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Technical Paper

Statistical Modeling of Fatigue Crack Growth in Wing Skin Fastener Holes

2012-04-16
2012-01-0482
Estimation and prediction of residual life and reliability are serious concerns in life cycle management for aging structures. Laboratory testing replicating fatigue loading for a typical military aircraft wing skin was undertaken. Specimens were tested until their fatigue life expended reached 100% of the component fatigue life. Then, scanning electron microscopy was used to quantify the size and location of fatigue cracks within the high stress regions of simulated fastener holes. Distributions for crack size, nearest neighbor distances, and spatial location were characterized statistically in order to estimate residual life and to provide input for life cycle management. Insights into crack initiation and growth are also provided.
Technical Paper

A Scalable Engine Management System Architecture for Motorcycle/Small-Vehicle Application

2008-09-09
2008-32-0054
This paper gives an overview of a scalable engine management system architecture for motorcycle and other small engine based vehicle applications. The system can accommodate any engine sizes and up to four cylinders. The architecture incorporates advanced functionalities such as oxygen sensing, closed loop fueling, wall-wetting compensation, purge control, start & idle control and deceleration fuel cut-off. Additionally, a number of vehicle-related controls are integrated in the system. Diagnostic and safety related features have also been incorporated with limp-home capability. The software architecture is compatible with different hardware solutions. The system has been implemented in several OEM vehicles around the globe and meets EURO-3 emission requirements.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of a Single-Cylinder Engine Equipped with Gasoline and Ethanol Dual-Fuel Systems

2008-06-23
2008-01-1767
The requirement of reduced emissions and improved fuel economy led the introduction of direct-injection (DI) spark-ignited (SI) engines. Dual-fuel injection system (direct-injection and port-fuel-injection (PFI)) was also used to improve engine performance at high load and speed. Ethanol is one of the several alternative transportation fuels considered for replacing fossil fuels such as gasoline and diesel. Ethanol offers high octane quality but with lower energy density than fossil fuels. This paper presents the combustion characteristics of a single cylinder dual-fuel injection SI engine with the following fueling cases: a) gasoline for PFI and DI, b) PFI gasoline and DI ethanol, and c) PFI ethanol and DI gasoline. For this study, the DI fueling portion varied from 0 to 100 percentage of the total fueling over different engine operational conditions while the engine air-to-fuel ratio remained at a constant level.
Technical Paper

A High Speed Flow Visualization Study of Fuel Spray Pattern Effect on Mixture Formation in a Low Pressure Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-1411
In developing a direct injection gasoline engine, the in-cylinder fuel air mixing is key to good performance and emissions. High speed visualization in an optically accessible single cylinder engine for direct injection gasoline engine applications is an effective tool to reveal the fuel spray pattern effect on mixture formation The fuel injectors in this study employ the unique multi-hole turbulence nozzles in a PFI-like (Port Fuel Injection) fuel system architecture specifically developed as a Low Pressure Direct Injection (LPDI) fuel injection system. In this study, three injector sprays with a narrow 40° spray angle, a 60°spray angle with 5°offset angle, and a wide 80° spray angle with 10° offset angle were evaluated. Image processing algorithms were developed to analyze the nature of in-cylinder fuel-air mixing and the extent of fuel spray impingement on the cylinder wall.
Technical Paper

A Real Time Statistical Method for Engine Knock Detection

2007-04-16
2007-01-1507
The traditional method of engine knock detection is to compare the knock intensity with a predetermined threshold. The calibration of this threshold is complex and difficult. A statistical knock detection method is proposed in this paper to reduce the effort of calibration. This method dynamically calculates the knock threshold to determine the knock event. Theoretically, this method will not only adapt to different fuels but also cope with engine aging and engine-to-engine variation without re-calibration. This method is demonstrated by modeling and evaluation using real-time engine dynamometer test data.
Technical Paper

A Filter Seal Model for Point Mobility Prediction of Air Induction Systems

2006-04-03
2006-01-1209
Virtual design validation of an air induction system (AIS) requires a proper finite element (FE) assembly model for various simulation based design tasks. The effect of the urethane air filter seal within an AIS assembly, however, still poses a technical challenge to the modeling of structural dynamic behaviors of the AIS product. In this paper, a filter seal model and its modeling approach for AIS assemblies are introduced, by utilizing the feature finite elements and empiric test data. A bushing element is used to model the unique nonlinear stiffness and damping properties of the urethane seal, as a function of seal orientation, preloading, temperature and excitation frequency, which are quantified based on the test data and empiric formula. Point mobility is used to character dynamic behaviors of an AIS structure under given loadings, as a transfer function in frequency domain.
Technical Paper

Vibration Test Specification for Automotive Products Based on Measured Vehicle Load Data

