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Technical Paper

Evaluation of Low Mileage GPF Filtration and Regeneration as Influenced by Soot Morphology, Reactivity, and GPF Loading

2019-04-02
2019-01-0975
As European and Chinese tailpipe emission regulations for gasoline light-duty vehicles impose particulate number limits, automotive manufacturers have begun equipping some vehicles with a gasoline particulate filter (GPF). Increased understanding of how soot morphology, reactivity, and GPF loading affect GPF filtration and regeneration characteristics is necessary for advancing GPF performance. This study investigates the impacts of morphology, reactivity, and filter soot loading on GPF filtration and regeneration. Soot morphology and reactivity are varied through changes in fuel injection parameters, known to affect soot formation conditions. Changes in morphology and reactivity are confirmed through analysis using a transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) respectively.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Near-Spark-Plug Flow Field and Its Effect on Spark Behavior

2019-04-02
2019-01-0718
In the recent decades, the emission and fuel efficiency regulations put forth by the emission regulation agencies have become increasingly stringent and this trend is expected to continue in future. The advanced spark ignition (SI) engines can operate under lean conditions to improve efficiency and reduce emissions. Under such lean conditions, the ignition and complete combustion of the charge mixture is a challenge because of the reduced charge reactivity. Enhancement of the in-cylinder charge motion and turbulence to increase the flame velocity, and consequently reduce the combustion duration is one possible way to improve lean combustion. The role of air motion in better air-fuel mixing and increasing the flame velocity, by enhancing turbulence has been researched extensively. However, during the ignition process, the charge motion can influence the initial spark discharge, resulting flame kernel formation, and flame propagation.
Technical Paper

A Hardness Study on Laser Cladded Surfaces for a Selected Bead Overlap Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0285
Laser cladding is used to coat a surface of a metal to enhance the metallurgical properties at the surface level of a substrate. For surface cladding operations, overlapping bead geometry is required. Single bead analyses do not provide a complete representation of essential properties; hence, this research focuses on overlapping conditions. The research scope targets the coaxial laser cladding process specifically for P420 stainless steel clad powder using a fiber optic laser with a 4.3 mm spot size on a low/medium carbon structural steel plate (AISI 1018). Many process parameters influence the bead geometrical shape, and it is assumed that the complex temperature distributions within the process could cause subsequent large variations in hardness values. The bead overlap configurations experiments are performed with 40%, 50% and 60% bead overlaps for a three-pass bead formation.
Technical Paper

Investigating Process Parameters and Microhardness Predictive Modeling Approaches for Single Bead 420 Stainless Steel Laser Cladding

2017-03-28
2017-01-0283
Laser cladding is a novel process of surface coating, and researchers in both academia and industry are developing additive manufacturing solutions for large, metallic components. There are many interlinked process parameters associated with laser cladding, which may have an impact on the resultant microhardness profile throughout the bead zone. A set of single bead laser cladding experiments were done using a 4 kW fiber laser coupled with a 6-axis robotic arm for 420 martensitic stainless steel powder. A design of experiments approach was taken to explore a wide range of process parameter settings. The goal of this research is to determine whether robust predictive models for hardness can be developed, and if there are predictive trends that can be employed to optimize the process settings for a given set of process parameters and microhardness requirements.
Technical Paper

Modular Design and Methods to Optimize Seat Complete Assemblies

2017-03-28
2017-01-1309
Modularity in product architecture and its significance in product development have become an important product design topics in the last few decades. Several Product Modularity definitions and methodologies were developed by many researchers; however, most of the definitions and concepts have proliferated to the extent that it is difficult to apply one universal definition for modular product architecture and in product development. Automotive seat modular strategy and key factors for consideration towards modular seat design and assemblies are the main focus of this work. The primary objectives are focused on the most “natural segmentation” of the seat elements (i.e., cushions, backs, trims, plastics, head restraints, etc.) to enable the greatest ease of final assembly and greatest flexibility for scalable feature offerings around common assembly “hard-points.”
Technical Paper

