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Journal Article

The Thermodynamics of Exhaust Gas Condensation

2017-06-29
2017-01-9281
Water vapor is, aside from carbon dioxide, the major fossil fuel combustion by-product. Depending on its concentration in the exhaust gas mixture as well as on the exhaust gas pressure, its condensation temperature can be derived. For typical gasoline engine stoichiometric operating conditions, the water vapor dew point lies at about 53 °C. The exhaust gas mixture does however contain some pollutants coming from the fuel, engine oil, and charge air, which can react with the water vapor and affect the condensation process. For instance, sulfur trioxide present in the exhaust, reacts with water vapor forming sulfuric acid. This acid builds a binary system with water vapor, which presents a dew point often above 100 °C. Exhaust composition after leaving the combustion chamber strongly depends on fuel type, engine concept and operation point. Furthermore, the exhaust undergoes several chemical after treatments.
Technical Paper

Resource Management Processes for Future Vehicle Electronics

2016-04-05
2016-01-0039
New technologies such as multi-core and Ethernet provide vastly improved computing and communications capabilities. This sets the foundation for the implementation of new digital megatrends in almost all areas: driver assistance, vehicle dynamics, electrification, safety, connectivity, autonomous driving. The new challenge: We must share these computing and communication capacities among all vehicle functions and their software. For this step, we need a good resource planning to minimize the probability of late resource bottlenecks (e.g. overload, lack of real-time capability, quality loss). In this article, we summarize the status quo in the field of resource management and provide an outlook on the challenges ahead.
Journal Article

Development and Demonstration of LNT+SCR System for Passenger Car Diesel Applications

2014-04-01
2014-01-1537
The regulations for mobile applications will become stricter in Euro 6 and further emission levels and require the use of active aftertreatment methods for NOX and particulate matter. SCR and LNT have been both used commercially for mobile NOX removal. An alternative system is based on the combination of these two technologies. Developments of catalysts and whole systems as well as final vehicle demonstrations are discussed in this study. The small and full-size catalyst development experiments resulted in PtRh/LNT with optimized noble metal loadings and Cu-SCR catalyst having a high durability and ammonia adsorption capacity. For this study, an aftertreatment system consisting of LNT plus exhaust bypass, passive SCR and engine independent reductant supply by on-board exhaust fuel reforming was developed and investigated. The concept definition considers NOX conversion, CO2 drawback and system complexity.
Technical Paper

Advanced Exhaust Gas Thermal Management for Lowest Tailpipe Emissions - Combining Low Emission Engine and Electrically Heated Catalyst

2012-04-16
2012-01-1090
Further advancements in engine development lead to increased fuel efficiency and reduced CO₂ emission. Such low emission engine concepts require most advanced exhaust gas aftertreatment systems for lowest possible tailpipe emissions. On the other hand, the exhaust gas purification by catalytic measures experiences more and more challenges due to constantly reduced exhaust gas temperatures by more efficient engines. These challenges can be overcome by traditional catalyst heating strategies, which are known to increase fuel consumption and emissions. Alternatively, electrically heated catalysts ("EHC") can be utilized to provide a very efficient method to increase gas temperatures directly in the exhaust catalyst. This way the energy input can be tailored according to the component need and the energy loss in the system can be minimized.
Technical Paper

Gasoline HCCI/CAI on a Four-Cylinder Test Bench and Vehicle Engine - Results and Conclusions for the Next Investigation Steps

2010-05-05
2010-01-1488
Internal combustion engines with lean homogeneous charge and auto-ignition combustion of gasoline fuels have the capability to significantly reduce fuel consumption and realize ultra-low engine-out NOx emissions. Group research of Volkswagen AG has therefore defined the Gasoline Compression Ignition combustion (GCI®) concept. A detailed investigation of this novel combustion process has been carried out on test bench engines and test vehicles by group research of Volkswagen AG and IAV GmbH Gifhorn. Experimental results confirm the theoretically expected potential for improved efficiency and emissions behavior. Volkswagen AG and IAV GmbH will utilize a highly flexible externally supercharged variable valve train (VVT) engine for future investigations to extend the understanding of gas exchange and EGR strategy as well as the boost demands of gasoline auto-ignition combustion processes.
Journal Article

