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Technical Paper

Trimmed Body Static Stiffness Identification Using Dynamic Measurements: Test Methodology and Correlation with CAE Results

2018-06-13
2018-01-1496
A key metric of a car body structure is the body stiffness, which shows significant correlation with different vehicle performance attributes as NVH, comfort and vehicle handling. Typical approaches to identify static stiffness characteristics are the use of a static stiffness test bench or the ‘static-from-dynamic’ approach in which free-free acquired transfer functions are used to build a modal model from which the static stiffness characteristics are extracted. Both of these approaches have limitations, the static stiffness bench with respect to clamping conditions and reproducing those in CAE, the static-from-dynamic with respect to the modal analysis (EMA) that needs to be performed. EMA is a subjective process, which can limit result robustness. In addition, performing EMA on a trimmed body is difficult due to the high modal density and the high level of damping.
Technical Paper

Worldwide Electrical Energy Consumption of Various HVAC Systems in BEVs and Their Thermal Management and Assessment

2018-04-03
2018-01-1190
Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) are equipped with Mobile Air Conditioning systems (MACs) to ensure a comfortable cabin temperature in all climates and ambient conditions as well as the optional conditioning of the traction battery. An assessment of the global electrical energy consumption of various MACs has been derived, where the basis of the assessment procedure is the climate data GREEN-MAC-LCCP 2007 (Global Refrigerants Energy & Environmental - Mobile Air Condition - Life Cycle Climate Performance) and the improved LCCP2013 (Life Cycle Climate Performance. The percentage driving time during 6 AM and 24 PM is divided into six different temperature bins with the solar radiation and relative humidity for 211 cities distributed over Europe, North, Central, and South America, Asia, South West Pacific, and Africa. The energy consumption of the MACs is determined by a thermal vehicle simulation. In this work, four different MACs are simulated and compared.
Technical Paper

Development of Wireless Message for Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0027
This paper summarizes the development of a wireless message from infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) for safety applications based on Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). During the development of the Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure (RSZW/LC) safety applications [1], the Basic Information Message (BIM) was developed to wirelessly transmit infrastructure-centric information. The Traveler Information Message (TIM) structure, as described in the SAE J2735, provides a mechanism for the infrastructure to issue and display in-vehicle signage of various types of advisory and road sign information. This approach, though effective in communicating traffic advisories, is limited by the type of information that can be broadcast from infrastructures.
Technical Paper

Validating Prototype Connected Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications in Real- World Settings

2018-04-03
2018-01-0025
This paper summarizes the validation of prototype vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) safety applications based on Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) in the United States under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). After consideration of a number of V2I safety applications, Red Light Violation Warning (RLVW), Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure Warning (RSZW/LC) were developed, validated and demonstrated using seven different vehicles (six passenger vehicles and one Class 8 truck) leveraging DSRC-based messages from a Road Side Unit (RSU). The developed V2I safety applications were validated for more than 20 distinct scenarios and over 100 test runs using both light- and heavy-duty vehicles over a period of seven months. Subsequently, additional on-road testing of CSW on public roads and RSZW/LC in live work zones were conducted in Southeast Michigan.
Journal Article

The Thermodynamics of Exhaust Gas Condensation

2017-06-29
2017-01-9281
Water vapor is, aside from carbon dioxide, the major fossil fuel combustion by-product. Depending on its concentration in the exhaust gas mixture as well as on the exhaust gas pressure, its condensation temperature can be derived. For typical gasoline engine stoichiometric operating conditions, the water vapor dew point lies at about 53 °C. The exhaust gas mixture does however contain some pollutants coming from the fuel, engine oil, and charge air, which can react with the water vapor and affect the condensation process. For instance, sulfur trioxide present in the exhaust, reacts with water vapor forming sulfuric acid. This acid builds a binary system with water vapor, which presents a dew point often above 100 °C. Exhaust composition after leaving the combustion chamber strongly depends on fuel type, engine concept and operation point. Furthermore, the exhaust undergoes several chemical after treatments.
Technical Paper

