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Technical Paper

Application of Electrically Driven Coolant Pumps on a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0074
A reduction in CO2 emissions and consequently fuel consumption is essential in the context of future greenhouse gas limits. With respect to the thermodynamic loss analysis of an internal combustion engine, a gap between the net indicated thermal efficiency and the brake thermal efficiency is recognizable. This share is caused by friction losses, which are the focus of this research project. The parasitic loss reduction potential by replacing the mechanical water pump with an electric coolant pump is discussed in the course of this work. This is not a novel approach in light duty vehicles, whereas in commercial vehicles a rigid drive of all auxiliaries is standard. Taking into account an implementation of a 48-V power system in the short or medium term, an electrification of auxiliary components becomes feasible. The application of electric coolant pumps on an Euro VI certified 6-cylinder in-line heavy-duty diesel engine regarding fuel economy was thus performed.
Technical Paper

Ion Current Comparison in Small, Fast Running Gasoline Engines for Non-Automotive Applications

2018-10-30
2018-32-0077
Small engines for non-automotive applications include 2-stroke and 4-stroke gasoline engine concepts which have a reduced number of sensors due to cost and packaging constraints. In order to cope with future emission regulations, more sophisticated engine control and monitoring becomes mandatory. Therefore, a cost-effective way has to be found to gain maximum information from the existing sensors and actuators. Due to an increasing bio-fuel share in the market, the detection of bio-fuel content is necessary to guarantee a stable combustion by adapting the injection and ignition control strategy. Meaningful information about the combustion can be retrieved from combustion chamber ion current measurements. This paper proposes a general overview of combustion process monitoring in different engine concepts by measuring the ion current during combustion.
Technical Paper

Combustion Analysis with Residual Gas as a Design Parameter for Two-Stroke Engines

2018-10-30
2018-32-0045
In a variety of applications, two-stroke engines assert their usage as a propulsion unit, for examples in off-road vehicles, scooters, hand-held power tools and others. The outstanding power to weight ratio is the key advantage for two-stroke engines. Furthermore, two-stroke engines convince with high durability and low maintenance demand. However, an increasing environmental awareness, the protection of health and the shortage of fossil resources are the driving factors to further enhance the internal combustion process of two-stroke engines. The reduction of emissions and fuel consumption with a constant power level is focused on. Developments deal with the optimization of the combustion process itself or the enhancement of the exhaust gas aftertreatment. Especially in very small two-stroke engines an exhaust gas aftertreatment system is rarely applied, due to disadvantages regarding component temperatures and product costs.
Technical Paper

Influence of Ethanol and 2-Butanol Blended Fuels on Combustion and Emissions in a Small Displacement Two Stroke Engine

2018-10-30
2018-32-0044
Small displacement two-stroke engines are cheap and low-maintenance propulsion systems and commonly used in scooters, recreation vehicles and handheld power-tools. The restriction by emission legislation and the increasing environmental awareness of end users as well as decreasing energy resources cause a rethinking in the development of propulsion systems and fuels in these fields. Despite recent improvements of electric powertrains, two stroke engines are the challenged propulsion system in high performance handheld power tools at the moment. The reasons are the extraordinary high power to weight ratio of two-stroke engines, the high energy density of liquid fuels and the reliability of the product with respect to extreme ambient conditions. Nevertheless, further improvements on emissions and fuel consumption of small displacement two-stroke engines can be realized.
Technical Paper

Fast Full Wave Simulation of Ultrasonic Pulse-Echo Testing by Iterative Coupling of Analytical and Numerical Methods

2018-06-13
2018-01-1470
The pulse-echo method of non-destructive ultrasonic material testing is modeled by an iterative coupling scheme combining analytical and numerical methods in different domains. The approach offers significant advantages in terms of computational efficiency compared to volumetric mesh-based numerical models if the distance between transducer and specimen is large compared to the wavelength in the coupling medium. Excitation and results are given in the time domain while computations are performed in the frequency domain and are compatible with usual FEM solvers for linear elasticity. Due to the use of interpolated phase-shifted transfer functions only a small number of frequency lines is required in comparison to a direct Fourier transform of signals. The method is illustrated alongside a typical application on a steel structure embedded in water.
Technical Paper