High Energy Ignition Strategies for Diluted Mixtures via a Three-Pole Igniter

2016-10-17
2016-01-2175
A three-pole spark igniter, with the concept to broaden the ignition area, is employed in this paper to investigate the effect of spark discharge strategies on the early ignition burning process. The prototyped three-pole igniter has three independent spark gaps arranged in a triangular pattern with a circumradius of 2.3 mm. Direct-capacitor discharge techniques, utilizing close-coupled capacitors parallel to the spark gap, are applied on the three-pole igniter to enhance either the transient spark power or the overall energy. In particular, the simultaneous discharge of high energy plasma on three spark gaps can produce a surface-like ignition process which intensifies the plasma-flame interaction, thereby producing a rapid flame kernel development. The ignition strategies are evaluated in both constant volume combustion vessels and a modified single-cylinder metal engine.
Journal Article

Using Neural Networks to Examine the Sensitivity of Composite Material Mechanical Properties to Processing Parameters

2016-04-05
2016-01-0499
Successful manufacture of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) by Long-Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic (LFT) processes requires knowledge of the effect of numerous processing parameters such as temperature set-points, rotational machinery speeds, and matrix melt flow rates on the resulting material properties after the final compression moulding of the charge is complete. The degree to which the mechanical properties of the resulting material depend on these processing parameters is integral to the design of materials by any process, but the case study presented here highlights the manufacture of CFRP by LFT as a specific example. The material processing trials are part of the research performed by the International Composites Research Centre (ICRC) at the Fraunhofer Project Centre (FPC) located at the University of Western Ontario in London, Ontario, Canada.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Active and Passive Cooling Systems of a Lithium-Ion Battery Module for Electric Vehicles

2016-04-05
2016-01-0655
In this work, a pseudo three-dimensional coupled thermal-electrochemical model is established to estimate the heat generation and temperature profiles of a lithium ion battery as functions of the state of the discharge. Then, this model is used to investigate the effectiveness of active and passive thermal management systems. The active cooling system utilizes cooling plate and water as the working fluid while the passive cooling system incorporates a phase change material (PCM). The thermal effects of coolant flow rate examined using a computational fluid dynamics model. In the passive cooling system, Paraffin wax used as a heat dissipation source to control battery temperature rise. The effect of module size and battery spacing is studied to find the optimal weight of PCM required. The results show that although the active cooling system has the capability to reduce the peak temperatures, it leads to a large temperature difference over the battery module.
Technical Paper

Transient Response of Minichannel Heat Exchanger Using Al2O3-EG/W Nanofluid

2016-04-05
2016-01-0229
A numerical study is performed to investigate the transient heat transfer and flow characteristics of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) nanoparticles dispersed in 50:50 ethylene glycol/water (EG/W) base fluid in a multipass crossflow minichannel heat exchanger. The time dependent thermal responses of the system in a laminar regime are predicted by solving the conservation equations using the finite volume method and SIMPLE algorithm. The transient regime is caused by a step change of nanofluid mass flow rate at the inlet of the minichannel heat exchanger. This step change can be analogous with a thermostat operation. In this study, three volume fractions up to 3 percent of Al2O3 nanoparticles dispersed to the base fluid EG/W are modeled and analyzed. In the numerical simulation, Al2O3-EG/W nanofluid is considered as a homogenous single-phase fluid. An analysis of the transient response for the variation of nanofluids volume concentrations is conducted.
Technical Paper

New MAC Technologies: Fuel Efficiency Effect in Real Driving of the Air Intake Flap Management

