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Technical Paper

A 1D Real-Time Engine Manifold Gas Dynamics Model Using Orthogonal Collocation Coupled with the Method of Characteristics

2019-04-02
2019-01-0190
In this paper, a new solution method is presented to study the effect of wave propagation in engine manifolds, which includes solving one-dimensional models for compressible flow of air. Velocity, pressure, and density profiles are found by solving a system of non-linear Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) in space and time derived from Euler’s equations. The 1D model includes frictional losses, area change, and heat transfer. The solution is traditionally found by utilizing the Method of Characteristics and applying finite difference solutions to the resulting system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) over a discretized grid. In this work, orthogonal collocation is used to solve the system of ODEs that is defined along the characteristic curves. Orthogonal polynomials are utilized to approximate velocity, pressure, sound speed, and the characteristic curves along which the system of PDEs reduce to a system of ODEs.
Technical Paper

Crack Initiation and Propagation Fatigue Life Prediction for an A36 Steel Welded Plate Specimen

2019-04-02
2019-01-0538
Fatigue crack initiation and propagation models predict the fatigue life of welded "T" specimens tested by the Fatigue Design and Evaluation (FDE) Committee of SAE under constant and variable amplitude load histories. The crack propagation equations stipulated by British Standard BS-7910 have been incorporated in a material memory model for cyclic deformation. The simulations begin with the crack initiation model and show how it is used to account for cyclic mean stress relaxation and the effects of periodic overloads. After the cracks initiate the BS-7910 model is applied to predict the crack advance due to either constant or variable amplitude histories. Simulation results correspond to the experimental results with good accuracy.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of the Transmission System for Electric Vehicles Considering the Dynamic Efficiency of the Regenerative Brake

2018-04-03
2018-01-0819
In this paper, gear ratios of a two-speed transmission system are optimized for an electric passenger car. Quasi static system models, including the vehicle model, the motor, the battery, the transmission system, and drive cycles are established in MATLAB/Simulink at first. Specifically, since the regenerative braking capability of the motor is affected by the SoC of battery and motors torque limitation in real time, the dynamical variation of the regenerative brake efficiency is considered in this study. To obtain the optimal gear ratios, iterations are carried out through Nelder-Mead algorithm under constraints in MATLAB/Simulink. During the optimization process, the motor efficiency is observed along with the drive cycle, and the gear shift strategy is determined based on the vehicle velocity and acceleration demand. Simulation results show that the electric motor works in a relative high efficiency range during the whole drive cycle.
Technical Paper

Efficient Electro-Thermal Model for Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries

2018-04-03
2018-01-0432
The development of a comprehensive battery simulator is essential for future improvements in the durability, performance and service life of lithium-ion batteries. Although simulations can never replace actual experimental data, they can still be used to provide valuable insights into the performance of the battery, especially under different operating conditions. In addition, a single-cell model can be easily extended to the pack level and can be used in the optimization of a battery pack. The first step in building a simulator is to create a model that can effectively capture both the voltage response and thermal behavior of the battery. Since these effects are coupled together, creating a robust simulator requires modeling both components. This paper will develop a battery simulator, where the entire battery model will be composed of four smaller submodels: a heat generation model, a thermal model, a battery parameter model and a voltage response model.
Technical Paper

Degradation Testing and Modeling of 200 Ah LiFePO4 Battery

2018-04-03
2018-01-0441
In this paper, a degradation testing of a lithium-ion battery used for an electric vehicle (EV) is performed and the capacity fade is measured over 400 cycles. For this, a 200 Ah LiFePO4 battery cell is tested under ambient temperature conditions with charge-discharge cycles at rate of 1C (constant current). Additionally, individual cell characterization is conducted using a C/25 (0.8A) charge-discharge cycle and hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC). Later, the Thevenin battery model was constructed in MATLAB along with an empirical degradation model and validated in terms of voltage for all cycles. It is also found that the presented model closely estimated the profiles observed in the experimental data. Data collected from the experimental results showed that a capacity fade occurred over the 400 cycles and the discharge capacity at the end of 400th cycle is found to be 137.73 Ah. The error between model/experiments is found to be less than 3.5% for all cycles.
Technical Paper