Prediction of Eigenfrequencies and Eigenmodes of Seatbelt Retractors in the Vehicle Environment, Supporting an Acoustically Optimal Retractor Integration by CAE

2018-06-13
2018-01-1543
From an acoustical point of view, the integration of seatbelt retractors in a vehicle is a real challenge that has to be met early in the vehicle development process. The buzz and rattle noise of seat belt retractors is a weak yet disturbing interior noise. Street irregularities excite the wheels and this excitation is transferred via the car body to the mounting location of the retractor. Ultimately, the inertia sensor of the locking mechanism is also excited. This excitation can be amplified by structural resonances and generate a characteristic impact noise. The objective of this paper is to describe a simulation method for an early development phase that predicts the noise-relevant low frequency local modes and consequently the contact of the retractor with the mounting panel of the car body via the finite element method.
Technical Paper

Multimethod Concept for Continuous Wear-Analysis of the Piston Group

2018-04-03
2018-01-0839
Friction losses as well as lube oil consumption at the piston group are key factors for future engine downsizing concepts regarding to emissions and consumption. This means an early identification of friction losses and wear is essential within development. The main problem is that the wear assessment is based on long durability tests which are typically performed in a later phase. This may lead to the fact that an early optimized configuration with respect to friction can cause a potential wear problem later in the durability test program. Still ongoing trends in combustion engine engineering lead to both the minimized oil supply in the tribocontact piston bore interface and improved wear resistance. One is forced to the conclusion that understanding and quantifying wear will be a key driver for the future engine development process. The aim is a holistic concept that combines different methods to investigate wear and furthermore its combination with friction loss studies.
Technical Paper

System Design Model for Parallel Hybrid Powertrains using Design of Experiments

2018-04-03
2018-01-0417
The paper focuses on an optimization methodology, which uses Design of Experiments (DoE) methods to define component parameters of parallel hybrid powertrains such as number of gears, transmission spread, gear ratios, progression factor, electric motor power, electric motor nominal speed, battery voltage and cell capacity. Target is to find the optimal configuration based on specific customer targets (e.g. fuel consumption, performance targets). In the method developed here, the hybrid drive train configuration and the combustion engine are considered as fixed components. The introduced methodology is able to reduce development time and to increase output quality of the early system definition phase. The output parameters are used as a first hint for subsequently performed detailed component development. The methodology integrates existing software tools like AVL CRUISE [5] and AVL CAMEO [1].
Technical Paper

Thermodynamic Loss Analysis of a High Power Motorcycle Engine with Focus on Alcohol Blended Fuels

2017-11-05
2017-32-0070
The development of future internal combustion engines and fuels is influenced by decreasing energy resources, restriction of emission legislation and increasing environmental awareness of humanity itself. Alternative renewable fuels have, in dependency on their physical and chemical properties, on the production process and on the raw material, the potential to contribute a better well-to-wheel-CO2-emission-balance in automotive and nonautomotive applications. The focus of this research is the usage of alcohol fuels, like ethanol and 2-butanol, in motorcycle high power engines. The different propulsion systems and operation scenarios of motorcycle applications in comparison to automobile applications raise the need for specific research in this area.
Journal Article

Advanced Heat Transfer and Underhood Airflow Investigation with Focus on Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) of Snowmobiles

2017-06-28
2017-01-9180
The presented paper focuses on the computation of heat transfer related to continuously variable transmissions (CVTs). High temperatures are critical for the highly loaded rubber belts and reduce their lifetime significantly. Hence, a sufficient cooling system is inevitable. A numerical tool which is capable of predicting surface heat transfer and maximum temperatures is of high importance for concept design studies. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is a suitable method to carry out this task. In this work, a time efficient and accurate simulation strategy is developed to model the complexity of a CVT. The validity of the technique used is underlined by field measurements. Tests have been carried out on a snowmobile CVT, where component temperatures, air temperatures in the CVT vicinity and engine data have been monitored. A corresponding CAD model has been created and the boundary conditions were set according to the testing conditions.
Technical Paper