Resource Management Processes for Future Vehicle Electronics

2016-04-05
2016-01-0039
New technologies such as multi-core and Ethernet provide vastly improved computing and communications capabilities. This sets the foundation for the implementation of new digital megatrends in almost all areas: driver assistance, vehicle dynamics, electrification, safety, connectivity, autonomous driving. The new challenge: We must share these computing and communication capacities among all vehicle functions and their software. For this step, we need a good resource planning to minimize the probability of late resource bottlenecks (e.g. overload, lack of real-time capability, quality loss). In this article, we summarize the status quo in the field of resource management and provide an outlook on the challenges ahead.
Technical Paper

Application of the Adjoint Method for Vehicle Aerodynamic Optimization

2016-04-05
2016-01-1615
The aerodynamic optimization of an AUDI Q5 vehicle is presented using the continuous adjoint approach within the OpenFOAM framework. All calculations are performed on an unstructured automatically generated mesh. The primal flow, which serves as input for the adjoint method, is calculated using the standard CFD process at AUDI. It is based on DES calculations using a Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The transient results of the primal solution are time averaged and fed to a stationary adjoint solver using a frozen turbulence assumption. From the adjoint model, drag sensitivity maps are computed and measures for drag reduction are derived. The predicted measures are compared to CFD simulations and to wind tunnel experiments at 1:4 model scale. In this context, general challenges, such as convergence and accuracy of the adjoint method are discussed and best practice guidelines are demonstrated.
Journal Article

Development and Demonstration of LNT+SCR System for Passenger Car Diesel Applications

2014-04-01
2014-01-1537
The regulations for mobile applications will become stricter in Euro 6 and further emission levels and require the use of active aftertreatment methods for NOX and particulate matter. SCR and LNT have been both used commercially for mobile NOX removal. An alternative system is based on the combination of these two technologies. Developments of catalysts and whole systems as well as final vehicle demonstrations are discussed in this study. The small and full-size catalyst development experiments resulted in PtRh/LNT with optimized noble metal loadings and Cu-SCR catalyst having a high durability and ammonia adsorption capacity. For this study, an aftertreatment system consisting of LNT plus exhaust bypass, passive SCR and engine independent reductant supply by on-board exhaust fuel reforming was developed and investigated. The concept definition considers NOX conversion, CO2 drawback and system complexity.
Journal Article

Improved Energy Management Using Engine Compartment Encapsulation and Grille Shutter Control

2012-04-16
2012-01-1203
A vehicle thermal management system is required to increase the operating efficiency of components, to transfer the heat efficiently and to reduce the energy required for the vehicle. Vehicle thermal management technologies, such as engine compartment encapsulation together with grille shutter control, enable energy efficiency improvements through utilizing waste heat in the engine compartment for heating powertrain components as well as cabin heating and reducing the aerodynamic drag . In this work, a significant effort is put on recovering waste heat from the engine compartment to provide additional efficiency to the components using a motor compartment insulation technique and grille shutter. The tests are accelerated and the cost is reduced using a co-simulation tool based on high resolution, complex thermal and kinematics models. The results are validated with experimental values measured in a thermal wind tunnel, which provided satisfactory accuracy.
Technical Paper

Gasoline HCCI/CAI on a Four-Cylinder Test Bench and Vehicle Engine - Results and Conclusions for the Next Investigation Steps

2010-05-05
2010-01-1488
Internal combustion engines with lean homogeneous charge and auto-ignition combustion of gasoline fuels have the capability to significantly reduce fuel consumption and realize ultra-low engine-out NOx emissions. Group research of Volkswagen AG has therefore defined the Gasoline Compression Ignition combustion (GCI®) concept. A detailed investigation of this novel combustion process has been carried out on test bench engines and test vehicles by group research of Volkswagen AG and IAV GmbH Gifhorn. Experimental results confirm the theoretically expected potential for improved efficiency and emissions behavior. Volkswagen AG and IAV GmbH will utilize a highly flexible externally supercharged variable valve train (VVT) engine for future investigations to extend the understanding of gas exchange and EGR strategy as well as the boost demands of gasoline auto-ignition combustion processes.
Technical Paper

