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Journal Article

Experimental Investigation of Intake Condition and Group-Hole Nozzle Effects on Fuel Economy and Combustion Noise for Stoichiometric Diesel Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine

The goal of this research is to investigate the physical parameters of stoichiometric operation of a diesel engine under a light load operating condition (6∼7 bar IMEP). This paper focuses on improving the fuel efficiency of stoichiometric operation, for which a fuel consumption penalty relative to standard diesel combustion was found to be 7% from a previous study. The objective is to keep NOx and soot emissions at reasonable levels such that a 3-way catalyst and DPF can be used in an aftertreatment combination to meet 2010 emissions regulation. The effects of intake conditions and the use of group-hole injector nozzles (GHN) on fuel consumption of stoichiometric diesel operation were investigated. Throttled intake conditions exhibited about a 30% fuel penalty compared to the best fuel economy case of high boost/EGR intake conditions. The higher CO emissions of throttled intake cases lead to the poor fuel economy.
Technical Paper

Stoichiometric Combustion in a HSDI Diesel Engine to Allow Use of a Three-way Exhaust Catalyst

The objectives of this study were 1) to evaluate the characteristics of rich diesel combustion near the stoichiometric operating condition, 2) to explore the possibility of stoichiometric operation of a diesel engine in order to allow use of a three-way exhaust after-treatment catalyst, and 3) to achieve practical operation ranges with acceptable fuel economy impacts. Boost pressure, EGR rate, intake air temperature, fuel mass injected, and injection timing variations were investigated to evaluate diesel stoichiometric combustion characteristics in a single-cylinder high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine. Stoichiometric operation in the Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion regime and standard diesel combustion were examined to investigate the characteristics of rich combustion. The results indicate that diesel stoichiometric operation can be achieved with minor fuel economy and soot impact.
Technical Paper

Development of an Ignition and Combustion Model for Spark-Ignition Engines

A new ignition and combustion model has been developed and tested for use in premixed spark-ignition engines. The ignition model is referred to as the Discrete Particle Ignition Kernel (DPIK) model, and it uses Lagrangian markers to track the flame-front growth. The model includes the effects of electrode heat transfer on the early flame kernel growth process, and it is used in conjunction with a characteristic-time-scale combustion model once the ignition kernel has grown to a size where the effects of turbulence on the flame must be considered. A new term which accounts for the effect of air-fuel ratio, was added to the combustion model for modeling combustion in very lean and very rich mixtures. The flame kernel size predicted by the DPIK model was compared with measurements of Maly and Vogel. Furthermore, predictions of the electrode heat transfer were compared with data of Kravchik and Heywood. In both comparisons the model predictions were in good agreement with the experiments.
Technical Paper

Visualization and Modeling of Pilot Injection and Combustion in Diesel Engines

An endoscope-based image acquisition-and-processing camera system was used for diagnostics of pilot injection combustion in a single-cylinder heavy duty diesel engine. A study of the pilot injection or light load is of interest because the spray breakup, mixing and vaporization processes are less influenced by heat feedback from the flame than in full injection cases. This allows the spray process to be decoupled from the combustion process. The experimental cases were modeled using a version of the KIVA-II code that includes improvements in the turbulence, wall heat transfer, spray, ignition and combustion models. Pilot injections of three different amounts (10, 15 and 20% of the fuel injected at 75% load and 1600 RPM) at different start-of-injection timings were studied. The imaging system included an endoscope, an intensified CID camera, a frame grabber and the control circuitry.