Influence of Pre Turbo Catalyst Design on Diesel Engine Performance, Emissions and Fuel Economy

2008-04-14
2008-01-0071
This paper gives a thorough review of the HC/CO emissions challenge and discusses the effects of different diesel oxidation catalyst designs in a pre turbine and post turbine position on steady state and transient turbo charger performance as well as on HC and CO tailpipe emissions, fuel economy and performance of modern Diesel engines. Results from engine dynamometer testing are presented. Both classical diffusive and advanced premixed Diesel combustion modes are investigated to understand the various effects of possible future engine calibration strategies.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Different EGR Solutions

2008-04-14
2008-01-0206
This paper compares 4 different EGR systems by means of simulation in GT-Power. The demands of optimum massive EGR and fresh air rates were based on experimental results. The experimental data were used to calibrate the model and ROHR, in particular. The main aim was to investigate the influence of pumping work on engine and vehicle fuel consumption (thus CO2 production) in different EGR layouts using optimum VG turbine control. These EGR systems differ in the source of pressure drop between the exhaust and intake pipes. Firstly, the engine settings were optimized under steady operation - BSFC was minimized while taking into account both the required EGR rate and fresh air mass flow. Secondly, transient simulations (NEDC cycle) were carried out - a full engine model was used to obtain detailed information on important parameters. The study shows the necessity to use natural pressure differences or renewable pressure losses if reasonable fuel consumption is to be achieved.
Technical Paper

Locally Resolved Measurement of Gas-Phase Temperature and EGR-Ratio in an HCCI-Engine and Their Influence on Combustion Timing

2007-04-16
2007-01-0182
Laser-based measurements of charge temperature and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ratio in an homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine are demonstrated. For this purpose, the rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy technique (CARS) was used. This technique allows temporally and locally resolved measurements in combustion environments through only two small line-of-sight optical accesses and the use of standard gasoline as a fuel. The investigated engine is a production-line four-cylinder direct-injection gasoline engine with the valve strategy modified to realize HCCI-operation. CARS-measurements were performed in motored and fired operation and the results are compared to polytropic calculations. Studies of engine speed, load, valve timing, and injection pressure were conducted showing the strong influence of charge temperature on the combustion timing.
Technical Paper

Engine-Independent Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment Using a Burner Heated Catalyst

2006-10-16
2006-01-3401
Meeting current exhaust emission standards requires rapid catalyst light-off. Closed-coupled catalysts are commonly used to reduce light-off time by minimizing exhaust heat loss between the engine and catalyst. However, this exhaust gas system design leads to a coupling of catalyst heating and engine operation. An engine-independent exhaust gas aftertreatment can be realized by combining a burner heated catalyst system (BHC) with an underfloor catalyst located far away from the engine. This paper describes some basic characteristics of such a BHC system and the results of fitting this system into a Volkswagen Touareg where a single catalyst was located about 1.8 m downstream of the engine. Nevertheless, it was possible to reach about 50% of the current European emission standard EU 4 without additional fuel consumption caused by the BHC system.
Technical Paper

Turbulent Flow Metal Substrates: A Way to Address Cold Start CO Emissions and to Optimize Catalyst Loading

2006-04-03
2006-01-1523
Modern Diesel Engines equipped with Common-Rail Direct Injection and EGR are characterized by an increasingly high combustion efficiency. Consequently the exhaust gas temperature, especially during a cold start, is significantly reduced compared to typical values measured in previous engine generations. This leads to a potential problem with CO emission limit compliance. The present paper deals with an experimental investigation of turbulent-flow metal substrates, carried out on a vehicle roller bench using a production 1.3 Liter diesel engine equipped passenger car. The tested metal supported catalysts proved to yield extremely high conversion rates both during cold start and in warm operation phase. The improved mass transfer efficiency of the advanced metal substrates is related on one hand to the optimized coating technology and, on the other hand, to the enhanced flow performance in the single converter channels which is caused by structured metal foils.
Technical Paper

Metal Supported Particulate Matter-Cat, A Low Impact and Cost Effective Solution for a 1.3 Euro IV Diesel Engine