Application of Detached-Eddy Simulation for Automotive Aerodynamics Development

2009-04-20
2009-01-0333
This paper presents a complete methodology for performing finite-volume-based detached-eddy simulation for the prediction of aerodynamic forces and detailed flow structures of passenger vehicles developed using the open-source CFD toolbox OpenFOAM®. The main components of the methodology consist of an automatic mesh generator, a setup and initialisation utility, a DES flow solver and analysis and post-processing routines. Validation of the predictions is done on the basis of detailed comparisons to experimental wind-tunnel data. Results for lift and drag are found to compare favourably to the experiments, with some moderate discrepancies in predicted rear lift. Point surface-pressure measurements, oil-streak images and maps of total pressure in the flow field demonstrate the approach's capabilities to predict the fine detail of complex flow regimes found in automotive aerodynamics.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Different EGR Solutions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0206
This paper compares 4 different EGR systems by means of simulation in GT-Power. The demands of optimum massive EGR and fresh air rates were based on experimental results. The experimental data were used to calibrate the model and ROHR, in particular. The main aim was to investigate the influence of pumping work on engine and vehicle fuel consumption (thus CO2 production) in different EGR layouts using optimum VG turbine control. These EGR systems differ in the source of pressure drop between the exhaust and intake pipes. Firstly, the engine settings were optimized under steady operation - BSFC was minimized while taking into account both the required EGR rate and fresh air mass flow. Secondly, transient simulations (NEDC cycle) were carried out - a full engine model was used to obtain detailed information on important parameters. The study shows the necessity to use natural pressure differences or renewable pressure losses if reasonable fuel consumption is to be achieved.
Technical Paper

Locally Resolved Measurement of Gas-Phase Temperature and EGR-Ratio in an HCCI-Engine and Their Influence on Combustion Timing

2007-04-16
2007-01-0182
Laser-based measurements of charge temperature and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio in an homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine are demonstrated. For this purpose, the rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy technique (CARS) was used. This technique allows temporally and locally resolved measurements in combustion environments through only two small line-of-sight optical accesses and the use of standard gasoline as a fuel. The investigated engine is a production-line four-cylinder direct-injection gasoline engine with the valve strategy modified to realize HCCI-operation. CARS-measurements were performed in motored and fired operation and the results are compared to polytropic calculations. Studies of engine speed, load, valve timing, and injection pressure were conducted showing the strong influence of charge temperature on the combustion timing.
Technical Paper

Engine-Independent Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Using a Burner Heated Catalyst

2006-10-16
2006-01-3401
Meeting current exhaust emission standards requires rapid catalyst light-off. Closed-coupled catalysts are commonly used to reduce light-off time by minimizing exhaust heat loss between the engine and catalyst. However, this exhaust gas system design leads to a coupling of catalyst heating and engine operation. An engine-independent exhaust gas aftertreatment can be realized by combining a burner heated catalyst system (BHC) with an underfloor catalyst located far away from the engine. This paper describes some basic characteristics of such a BHC system and the results of fitting this system into a Volkswagen Touareg where a single catalyst was located about 1.8 m downstream of the engine. Nevertheless, it was possible to reach about 50% of the current European emission standard EU 4 without additional fuel consumption caused by the BHC system.
Technical Paper

NO Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging in the Combustion Chamber of a Spray-Guided Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1918
In direct-injection gasoline (GDI) engines with charge stratification, minimizing engine-out nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission is crucial since exhaust-gas aftertreatment tolerates only limited amounts of NOx. Reduced NOx production directly lowers the frequency of energy-inefficient catalyst regeneration cycles. In this paper we investigate NO formation in a realistic GDI engine. Quantitative in-cylinder measurements of NO concentrations are carried out via laser-induced fluorescence imaging with excitation of NO (A-X(0,2) band at 248 nm), and subsequent fluorescence detection at 220-240 nm. Engine modifications were kept to a minimum in order to provide results that are representative of practical operating conditions. Optical access via a sapphire ring enabled identical engine geometry as a production line engine. The engine is operated with commercial gasoline (“Super-Plus”, RON 98).
Technical Paper

