, vehicle controller and physical plant parameters, to determine how to optimally adapt powertrain control to different human-like driving requirements. A cyber-physical system (CPS) based framework is proposed for co-design optimization of the physical plant parameters and controller variables for an electric powertrain, in view of vehicle’s dynamic performance, ride comfort, and energy efficiency under different driving modes. System structure, performance requirements and constraints, optimization goals and methodology are investigated. Intelligent powertrain control algorithms are synthesized for three driving modes, namely sport, eco, and normal modes, with appropriate protocol selections. The performance exploration methodology is presented.
Journal Article

A Global Optimal Energy Management System for Hybrid Electric off-road Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-0425
Energy management strategies greatly influence the power performance and fuel economy of series hybrid electric tracked bulldozers. In this paper, we present a procedure for the design of a power management strategy by defining a cost function, in this case, the minimization of the vehicle’s fuel consumption over a driving cycle. To explore the fuel-saving potential of a series hybrid electric tracked bulldozer, a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm is utilized to determine the optimal control actions for a series hybrid powertrain, and this can be the benchmark for the assessment of other control strategies. The results from comparing the DP strategy and the rule-based control strategy indicate that this procedure results in approximately a 7% improvement in fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Recognizing Driver Braking Intention with Vehicle Data Using Unsupervised Learning Methods

2017-03-28
2017-01-0433
Recently, the development of braking assistance system has largely benefit the safety of both driver and pedestrians. A robust prediction and detection of driver braking intention will enable driving assistance system response to traffic situation correctly and improve the driving experience of intelligent vehicles. In this paper, two types unsupervised clustering methods are used to build a driver braking intention predictor. Unsupervised machine learning algorithms has been widely used in clustering and pattern mining in previous researches. The proposed unsupervised learning algorithms can accurately recognize the braking maneuver based on vehicle data captured with CAN bus. The braking maneuver along with other driving maneuvers such as normal driving will be clustered and the results from different algorithms which are K-means and Gaussian mixture model (GMM) will be compared.
Technical Paper

Control Analysis for Efficiency Optimization of a High Performance Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Both Pre and Post Transmission Motors

2016-04-05
2016-01-1253
The drive to improve and optimize hybrid vehicle performance is increasing with the growth of the market. With this market growth, the automotive industry has recognized a need to train and educate the next generation of engineers in hybrid vehicle design. The University of Waterloo Alternative Fuels Team (UWAFT), as part of the EcoCAR 3 competition, has developed a control strategy for a novel parallel-split hybrid architecture. This architecture features an engine, transmission and two electric motors; one pre-transmission motor and one post-transmission motor. The control strategy operates these powertrain components in a series, parallel, and all electric power flow, switching between these strategies to optimize the energy efficiency of the vehicle. Control strategies for these three power flows are compared through optimization of efficiencies within the powertrain.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Atkinson Cycle Converted from Conventional Otto Cycle Gasoline Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0680
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are considered as the most commercial prospects new energy vehicles. Most HEVs have adopted Atkinson cycle engine as the main drive power. Atkinson cycle engine uses late intake valve closing (LIVC) to reduce pumping losses and compression work in part load operation. It can transform more heat energy to mechanical energy, improve engine thermal efficiency and decrease fuel consumption. In this paper, the investigations of Atkinson cycle converted from conventional Otto cycle gasoline engine have been carried out. First of all, high geometry compression ratio (CR) has been optimized through piston redesign from 10.5 to 13 in order to overcome the intrinsic drawback of Atkinson cycle in that combustion performance deteriorates due to the decline in the effective CR. Then, both intake and exhaust cam profile have been redesigned to meet the requirements of Atkinson cycle engine.
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