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Technical Paper

Evaluation of NOx Storage Catalysts for Lean Burn Gasoline Fueled Passenger Cars

Engine and laboratory tests were carried out to examine the performance of NOx adsorption catalysts for gasoline lean burn engines in fresh and aged condition. The results show that fresh NOx adsorption catalysts have the potential to meet EURO III emission standards. However, to accomplish these the fuel must contain a low sulfur concentration and the engine must be tuned to optimize the efficiency of the catalyst. After engine or furnace aging upto 750°C the catalyst shows some loss of NOx adsorption efficiency. This deterioration can be offset somewhat by increasing the frequency of lean/rich switching of the engine. Temperatures higher than 750°C may cause an irreversible destruction of the NOx, storage features while the three-way activity of the catalyst remains intact or even may improve. With reference to several physicochemical investigations it is believed that the detrimental effect of catalyst aging is attributed to two different deactivation modes.
Technical Paper

New Developments in Lean NOx Catalysis for Gasoline Fueled Passenger Cars in Europe

There is an increasing interest in running gasoline fueled passenger cars lean of stoichiometric air to fuel (A/F) ratio to improve fuel economy. These types of engines will operate at lean A/F ratios during cruising at partial load and return to stoichiometric or even rich conditions when more power is required. The challenge for the engine and catalyst manufacturer is to develop a system which will combine the high activity rates of a state-of-the-art three way catalyst (TWC) with the ability to reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) under excess of oxygen. The target is to achieve the future legislation limits (EURO III/IV) in the European Union. Recent developments in automotive pollution control catalysis have shown that the utilization of NOx adsorption materials is a suitable way for reduction of NOx emissions of gasoline fueled lean burn engines.
Technical Paper

Advanced Catalyst Studies of Diesel NOx Reduction for On-Highway Trucks

To date, several non-SCR catalysts and catalytic systems have been suggested for NOX reduction under oxygen rich (lean) conditions, such as those which exist in diesel engine exhaust gas. However, the performance of such catalysts and catalyst systems is not clear when used on actual diesel engines. This paper reports on experimental results obtained when lean NOx catalysts are applied to diesel engine exhaust. Particularly, the catalysts' NOx performance is examined when secondary hydrocarbons are added as reducing agents directly in the exhaust gas stream. In addition, the effect of different catalyst formulations and secondary hydrocarbon addition on particulate emissions is monitored. Finally, partial system optimization is performed and the applicability of such catalysts and systems to engines operating under the US Heavy Duty Transient Cycle is examined.
Technical Paper

Catalytic Reduction of Nox with Hydrocarbons Under Lean Diesel Exhaust Gas Conditions

This paper reports first results of research and development work to achieve Nox reduction under lean diesel exhaust gas conditions by using a special coated, zeolite based monolith catalyst. Much attention is paid to the optimization of the activated zeolite system and the influence of group Ib and VIII elements of the periodic system. A major part of the paper deals with the influence of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide and water on the activity of the catalyst. Another aspect discussed is the influence of the residence time of the exhaust gas components. The thermal stability and the influence of poisoning elements on the catalyst performance is demonstrated by model gas reactor tests on oven and engine aged samples. Finally, first results on the performance of the catalyst system in a vehicle dynometer test are given.
Technical Paper

A New Generation of Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

An overview is given on the state of the art of a new catalytic exhaust gas aftertreatment device for diesel engines. The function of a precious metal based, flow-through type diesel oxidation catalyst is explained. Much attention is paid to the durability of the diesel oxidation catalyst and especially to the influence of poisoning elements on the catalytic activity. Detailed data on the interaction of poisoning elements such as sulfur, zinc and phosphorus with the catalytic active sites are given. Finally it is demonstrated that it is possible to meet the stringent emission standards for diesel passenger cars in Europe with a new catalyst generation over 80.000 km AMA aging.