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Technical Paper

Investigating Collaborative Robot Gripper Configurations for Simple Fabric Pick and Place Tasks

2019-04-02
2019-01-0699
Fiber composite materials are widely used in many industrial applications - specially in automotive, aviation and consumer goods. Introducing light-weighting material solutions to reduce vehicle mass is driving innovative materials research activities as polymer composites offer high specific stiffness and strength compared to contemporary engineering materials. However, there are issues related to high production volume, automation strategies and handling methods. The state of the art for the production of these light-weight flexible textile or composite fiber products is setting up multi-stage manual operations for hand layups. Material handling of flexible textile/fiber components is a process bottleneck. Consequently, the long term research goal is to develop semi-automated pick and place processes for flexible materials utilizing collaborative robots within the process. Collaborative robots allow for interactive human-machine tasks to be conducted.
Journal Article

Using Neural Networks to Examine the Sensitivity of Composite Material Mechanical Properties to Processing Parameters

2016-04-05
2016-01-0499
Successful manufacture of Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) by Long-Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic (LFT) processes requires knowledge of the effect of numerous processing parameters such as temperature set-points, rotational machinery speeds, and matrix melt flow rates on the resulting material properties after the final compression moulding of the charge is complete. The degree to which the mechanical properties of the resulting material depend on these processing parameters is integral to the design of materials by any process, but the case study presented here highlights the manufacture of CFRP by LFT as a specific example. The material processing trials are part of the research performed by the International Composites Research Centre (ICRC) at the Fraunhofer Project Centre (FPC) located at the University of Western Ontario in London, Ontario, Canada.
Technical Paper

New MAC Technologies: Fuel Efficiency Effect in Real Driving of the Air Intake Flap Management

2015-04-14
2015-01-1609
Following the development of new technologies in Vehicle Thermal Management aiming to both enhancing the MAC System efficiency and reducing the thermal load to be managed, a prediction tool based on the AMEsim platform was developed at Advanced PD EMEA. This tool is dedicated to predict the effect of the implementation of sensors monitoring both the relative humidity and the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration (taking into account passengers' generated moisture and CO2). This model implemented with the usual comfort inputs (CO2 and RH acceptable ranges) considers the system variables influencing the comfort and predicts the increase of both RH and CO2 concentration in the cabin compartment in any driving cycle depending on the number of occupants.
Technical Paper

Metrics for Evaluating the Ride Handling Compromise

2010-04-12
2010-01-1139
Though the purpose of a vehicle's suspension is multi-faceted and complex, the fundamentals may be simply stated: the suspension exists to provide the occupants with a tolerable ride, while simultaneously ensuring that the tires maintain good contact with the ground. At the root of the familiar ride/handling compromise, is the problem that tuning efforts which improve either grip or handling are generally to the detriment of the other. This study seeks to set forth a clear means for examining the familiar ride/handing compromise, by first exploring the key ideas of these terms, and then by describing the development of content-rich metrics to permit a direct optimization strategy. For simplicity, the optimization problem was examined in a unilateral manner, where heave (vertical; z-axis) behaviour is examined in isolation, though the methods described herein may be extended to pitch and roll behaviour as well.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Method to Study the Sensitivity of Transmission Laser Welding of Plastic Parts to Interfacial Gaps

2009-04-20
2009-01-1298
Hollow polymer-based automotive components cannot, in general, be directly injection molded because they cannot be ejected from the mold. The common practice is to injection mold two or more parts, and then join these together with a welding process. Of the many joining process available, laser welding has an advantage in geometric design freedom. The laser weld joints are also generally stronger than those of vibration welds because the weld joints are located in the walls rather than on external flanges. Eliminating the external flanges also makes the part more compact. In transmission laser welding processes, the laser beam passes through a transparent part to its interface with an opaque part. The beam energy is absorbed near the interface in the opaque part, and heat flows back across to the transparent half to make the weld pool. So successful laser welds are possible only when there is a continuous interfacial fit between the parts.
Journal Article

Rotary Fatigue Analysis of Forged Magnesium Road Wheels

2008-04-14
2008-01-0211
Fatigue analysis incorporating explicit finite element simulation was conducted on a forged magnesium wheel model where a rotating bend moment was applied to the hub to simulate rotary fatigue testing. Based on wheel fatigue design criteria and a developed fatigue post-processor, the safety factor of fatigue failure was calculated for each finite element. Fatigue failure was verified through experimental testing. Design modifications were proposed by increasing the spoke thickness. Further numerical and experimental testing indicated that the modified design passed the rotary fatigue test.
Technical Paper

Active Four Wheel Brake Proportioning for Improved Performance and Safety

2008-04-14
2008-01-1224
A vehicle undergoing longitudinal or lateral accelerations experiences load transfer, dynamically changing the normal load carried by each tire. Conventional braking systems are designed only to work adequately over a large range of conditions, but often ignore the dynamic state of the tire's normal load. Fortunately, new developments in braking system hardware give designers more control over the application of braking pressures. By identifying the tires that carry increased normal load, and biasing the braking system toward those tires, total braking force can be increased. The purpose of this research is to investigate advantages of open-loop load transfer based active brake pressure distribution. By estimating the tractive ability of the tires as a function of measurable vehicle conditions, brake pressure can be applied in proportions appropriate for the current dynamic state of the vehicle, referred to as Active Brake Proportioning (ABP).
Technical Paper