2015-04-14
2015-01-1609
Following the development of new technologies in Vehicle Thermal Management aiming to both enhancing the MAC System efficiency and reducing the thermal load to be managed, a prediction tool based on the AMEsim platform was developed at Advanced PD EMEA. This tool is dedicated to predict the effect of the implementation of sensors monitoring both the relative humidity and the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration (taking into account passengers' generated moisture and CO2). This model implemented with the usual comfort inputs (CO2 and RH acceptable ranges) considers the system variables influencing the comfort and predicts the increase of both RH and CO2 concentration in the cabin compartment in any driving cycle depending on the number of occupants.
Technical Paper

Kinematic Analysis of a 6DOF Gantry Machine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0497
Gantry robots are mainly employed for applications requiring large workspace, with limited higher manipulability in one direction than the others. The Gantries offer very good mechanical stiffness and constant positioning accuracy, but low dexterity. Common gantries are CNC machines with three translational joints XYZ (3DOF) and usually with an attached wrist (+3DOF). The translational joints are used to move the tool in any position in the 3D workspace. The wrist is used to orient the tool by rotation about X, Y and Z axis. This standard kinematic structure (3T3R) produces a rectangular workspace. In this paper a full kinematic model for a 6DOF general CNC (gantry) machine is presented, along with the Jacobian matrix and singularity analysis. Using Denavit-Hartenberg convention, firstly, the general kinematic structure is presented, in order to assign frames at each link. The forward kinematic problem is solved using Maple 17 software.
Technical Paper

A Neural Network Approach for Predicting Collision Severity

2014-04-01
2014-01-0569
The development of a collision severity model can serve as an important tool in understanding the requirements for devising countermeasures to improve occupant safety and traffic safety. Collision type, weather conditions, and driver intoxication are some of the factors that may influence motor vehicle collisions. The objective of this study is to use artificial neural networks (ANNs) to identify the major determinants or contributors to fatal collisions based on various driver, vehicle, and environment characteristics obtained from collision data from Transport Canada. The developed model will have the capability to predict similar collision outcomes based on the variables analyzed in this study. A multilayer perceptron (MLP) neural network model with feed-forward back-propagation architecture is used to develop a generalized model for predicting collision severity. The model output, collision severity, is divided into three categories - fatal, injury, and property damage only.
Journal Article

A Methodology for Investigating and Modelling Laser Clad Bead Geometry and Process Parameter Relationships

2014-04-01
2014-01-0737
Laser cladding is a method of material deposition through which a powdered or wire feedstock material is melted and consolidated by use of a laser to coat part of a substrate. Determining the parameters to fabricate the desired clad bead geometry for various configurations is problematic as it involves a significant investment of raw materials and time resources, and is challenging to develop a predictive model. The goal of this research is to develop an experimental methodology that minimizes the amount of data to be collected, and to develop a predictive model that is accurate, adaptable, and expandable. To develop the predictive model of the clad bead geometry, an integrated five-step approach is presented. From the experimental data, an artificial neural network model is developed along with multiple regression equations.
Technical Paper

Engine Fault Detection Using Vibration Signal Reconstruction in the Crank-Angle Domain

2011-05-17
2011-01-1660
Advanced engine test methods incorporate several different sensing and signal processing techniques for identifying and locating manufacturing or assembly defects of an engine. A successful engine test method therefore, requires advanced signal processing techniques. This paper introduces a novel signal processing technique to successfully detect a faulty internal combustion engine in a quantitative manner. Accelerometers are mounted on the cylinder head and lug surfaces while vibration signals are recorded during engine operation. Using the engine's cam angular position, the vibration signals are transformed from the time domain to the crank-angle domain. At the heart of the transformation lies interpolation. In this paper, linear, cubic spline and sinc interpolation methods are demonstrated for reconstructing vibration signals in the crank-angle domain.
Technical Paper

Active Suspension Handling Simulation using Cosimulation

2010-12-01
2010-01-1582
In this study the capabilities of a semi-active suspension and an active roll suspension are evaluated for comparison with a passive suspension. The vehicle used is a utility truck modeled as a multi-body system in ADAMS/Car while the ECU (electronic control unit) is built in Matlab/Simulink. Cosimulation is used in linking the vehicle model with the controller by exchanging the input and output values of each sub-system with one another. For the simulation models considered, results indicate that for a fish-hook cornering maneuver the semi-active suspension is limited in increasing vehicle performance while the active roll suspension significantly improves it. Further analysis is needed to confirm these findings.
Technical Paper