High Temperature Mg Alloys for Sand and Permanent Mold Casting Applications

2004-03-08
2004-01-0656
The need to reduce weight of large and heavy components used by the automotive and aerospace industries such as engine block, cylinder head cover and helicopter gearbox housing has led to the development of new Mg gravity casting alloys that provide adequate properties and cost effective solution. The new Mg gravity casting alloys are designed for high stressed components that operate at a temperature up to 300°C. These new alloys exhibit excellent mechanical properties and creep resistance in T-6 conditions. The present paper aims at introducing three new Mg gravity casting alloys designated MRI 201S, MRI 202S and MRI 203S, which were recently developed by the Magnesium Research Institute of DSM and VW. Apart from the excellent high temperature performance of these alloys, they provide adequate castability and dimension stability along with good weldability and corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

Feasible Steps towards Improved Crash Compatibility

2004-03-08
2004-01-1167
Compatibility has been a research issue for many years now. It has gained more importance recently due to significant improvements in primary and secondary safety. Using a rigorous approach, combining accident research and theoretical scientific considerations, measures to improve vehicle-vehicle compatibility, with an emphasis on feasibility, were discussed. German accident research statistics showed that frontal impacts are of higher statistical significance than side impacts. Based on this and the high potential for improvement due high available deformation energy, the frontal impact configuration was identified as the most appropriate collision mode for addressing the compatibility issue. In side impacts, accident avoidance was identified as the most feasible and sensible measure. For frontal vehicle-vehicle impacts, both trucks and passenger cars were identified as opponents of high statistical significance.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of New Magnesium Alloys Developed for Elevated Temperature Applications in Automotive Industry

2003-03-03
2003-01-0191
Recently several new magnesium alloys for high temperature applications have been developed with the aim to obtain an optimal combination of die castability, creep resistance, mechanical properties, corrosion performance and affordable cost. Unfortunately, it is very difficult to achieve an adequate combination of properties and in fact, most of the new alloys can only partially meet the required performance and cost. This paper aims at evaluating the current status of the newly developed alloys for powertrain applications. The paper also addresses the complexity of magnesium alloy development and illustrates the effect of alloying elements on properties and cost. In addition, the paper presents an attempt to set the position of each alloy in the integrated space of combined properties and cost
Technical Paper

A Study of the Thermochemical Conditions in the Exhaust Manifold Using Secondary Air in a 2.0 L Engine

2002-05-06
2002-01-1676
The California LEV1 II program will be introduced in the year 2003 and requires a further reduction of the exhaust emissions of passenger cars. The cold start emissions represent the main part of the total emissions of the FTP2-Cycle. Cold start emissions can be efficiently reduced by injecting secondary air (SA) in the exhaust port making compliance with the most stringent standards possible. The thermochemical conditions (mixing rate and temperature of secondary air and exhaust gas, exhaust gas composition, etc) prevailing in the exhaust system are described in this paper. This provides knowledge of the conditions for auto ignition of the mixture within the exhaust manifold. The thus established exothermal reaction (exhaust gas post-combustion) results in a shorter time to light-off temperature of the catalyst. The mechanisms of this combustion are studied at different engine idle conditions.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment of Volkswagen FSI Fuel Stratified Injection Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0346
For substantial reduction of fuel consumption of their vehicle fleet, Volkswagen AG has decided to develop spark-ignition engines with direct fuel injection. To launch this new engine concept with stratified lean operation mode while at the same time meeting the stringent EU IV emission standards, it was necessary to develop a suitable exhaust gas aftertreatment system. This was achieved as part of an intensive co-operation between Volkswagen AG and OMG, formerly dmc2 Degussa Metals Catalysts Cerdec AG. The paper describes the demands for exhaust gas aftertreatment due to lean burn operation. In addition the main development steps of the exhaust gas aftertreatment system for Volkswagen FSI engines and catalyst durability over vehicle lifetime are discussed. Focus is laid on the catalyst system design and coating variations. Volkswagen developed a new closed-loop emission control management system which uses NOx-sensor signals for the first time worldwide.
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