Biogenous Ethanol: CO2 Savings and Operation in a Dual-Fuel Designed Diesel Engine
The usage of ethanol and two different mixtures of ethanol and gasoline (E85 and E65) wаs investigated on a modified diesel engine designed to work in a dual-fuel combustion mode with intake manifold alcohol injection. The maximum ratio of alcohol to diesel fuel was limited by irregular combustion phenomena like degrading combustion quality and poor process controllability at low load and knock as well as auto-ignition at high load. With rising alcohol amount, a significant reduction of soot mass and particle number was observed. At some testing points, substituting diesel with ethanol, E65 or E85 led to a reduction of NOx emissions; however, the real benefit concerning the nitrogen oxides was introduced by the mitigation of the soot-NOx trade-off. The indicated engine efficiency in dual-fuel mode showed an extended tolerance against high EGR rates. It was significantly improved with enhanced substitution ratios at high loads, whereas it dropped at low loads.