2005-04-11
2005-01-0471
Modern Diesel Engines equipped with Common-Rail Direct Injection, EGR and optimized combustion technology have been proven to reduce dramatically engine raw emissions both in terms of Nox and Particulate Matter. As a matter of fact the recently introduced FIAT 1.3 JTD 4 Cylinder Engine achieves Euro 4 limits with aid of conventional 2-way oxidation catalyst. Nevertheless some special applications, such as platforms with relatively higher gross vehicle weight possibly yield to PM-related issues. The present paper deals with the development program carried out to design a cost effective aftertreatment solution in order to address particulate matter tailpipe emissions. The major constraint of this development program was the extremely challenging packaging conditions and the absolute demand to avoid any major impact on the system design. The flow-through metal supported PM Filter Catalyst has been extensively tested on the specific vehicle application with aid of roller bench setup.
Technical Paper

Backpressure Optimized Metal Supported Close Coupled PE Catalyst - First Application on a Maserati Powertrain

2005-04-11
2005-01-1105
Future stringent emission limits both in the European Community and USA require continuously increased conversion efficiency of exhaust after-treatment systems. Besides the obvious targets of fastest light-off performance, overall conversion efficiency and durability, catalytic converters for maximum output engines require highly optimized flow properties as well, in order to create minimum exhaust backpressure for low fuel consumption. This work deals with the design, development and serial introduction of a close coupled main catalyst system using the innovative technology of Perforated Foils (PE). By means of PE-technology, channel-to-channel gas mixing within the metal substrate could be achieved leading to dramatically reduced backpressure values compared with the conventional design.
Technical Paper

Development and Verification of In-Vehicle Networks in a Virtual Environment

2005-04-11
2005-01-1534
Due to the increase in demand for comfort and safety features in today's automobiles, the internal vehicle communication networks necessary to accommodate these features are very complex. These networks represent a heterogeneous architecture consisting of several ECUs exchanging information via bus systems such as CAN, LIN, MOST, or FlexRay buses. Development and verification of internal vehicle networks include multiple design layers. These layers are the logical layer represented by the software application, the associated data link layer, and the physical connection layer containing bus interfaces, wires, and termination. Verification of these systems in the early stages of the design process (before a physical network is available for testing) has become a critical need. As a result, the need to simulate these designs at all their levels of complexity has become critically important.
Technical Paper

NO Laser-Induced Fluorescence Imaging in the Combustion Chamber of a Spray-Guided Direct-Injection Gasoline Engine

2004-06-08
2004-01-1918
In direct-injection gasoline (GDI) engines with charge stratification, minimizing engine-out nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission is crucial since exhaust-gas aftertreatment tolerates only limited amounts of NOx. Reduced NOx production directly lowers the frequency of energy-inefficient catalyst regeneration cycles. In this paper we investigate NO formation in a realistic GDI engine. Quantitative in-cylinder measurements of NO concentrations are carried out via laser-induced fluorescence imaging with excitation of NO (A-X(0,2) band at 248 nm), and subsequent fluorescence detection at 220-240 nm. Engine modifications were kept to a minimum in order to provide results that are representative of practical operating conditions. Optical access via a sapphire ring enabled identical engine geometry as a production line engine. The engine is operated with commercial gasoline (“Super-Plus”, RON 98).
Technical Paper

Development of an Emission Aftertreatment System for Hand Held Powertools

2004-03-08
2004-01-0149
This paper gives an overview of the development work for an aftertreatment system, used in hand held powertools to fulfil the corporate average US Limits. The paper will start with a description of the annual reductions in US Limits with differences in CARB and EPA legislation and the consequences of the legislation in Europe from 2007 onwards. There then follows a chapter describing space restrictions in the given muffler leading to a maximum size for the substrate. Tests results are shown, giving an idea of additional measures taken to avoid dangerous temperatures on the muffler surface and of the emitted exhaust gas. The exothermic temperature increase created under service conditions imposes an additional thermal load from the catalyst back towards the engine itself. Therefore, some modifications regarding gas flow and positioning of the catalyst had to be made to find an adequate solution for series production.
Technical Paper

FTP and US06 Performance of Advanced High Cell Density Metallic Substrates as a Function of Varying Air/Fuel Modulation