A 3D Linear Acoustic Network Representation of Mufflers with Perforated Elements and Sound Absorptive Material

2017-06-05
2017-01-1789
The acoustics of automotive intake and exhaust systems is typically modeled using linear acoustics or gas-dynamics simulation. These approaches are preferred during basic sound design in the early development stages due to their computational efficiency compared to complex 3D CFD and FEM solutions. The linear acoustic method reduces the component being modelled to an equivalent acoustic two-port transfer matrix which describes the acoustic characteristic of the muffler. Recently this method was used to create more detailed and more accurate models based on a network of 3D cells. As the typical automotive muffler includes perforated elements and sound absorptive material, this paper demonstrates the extension of the 3D linear acoustic network description of a muffler to include the aforementioned elements. The proposed method was then validated against experimental results from muffler systems with perforated elements and sound absorptive material.
Technical Paper

Parameterization Process of the Maxwell Model to Describe the Transient Force Behavior of a Tire

2017-03-28
2017-01-1505
The present technical article deals with the modeling of dynamic tire forces, which are relevant during interactions of safety relevant Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Special attention has been paid on simple but effective tire modeling of semi-physical type. In previous investigations, experimental validation showed that the well-known first-order Kelvin-Voigt model, described by a spring and damper element, describes good suitability around fixed operation points, but is limited for a wide working range. When aiming to run vehicle dynamics models within a frequency band of excitation up to 8 Hz, these models deliver remarkable deviations from measured tire characteristics. To overcome this limitation, a nonlinear Maxwell spring-damper element was introduced which is qualified to model the dynamic hardening of the elastomer materials of the tire.
Journal Article

Improved Modeling of Near-Wall Heat Transport for Cooling of Electric and Hybrid Powertrain Components by High Prandtl Number Flow

2017-03-28
2017-01-0621
Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations of heat transfer involving wall bounded flows at elevated Prandtl numbers typically suffer from a lack of accuracy and/or increased mesh dependency. This can be often attributed to an improper near-wall turbulence modeling and the deficiency of the wall heat transfer models (based on the so called P-functions) that do not properly account for the variation of the turbulent Prandtl number in the wall proximity (y+< 5). As the conductive sub-layer gets significantly thinner than the viscous velocity sub-layer (for Pr >1), treatment of the thermal buffer layer gains importance as well. Various hybrid strategies utilize blending functions dependent on the molecular Prandtl number, which do not necessarily provide a smooth transition from the viscous/conductive sub-layer to the logarithmic region.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Different Injection Technologies for High Performance Two-Stroke Engines

2016-11-08
2016-32-0001
High performance engines are used in many different powersports applications. In several of these applications 2-stroke engines play an important role. The direct injection technology is a key technology for 2-stroke engines to fulfill both the customers’ request for high power and the environmental requirements concerning emissions and efficiency. As the load spectrum differs from one application to the other, it was interesting to find out if different injection technologies can answer the needs for different applications more efficiently regarding performance but also economic targets. Therefore, the results of the BRP Rotax 600 cm3 E-TEC (direct injection system) engine are compared to the same base engine but adopted with the LPDI (low pressure direct injection) technology developed by IVT at Graz University of Technology. The systems were compared on the engine testbench over 17 rpm / load points representing different product usage profiles.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Different Downsizing Strategies for 2- and 3-Cylinder Engines by the Use of 1D-CFD Simulation

