Control of a Low Cost Range Extender for L1e Class PHEV Two-Wheelers
Due to the small number of two wheelers in Europe and their seasonal use, their contribution to the total emissions has been underestimated for a long time. With the implementation of the new emission regulation 168/2013  for type approval coming into force 2016, the two wheeler sector is facing major changes. The need to fulfil more stringent emission limits and the high demand on the durability of after treatment systems result in an engine control system that is getting more complex and therewith more expensive. Especially the low cost two wheelers with small engine capacities will be affected by increasing costs which cannot be covered by the actual competitive product price. Therefore, new vehicle concepts have to be introduced on the market. A vehicle concept of a plug in hybrid electric city scooter with range extender as well as the range extender itself have already been published in SAE Papers 2011-32-0592  and 2012-32-0083 .