2003-03-03
2003-01-0819
The influence of catalyst volume, cell density and precious metal loading on the catalyst efficiency were investigated to design a low cost catalyst system. In a first experiment the specific loading was kept constant for a 500cpsi and a 900cpsi substrate. In a second experiment the palladium loading was reduced on the 900cpsi substrate and the same PM loading was applied to a 1200cpsi substrate with lower volume. Finally the loading was further reduced for the 1200cpsi substrate. The following parameters were studied after aging: Catalyst performance of standard cell density compared to high cell density technology Light-off performance and catalyst efficiency as a function of Palladium loading and substrate cell density Catalyst efficiency as a function of AFR biasing The performance of the aged catalysts was investigated in a lambda sweep test and in light-off tests at an engine bench.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Thermochemical Conditions in the Exhaust Manifold Using Secondary Air in a 2.0 L Engine

2002-05-06
2002-01-1676
The California LEV1 II program will be introduced in the year 2003 and requires a further reduction of the exhaust emissions of passenger cars. The cold start emissions represent the main part of the total emissions of the FTP2-Cycle. Cold start emissions can be efficiently reduced by injecting secondary air (SA) in the exhaust port making compliance with the most stringent standards possible. The thermochemical conditions (mixing rate and temperature of secondary air and exhaust gas, exhaust gas composition, etc) prevailing in the exhaust system are described in this paper. This provides knowledge of the conditions for auto ignition of the mixture within the exhaust manifold. The thus established exothermal reaction (exhaust gas post-combustion) results in a shorter time to light-off temperature of the catalyst. The mechanisms of this combustion are studied at different engine idle conditions.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment of Volkswagen FSI Fuel Stratified Injection Engines

2002-03-04
2002-01-0346
For substantial reduction of fuel consumption of their vehicle fleet, Volkswagen AG has decided to develop spark-ignition engines with direct fuel injection. To launch this new engine concept with stratified lean operation mode while at the same time meeting the stringent EU IV emission standards, it was necessary to develop a suitable exhaust gas aftertreatment system. This was achieved as part of an intensive co-operation between Volkswagen AG and OMG, formerly dmc2 Degussa Metals Catalysts Cerdec AG. The paper describes the demands for exhaust gas aftertreatment due to lean burn operation. In addition the main development steps of the exhaust gas aftertreatment system for Volkswagen FSI engines and catalyst durability over vehicle lifetime are discussed. Focus is laid on the catalyst system design and coating variations. Volkswagen developed a new closed-loop emission control management system which uses NOx-sensor signals for the first time worldwide.
Technical Paper

Research Results and Progress in LeaNOx II -A Co-operation for Lean NOx Abatement

2000-10-16
2000-01-2909
In a consortium of European industrial partners and research institutes, a combination of industrial development and scientific research was organised. The objective was to improve the catalytic NOx conversion for lean burn cars and heavy-duty trucks, taking into account boundary conditions for the fuel consumption. The project lasted for three years. During this period parallel research was conducted in research areas ranging from basic research based on a theoretical approach to full scale emission system development. NOx storage catalysts became a central part of the project. Catalysts were evaluated with respect to resistance towards sulphur poisoning. It was concluded that very low sulphur fuel is a necessity for efficient use of NOx trap technology. Additionally, attempts were made to develop methods for reactivating poisoned catalysts. Methods for short distance mixing were developed for the addition of reducing agent.
Technical Paper

Experimental Approach to Optimize Catalyst Flow Uniformity

2000-03-06
2000-01-0865
A uniform flow distribution at converter inlet is one of the fundamental requirements to meet high catalytic efficiency. Commonly used tools for optimization of the inlet flow distribution are flow measurements as well as CFD analysis. This paper puts emphasis on the experimental procedures and results. The interaction of flow measurements and CFD is outlined. The exhaust gas flow is transient, compressible and hot, making in-situ flow measurements very complex. On the other hand, to utilize the advantages of flow testing at steady-state and cold conditions the significance of these results has to be verified first. CFD analysis under different boundary conditions prove that - in a first approach - the flow situation can be regarded as a sequence of successive, steady-state situations. Using the Reynolds analogy a formula for the steady-state, cold test mass flow is derived, taking into account the cylinder displacement and the rated speed.
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