Control-Oriented Model for Electric Power Steering System

2006-04-03
2006-01-0938
Electric power steering (EPS) systems have been used to replace hydraulic power steering systems in vehicles. How to enhance the safety and reliability while reducing the manufacturing cost of EPS systems is still of strong interest to the automotive industry. In this paper, modeling analysis is conducted for advanced control of electric power steering system. Specifically, a mathematical model is proposed for a column-mounted EPS system and then a simplified model for control design purpose is proposed. Issues that need to be addressed, such as noise/ disturbance attenuation as well as potential fault detection/tolerance are analyzed. Simulation using CarSim™ is also presented for an optimal control design using the simplified model as an example to validate the proposed ideas.
Technical Paper

A Post-processor for Finite Element Stress-based Fatigue Analysis

2006-04-03
2006-01-0537
Explicit finite element simulations were conducted on an aluminum wheel model where a rotating bend moment was applied on its hub to simulate wheel cornering fatigue testing. A post-processor was developed to calculate equivalent von Mises alternating and mean stresses from stress tensor. The safety factors of fatigue design for each finite element were determined to assess the fatigue performance by utilizing the Goodman linear relationship. Elements with low safety factors were identified due to the prescribed boundary conditions and stress concentrations arising from wheel geometry.
Technical Paper

Separation and Liberation Factors in Designing for Automotive Materials Recovery

2004-03-08
2004-01-0471
One critical aspect of design-for-environment efforts is to increase the effectiveness of materials recovery from end-of-life vehicles. Recovery itself depends on both the amount of material recovered and the purity of the material stream. Shredding, and screening are often used to separate recyclable materials from wastes. However, with the increasing amount of composite components, particularly those made from plastics, separation processes may be inadequate. Instead, liberation processes, which reduce the physical joints between materials, are also important. In this research, samples of ABS and PVC plastics were assembled into various configurations, ground up, and then characterized by their size distributions and degrees of liberation. Two primary fastening methods - adhesive and riveting - were used to simulate how plastic components would be actually attached together.
Technical Paper

Laser Welding of Elastomers to Polypropylene

2003-03-03
2003-01-1134
The effects of varying laser-welding parameters were studied for the welding of the thermoplastic elastomer EPDM to glass filled polypropylene. Through-thickness scanning transmission welding (contour welding) was carried out with a diode laser with a wavelength of 940 nm using various power levels up to 150W and line speeds up to 2500 mm/minute. The observable weld attributes: weld strengths, weld widths, and failure modes, have been tabulated and discussed.
Technical Paper

Development of a Plastic Manifold Noise Syntheses Technique

2001-03-05
2001-01-1144
The effects of engine noise in plastic manifolds has been a subject of study in the automotive Industry. Several SAE papers have been published on the subject. Most testing described requires access to engine dynamometers and other elaborate equipment. As part of a general study of plastic intake manifold noise characteristics, this study was undertaken to develop a synthesis bench for enabling low cost noise testing of plastic induction systems including plastic manifolds. Computer simulation of engine intake noise was used as part of a correlation between the plastic manifold synthesis bench and actual engine measurements. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis provided analogous results between the predicted theoretical and two measured signals with a fundamental frequency at approximately 80 Hz. Qualitative and statistical comparisons of the time domain signals also proved equally favourable. Recommendations are included for further development of this approach.
Technical Paper

Observations of the Relative Performance of Magnesium and Aluminum Steering Wheel Skeletons with Identical Geometry

2000-03-06
2000-01-0784
Automotive steering wheels depend on a structural skeleton made of steel, aluminum, or magnesium to be the basis for the mechanical properties of the finished part. The mechanical properties of concern are the fatigue properties and the crash performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the crash and the fatigue performance of a steering wheel skeleton fabricated by high pressure die casting. Two materials were used to produce two groups of wheels with identical geometry. The production part was designed, optimized and fabricated with AM50A magnesium. The production magnesium component met all of the regulatory design and performance requirements. A small sample run was made in a proprietary aluminum - magnesium alloy. The fatigue and crash properties were evaluated empirically. In fatigue testing, the aluminum skeletons displayed a significant improvement, with respect to the magnesium skeletons, in the number of cycles to failure at the loads tested.
Technical Paper

Disassembly Modeling Used to Assess Automotive Recycling Opportunities

1997-02-24
970416
Currently, the recycling of automobiles can be considered to be a success story. However, it is hoped by the automakers that the current automotive recycling infrastructure can adapt to include more disassembly of plastics for recycling. The success of this option depends on the economics involved. Therefore, a method for evaluating the economics of disassembly for recycling is utilized to see how changes in recycling prices, disassembly costs, or design might affect the practices of dismantlers.
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