Powertrain Modeling and Model Predictive Longitudinal Dynamics Control for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0996
This paper discusses modeling of a power-split hybrid electric vehicle and the design of a longitudinal dynamics controller for the University of Waterloo’s self-driving vehicle project. The powertrain of Waterloo’s vehicle platform, a Lincoln MKZ Hybrid, is controlled only by accelerator pedal actuation. The vehicle’s power management strategy cannot be altered, so a novel approach to grey-box modeling of the OEM powertrain control architecture and dynamics was developed. The model uses a system of multiple neural networks to mimic the response of the vehicle’s torque control module and estimate the distribution of torque between the powertrain’s internal combustion engine and electric motors. The vehicle’s power-split drivetrain and longitudinal dynamics were modeled in MapleSim, a modeling and simulation software, using a physics-based analytical approach.
Technical Paper

Recognizing Driver Braking Intention with Vehicle Data Using Unsupervised Learning Methods

2017-03-28
2017-01-0433
Recently, the development of braking assistance system has largely benefit the safety of both driver and pedestrians. A robust prediction and detection of driver braking intention will enable driving assistance system response to traffic situation correctly and improve the driving experience of intelligent vehicles. In this paper, two types unsupervised clustering methods are used to build a driver braking intention predictor. Unsupervised machine learning algorithms has been widely used in clustering and pattern mining in previous researches. The proposed unsupervised learning algorithms can accurately recognize the braking maneuver based on vehicle data captured with CAN bus. The braking maneuver along with other driving maneuvers such as normal driving will be clustered and the results from different algorithms which are K-means and Gaussian mixture model (GMM) will be compared.
Journal Article

Cyber-Physical System Based Optimization Framework for Intelligent Powertrain Control

2017-03-28
2017-01-0426
The interactions between automatic controls, physics, and driver is an important step towards highly automated driving. This study investigates the dynamical interactions between human-selected driving modes, vehicle controller and physical plant parameters, to determine how to optimally adapt powertrain control to different human-like driving requirements. A cyber-physical system (CPS) based framework is proposed for co-design optimization of the physical plant parameters and controller variables for an electric powertrain, in view of vehicle’s dynamic performance, ride comfort, and energy efficiency under different driving modes. System structure, performance requirements and constraints, optimization goals and methodology are investigated. Intelligent powertrain control algorithms are synthesized for three driving modes, namely sport, eco, and normal modes, with appropriate protocol selections. The performance exploration methodology is presented.
Journal Article

Longitudinal Vehicle Dynamics Modeling and Parameter Estimation for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1574
System identification is an important aspect in model-based control design which is proven to be a cost-effective and time saving approach to improve the performance of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). This study focuses on modeling and parameter estimation of the longitudinal vehicle dynamics for Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid (PHEV) with power-split architecture. This model is needed to develop and evaluate various controllers, such as energy management system, adaptive cruise control, traction and driveline oscillation control. Particular emphasis is given to the driveline oscillations caused due to low damping present in PHEVs by incorporating flexibility in the half shaft and time lag in the tire model.
Journal Article

Cooperative Least Square Parameter Identification by Consensus within the Network of Autonomous Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-0149
In this paper, a consensus framework for cooperative parameter estimation within the vehicular network is presented. It is assumed that each vehicle is equipped with a dedicated short range communication (DSRC) device and connected to other vehicles. The improvement achieved by the consensus for parameter estimation in presence of sensor’s noise is studied, and the effects of network nodes and edges on the consensus performance is discussed. Finally, the simulation results of the introduced cooperative estimation algorithm for estimation of the unknown parameter of road condition is presented. It is shown that due to the faster dynamic of network communication, single agents’ estimation converges to the least square approximation of the unknown parameter properly.
Technical Paper