2006-04-03
2006-01-0729
A test load specification is required to validate an automotive product to meet the durability and design life requirements. Traditionally in the automotive industry, load specifications for design validation tests are directly given by OEMs, which are generally developed from an envelop of generic customer usage profiles and are, in most cases, over-specified. In recent years, however, there are many occasions that a proposed load specification for a particular product is requested. The particular test load specification for a particular product is generated based on the measured load data at its mounting location on the given type of vehicles, which contains more realistic time domain load levels and associated frequency contents. The measured time domain load is then processed to frequency domain test load data by using the fast Fourier transform and damage equivalent techniques.
Technical Paper

Fuel Rail Pressure Relief

2006-04-03
2006-01-0626
A major source of engine-off evaporative hydrocarbon emissions is fuel injector leakage. Methods and devices to relieve fuel rail pressure after key-off, and thus reduce leakage are introduced. Impact on fuel manifold re-pressurization is considered. The basic principles governing this behavior: fuel thermal expansion, fuel vapor pressure, and dissolved gasses in liquid are elaborated. Fuel pressure relief data is shown.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Alternative for Computing Algorithm Detection Thresholds

2006-04-03
2006-01-0009
Commonly, a significant event is detected when a normally stable engine parameter (ex. sensor voltage, sensor current, air flow, pedal position, fuel level, tire pressure, engine acceleration, etc.) transiently exceeds a calibrated detection threshold. Many implementations of detection thresholds rely on multi-input lookup tables or functions and are complex and difficult to calibrate. An approach is presented to minimize threshold calibration effort and complexity, while improving detection performance, by dynamically computing thresholds on-line based on current real-time data. Determining engine synchronization without a camshaft position sensor is presented as an illustrative application.
Technical Paper

Multibody Dynamic Simulation of Steering Gear Systems With Three-Dimensional Surface Contacts

2006-02-14
2006-01-1960
In an effort to understand steering systems performance and properties at the microscopic level, we developed Multibody simulations that include multiple three-dimensional gear surfaces that are in a dynamic state of contact and separation. These validated simulations capture the dynamics of high-speed impact of gears traveling small distances of 50 microns in less than 10 milliseconds. We exploited newly developed analytic, numeric, and computer tools to gain insight into steering gear forces, specifically, the mechanism behind the inception of mechanical knock in steering gear. The results provided a three dimensional geometric view of the sequence of events, in terms of gear surfaces in motion, their sudden contact, and subsequent force generation that lead to steering gear mechanical knock. First we briefly present results that show the sequence of events that lead to knock.
Technical Paper

Multivariate Statistical Methods for the Analysis of NVH Data

2005-05-16
2005-01-2518
The present work discusses the application of multivariate statistical methods for the analysis of NVH data. Unlike conventional statistical methods which generally consider single-value, or univariate data, multivariate methods enable the user to examine multiple response variables and their interactions simultaneously. This characteristic is particularly useful in the examination of NVH data, where multiple measurements are typically used to assess NVH performance. In this work, Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was used to examine the NVH data from a benchmarking study of hydraulic steering pumps. A total of twelve NVH measurements for each of 99 pump samples were taken. These measurements included steering pump orders and overall levels for vibration and sound pressure level at two microphone locations. Application of the PCA method made it possible to examine the entire set of data at once.
Technical Paper

Simple Application of DOE Methods to Reduce Whistle Noise in a HPAS Pump Relief Valve

2005-05-16
2005-01-2468
The present work demonstrates the application of Design of Experiments (DOE) statistical methods to the design and the improvement of a hydraulic steering pump noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) performance in relief. DOE methods were applied to subjective ratings to examine the effect of several different factors, as well as the interactions between these factors on pump relief NVH. Specifically, the DOE was applied to the geometry of the cross ports on a hydraulic relief valve to improve “whistle” noise in the pump. Statistical methods were applied to determine which factors and interactions had a significant effect on pump whistle. These factors were used to produce a more robust cross port configuration reducing whistle noise. Lastly, the final configuration was experimentally verified on the test apparatus and subjectively confirmed in vehicle-level testing.
Technical Paper

Analytical Calculation of the Critical Speed of a Driveshaft

2005-05-16
2005-01-2310
Determination of the critical speed of a driveshaft is critical for development and validation of its design for use in a vehicle because of its destructive effects. Typical calculations to determine critical speed are either over simplistic and not very accurate or very complicated requiring CAE software and capabilities. An analytical five-section non-prismatic beam model was developed to fill in this gap. The model was developed to compute the critical speed in a worksheet and proven to be as or more accurate as utilizing FEA methods. The model worksheet calculates the critical speed for one-piece conventional driveshafts and adapted for Visteon's Slip-In-Tube (SIT) driveshafts.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Pressure Pulsations in a Gasoline Injection System and Development of an Effective Damping Technology