Power Management Methodologies for Fuel Cell-Battery Hybrid Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-0849
The implementation of fuel cell-battery hybrid vehicles requires a supervisory control strategy that manages the power distribution between the fuel cell and the energy storage device (i.e., battery). Several advanced control methods have already been developed and published in literature. However, most control methods have been developed for different vehicle types and using different mathematical models. The performance of these power management methods have not been directly compared for the same application. This study aims at obtaining direct analytical comparisons, which will provide useful insight in selecting a power management method for fuel cell-battery hybrid vehicles.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Method to Study the Sensitivity of Transmission Laser Welding of Plastic Parts to Interfacial Gaps

2009-04-20
2009-01-1298
Hollow polymer-based automotive components cannot, in general, be directly injection molded because they cannot be ejected from the mold. The common practice is to injection mold two or more parts, and then join these together with a welding process. Of the many joining process available, laser welding has an advantage in geometric design freedom. The laser weld joints are also generally stronger than those of vibration welds because the weld joints are located in the walls rather than on external flanges. Eliminating the external flanges also makes the part more compact. In transmission laser welding processes, the laser beam passes through a transparent part to its interface with an opaque part. The beam energy is absorbed near the interface in the opaque part, and heat flows back across to the transparent half to make the weld pool. So successful laser welds are possible only when there is a continuous interfacial fit between the parts.
Journal Article

An Enabling Study of Diesel Low Temperature Combustion via Adaptive Control

2009-04-20
2009-01-0730
Low temperature combustion (LTC), though effective to reduce soot and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) simultaneously from diesel engines, operates in narrowly close to unstable regions. Adaptive control strategies are developed to expand the stable operations and to improve the fuel efficiency that was commonly compromised by LTC. Engine cycle simulations were performed to better design the combustion control models. The research platform consists of an advanced common-rail diesel engine modified for the intensified single cylinder research and a set of embedded real-time (RT) controllers, field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices, and a synchronized personal computer (PC) control and measurement system.
Technical Paper

Real-time Heat Release Analysis for Model-based Control of Diesel Combustion

2008-04-14
2008-01-1000
A number of cylinder-pressure derived parameters including the crank angles of maximum pressure, maximum rate of pressure rise, and 50% heat released are considered as among the desired feedback for cycle-by-cycle adaptive control of diesel combustion. For real-time computation of these parameters, the heat release analyses based on the first law of thermodynamics are used. This paper intends to identify the operating regions where the simplified heat release approach provides sufficient accuracy for control applications and also highlights those regions where its use can lead to significant errors in the calculated parameters. The effects of the cylinder charge-to-wall heat transfer and the temperature dependence of the specific heat ratio on the model performance are reported. A new computationally efficient algorithm for estimating the crank angle of 50% heat released with adequate accuracy is proposed for computation in real-time.
Journal Article

Plasmonic in Metallic Nanostructures – Fabrication, Characterization and Applications in Surface-Enhanced Spectroscopy

2008-04-14
2008-01-1267
We are witnessing a rapid and ongoing expansion of nanoscience, driven by potential applications in advanced materials and nanotechnology. There is a race to develop techniques that may allow controlling the size, shape of nanostructures that can allow the tuning of their optical and electronic properties. Plasmonics is a field that encompasses and profits from the optical enhancement in nanostructures that support plasmon excitations. One of these new techniques is surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), commonly used for nanostructure characterization. In the present report, we present a theoretical model for plasmon excitation and electric field enhancement that help to provide an explanation for the special features observed in experimental SERS. Two sets of experimental results are discussed illustrating the make out of the signature of the plasmonics producing the optical enhancement.
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