Volumetric Tire Models for Longitudinal Vehicle Dynamics Simulations

2016-04-05
2016-01-1565
Dynamic modelling of the contact between the tires of automobiles and the road surface is crucial for accurate and effective vehicle dynamic simulation and the development of various driving controllers. Furthermore, an accurate prediction of the rolling resistance is needed for powertrain controllers and controllers designed to reduce fuel consumption and engine emissions. Existing models of tires include physics-based analytical models, finite element based models, black box models, and data driven empirical models. The main issue with these approaches is that none of these models offer the balance between accuracy of simulation and computational cost that is required for the model-based development cycle. To address this issue, we present a volumetric approach to model the forces/moments between the tire and the road for vehicle dynamic simulations.
Technical Paper

An Algorithm to Calculate Chest Deflection from 3D IR-TRACC

2016-04-05
2016-01-1522
A three dimensional IR-TRACC (Infrared Telescope Rod for Assessment of Chest Compression) was designed for the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR) in recent years to measure chest deflections. Due to the design intricateness, the deflection calculation from the measurements is sophisticated. An algorithm was developed in this paper to calculate the three dimensional deflections of the chest. The algorithm calculates the compression and also converts the results to the local spine coordinate system so that it can correlate with the Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS) measurements for injury calculation. The method was also verified by a finite element calculation for accuracy, comparing the calculation from the corresponding model output and the direct point to point measurements. In addition, the IR-TRACC calibration methods are discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Investigations of Atkinson Cycle Converted from Conventional Otto Cycle Gasoline Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-0680
Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) are considered as the most commercial prospects new energy vehicles. Most HEVs have adopted Atkinson cycle engine as the main drive power. Atkinson cycle engine uses late intake valve closing (LIVC) to reduce pumping losses and compression work in part load operation. It can transform more heat energy to mechanical energy, improve engine thermal efficiency and decrease fuel consumption. In this paper, the investigations of Atkinson cycle converted from conventional Otto cycle gasoline engine have been carried out. First of all, high geometry compression ratio (CR) has been optimized through piston redesign from 10.5 to 13 in order to overcome the intrinsic drawback of Atkinson cycle in that combustion performance deteriorates due to the decline in the effective CR. Then, both intake and exhaust cam profile have been redesigned to meet the requirements of Atkinson cycle engine.
Journal Article

A New Adaptive Controller for Performance Improvement of Automotive Suspension Systems with MR Dampers

2014-04-01
2014-01-0052
A control algorithm is developed for active/semi-active suspensions which can provide more comfort and better handling simultaneously. A weighting parameter is tuned online which is derived from two components - slow and fast adaptation to assign weights to comfort and handling. After establishing through simulations that the proposed adaptive control algorithm can demonstrate a performance better than some controllers in prior-art, it is implemented on an actual vehicle (Cadillac STS) which is equipped with MR dampers and several sensors. The vehicle is tested on smooth and rough roads and over speed bumps.
Journal Article

A New Control Strategy for Electric Power Steering on Low Friction Roads

2014-04-01
2014-01-0083
In vehicles equipped with conventional Electric Power Steering (EPS) systems, the steering effort felt by the driver can be unreasonably low when driving on slippery roads. This may lead inexperienced drivers to steer more than what is required in a turn and risk losing control of the vehicle. Thus, it is sensible for tire-road friction to be accounted for in the design of future EPS systems. This paper describes the design of an auxiliary EPS controller that manipulates torque delivery of current EPS systems by supplying its motor with a compensation current controlled by a fuzzy logic algorithm that considers tire-road friction among other factors. Moreover, a steering system model, a nonlinear vehicle dynamics model and a Dugoff tire model are developed in MATLAB/Simulink. Physical testing is conducted to validate the virtual model and confirm that steering torque decreases considerably on low friction roads.
Technical Paper