2005-04-11
2005-01-1149
In today's search for a better fuel economy and lower emissions, it is essential to precisely control the injected fuel quantity, as demanded by the engine load, into each of the engine cylinders. In fuel injection systems, the pressure pulsations due to the rapid opening and closing of the injectors can cause uneven injected fuel amounts between cylinders. In order to develop effective techniques to reduce these pressure pulsations, it is crucial to have a good understanding of the dynamic characteristics of such fuel injection systems. This paper presents the benefits of using simulation as a tool to analyze the dynamic behaviors of a V8 gasoline injection system. The fuel system modeling, based on a one-dimensional (1D) lumped parameter approach, has been developed in the AMESim® environment. The comparison between the simulation results and the experimental data shows good agreement in fluid transient characteristics for both time and frequency domains.
Technical Paper

CAE Virtual Test of Air Intake Manifolds Using Coupled Vibration and Pressure Pulsation Loads

2005-04-11
2005-01-1071
A coupled vibration and pressure loading procedure has been developed to perform a CAE virtual test for engine air intake manifolds. The CAE virtual test simulates the same physical test configuration and environments, such as the base acceleration vibration excitation and pressure pulsation loads, as well as temperature conditions, for design validation (DV) test of air intake manifolds. The original vibration and pressure load data, measured with respect to the engine speed rpm, are first converted to their respective vibration and pressure power spectrum density (PSD) profiles in frequency domain, based on the duty cycle specification. The final accelerated vibration excitation and pressure PSD load profiles for design validation are derived based on the key life test (KLT) duration and reliability requirements, using the equivalent fatigue damage technique.
Technical Paper

CAE Considerations in the Modeling of Welded Joints

2005-04-11
2005-01-0512
Welding is one of the most commonly used fabrication method in various automotive applications. Welding is a metallurgical fusion process in which parts or work pieces to be joined are heated above their melting temperature and then solidified. Some of the effects of the welding include residual stresses and Heat Affected Zone (HAZ). A methodology is proposed to study the welding process using the commercial finite element software, ABAQUS. Non linear transient heat transfer analysis is used. Effects of heat energy input rate and heat input time on residual stresses and HAZ are determined.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Model of Automotive Air Conditioning Systems

2005-04-11
2005-01-1884
A dynamic computer model of automotive air conditioning systems was developed. The model uses simulation software for the coding of 1-D heat transfer, thermodynamics, fluid flow, and control valves. The same software is used to model 3-D solid dynamics associated with mechanical mechanisms of the compressor. The dynamics of the entire AC system is thus simulated within the same software environment. The results will show the models potential applications in component and system design, calibration and control.
Technical Paper

Communicating Outside of the Box: A Structural Model for Predicting Consumer Acceptance of In-Vehicle Electronics Implementations

2004-10-18
2004-21-0070
The era of the vehicle as a standalone non-connected entity is rapidly drawing to a close. The “Box” on four wheels is being opened to multiple communication channels based on consumer demand and expectations of the latest features, functions and content. Concurrently, automotive planners, marketers, engineers, and system architects are subject to increased complexity as a result of the rapidly evolving consumer electronics industry. This paper will discuss many of the limitations of existing automotive business models in attempting to successfully implement and meet consumer expectations. It will also propose a structural framework for automotive planners, marketers, engineers, and system architects to be able to better understand and predict consumer acceptance of electronics, multimedia features, and in-vehicle content access.
Technical Paper

Optimal Design of Roller One Way Clutch for Starter Drives

2004-03-08
2004-01-1151
The starter drive clutch is a one way roller clutch and a key component in a starter motor that is used to crank internal combustion engines. The starter drive clutch transmits torque from an electrical motor to a ring gear mounted on a cranking shaft in an engine thus cranks the engine. The clutch also prevents the whole starter from damage caused by extremely high load and/or extremely high speed applied to the starter pinion from the engine. Drive slippage and barrel cracking are two major failure modes for the starter drive[1]. Insufficient torque capacity results in drive slippage while excessive high hoop stress on the clutch barrel ring causes barrel crack. To eliminate drive slippage failure, the clutch should be designed with high torque capacity. High torque capacity, however, is a cause of high hoop stress on the barrel that may result in the cracked barrel failure. Higher torque capacity and lower hoop stress are two completely opposite design directions.
Technical Paper

Setting the Record Straight with Capability Indices

2004-03-08
2004-01-1747
There is still much controversy and confusion in industry today regarding the use of process capability indices and analysis. A lack of knowledge regarding the underlying variation assumptions and rationale sampling strategies in indices such as Cp, Cpk, Pp and Ppk have added to the confusion and in many cases has led to misapplication of these widely used metrics. This issue has also promoted inconsistency in the assessment of long-term versus short-term capability and has hampered the true characterization of processes which is a critical step in any continuous improvement effort. Capability indices and analysis, when properly applied can impart a wealth of knowledge regarding process performance as well as provide focus for improvement activity through the proper characterization and enumeration of variation. Being able to properly characterize variation if the first step in reducing it.
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