2016-11-08
2016-32-0037
The internal combustion engine is still the most important propulsion system for individual mobility. Especially for the application of motorcycles and recreation vehicles the extraordinary high power density is crucial. Today, these engines are mainly 4-stroke naturally aspirated MPFI engines. The main difference to the automotive sector is the abandonment of all cost intensive technologies, like variable valve timing, intake air charging or gasoline direct injection. The need for further investigations and implementation of new technologies is given due to the very high share of total road transport emissions of motorcycles and the introduction of the emission limits of EURO5 in 2020. One possibility to reach the future emission limits is the downsizing strategy. For this, the potential for emission and fuel consumption reduction is well known.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigations Regarding the Potential of an Electronic Ignition Timing Control for a Lawn Mower Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0083
In order to fulfill future regulations regarding emissions and CO2 reduction, the small engine market inclines to migrate from carburetor systems to cleaner, more efficient electronic ignition controls and electronic fuel injection systems. When implementing such mechatronic systems in small engine applications, one has to consider specific boundary conditions like the lack of relevant sensors, limited possibilities in terms of space and of course the necessity to keep the costs as low as possible. Especially in the non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) segment, the absence of sensors makes it difficult to apply standard electronic control systems, which are based on engine related input signals provided by sensors. One engine related signal, which is even provided by the simplest engine setup, is some form of the crankshaft speed since it is essential for the functionality of the engine.
Journal Article

Investigations and Analysis of Working Processes of Two-Stroke Engines with the Focus on Wall Heat Flux

2016-11-08
2016-32-0028
Small displacement two-stroke engines are widely used as affordable and low-maintenance propulsion systems for motorcycles, scooters, hand-held power tools and others. In recent years, considerable progress regarding emission reduction has been reached. Nevertheless, a further improvement of two-stroke engines is necessary to cover protection of health and environment. In addition, the shortage of fossil fuel resources and the anthropogenic climate change call for a sensual use of natural resources and therefore, the fuel consumption and engine efficiency needs to be improved. With the application of suitable analyses methods it is possible to find improving potential of the working processes of these engines. The thermodynamic loss analysis is a frequently applied method to examine the working process and is universally adaptable.
Journal Article

Experimental and Simulative Friction Analysis of a Fired Passenger Car Diesel Engine with Focus on the Cranktrain

2016-10-17
2016-01-2348
The CO2 reduction required by legislation represents a major challenge to the OEMs now and in the future. The use of fuel consumption saving potentials of friction-causing engine components can make a significant contribution. Boundary potential aspects of a combustion engine offer a good opportunity for estimating fuel consumption potentials. As a result, the focus of development is placed on components with great saving potentials. Friction investigations using the motored method are still state of the art. The disadvantages using this kind of friction measurement method are incorrect engine operating conditions like cylinder pressure, piston and liner temperatures, piston secondary movement and warm deformations which can lead to incorrect measurement results compared to a fired engine. In the past, two friction measurement methods came up, the so called floating liner method and a motored friction measurement with external charging.
Technical Paper

Development of a Parametric Model Order Reduction Approach for Beam-Based Structures

2016-06-15
2016-01-1857
This paper proposes a specific parametric model order reduction (pMOR) scheme for the efficient evaluation of beam based structures. The model to be parameterized is a Finite Element (FE) model that represents a generic network of beams with a number of distinct cross-section types. The methodology considers geometrical parameters that describe the cross-section and the material properties of the beams as the design parameters of interest. An affine representation of the model is derived based on the description of the deformation of a uniform beam. This affine representation can be exploited for the hyper-reduction where the evaluation cost of the system matrices is reduced. The reduction of the system matrices is obtained through a projection based approach. For a given number of parameter combinations a modal basis is constructed. A global reduced order basis (ROB) is obtained through a principal component analysis of these local bases.
Technical Paper

3d-Elastohydrodynamic Simulation Model for Structure-Borne Noise Analyses of a DI Diesel Engine

2016-06-15
2016-01-1854
The present article is concerned with the investigation of the engine noise induced by the piston slap of an actual passenger car Diesel engine. The focus is put on the coherence of piston secondary movement, impact of the piston on the cylinder liner, generated structure-borne noise excitation of the engine structure and the occurring acceleration on the engine surface. Additionally, the influence of a varying piston-pin offset and piston clearance is evaluated. The analyses are conducted using an elastohydrodynamic multi-body simulation model, taking into account geometry, stiffness and mass information of the single components as well as considering elastic and hydrodynamic behavior of the piston-liner contact. A detailed description of the simulation model will be introduced in the article. The obtained results illustrate the piston secondary motion and the related structure-borne noise on the engine surface for several piston-pin offsets and piston clearances.
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