Parameter Identification of a Quasi-Dimensional Spark-Ignition Engine Combustion Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-0385
Parameter identification of a math-based spark-ignition engine model is studied in this paper. Differential-algebraic equations governing the dynamic behavior of the engine combustion model are derived using a quasi-dimensional modelling scheme. The model is developed based on the two-zone combustion theory with turbulent flame propagation through the combustion chamber [1]. The system of equations includes physics-based equations combined with the semi-empirical Wiebe function. The GT-Power engine simulator software [2], a powerful tool for design and development of engines, is used to extract the reference data for the engine parameter identification. The models is GT-Power are calibrated and validated with experimental results; thus, acquired data from the software can be a reliable reference for engine validation purposes.
Technical Paper

Automation of Adams/Car K&C Correlation using MATLAB

2014-04-01
2014-01-0847
Physical rig testing of a vehicle is often undertaken to obtain experimental data that can be used to ensure a mathematical model is an accurate representation of the vehicle under study. Kinematics and Compliance (K&C) testing is often used for this purpose. The relationship between the hard point locations and compliance parameters, and K&C characteristics of a suspension system is complex, and so automating the process to correlate the model to the test data can make the exercise easier, faster and more accurate than hand tuning the model. In this work, such a process is developed. First, the model parameters are adjusted, next a simulation is run, before the results are read and post processed. This automation processed is used in conjunction with an optimization procedure to carry out the K&C correlation.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Evaluation of Li-Ion Battery Performance Based on the Electric Vehicle Field Tests

2014-04-01
2014-01-1848
In this paper, initial results of Li-ion battery performance characterization through field tests are presented. A fully electrified Ford Escape that is equipped by three Li-ion battery packs (LiFeMnPO4) including an overall 20 modules in series is employed. The vehicle is in daily operation and data of driving including the powertrain and drive cycles as well as the charging data are being transferred through CAN bus to a data logger installed in the vehicle. A model of the vehicle is developed in the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) software based on the available technical specification of the vehicle components. In this model, a simple resistive element in series with a voltage source represents the battery. Battery open circuit voltage (OCV) and internal resistance in charge and discharge mode are estimated as a function of the state of charge (SOC) from the collected test data.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Optimization Techniques for Lithium-Ion Battery Model Parameter Estimation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1851
Due to rising fuel prices and environmental concerns, Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) have been gaining market share as fuel-efficient, environmentally friendly alternatives. Lithium-ion batteries are commonly used in EV and HEV applications because of their high power and energy densities. During controls development of HEVs and EVs, hardware-in-the-loop simulations involving real-time battery models are commonly used to simulate a battery response in place of a real battery. One physics-based model which solves in real-time is the reduced-order battery model developed by Dao et al. [1], which is based on the isothermal model by Newman [2] incorporating concentrated solution theory and porous electrode theory [3]. The battery models must be accurate for effective control; however, if the battery parameters are unknown or change due to degradation, a method for estimating the battery parameters to update the model is required.
Technical Paper

Refrigeration Load Identification of Hybrid Electric Trucks

2014-04-01
2014-01-1897
This paper seeks to identify the refrigeration load of a hybrid electric truck in order to find the demand power required by the energy management system. To meet this objective, in addition to the power consumption of the refrigerator, the vehicle mass needs to be estimated. The Recursive Least Squares (RLS) method with forgetting factors is applied for this estimation. As an example of the application of this parameter identification, the estimated parameters are fed to the energy control strategy of a parallel hybrid truck. The control system calculates the demand power at each instant based on estimated parameters. Then, it decides how much power should be provided by available energy sources to minimize the total energy consumption. The simulation results show that the parameter identification can estimate the vehicle mass and refrigeration load very well which is led to have fairly accurate power demand prediction.
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