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Technical Paper

Improving Subjective Assessment of Vehicle Dynamics Evaluations by means of Computer-Tablets as Digital Aid

2016-04-05
2016-01-1629
Vehicle dynamics development relies on subjective assessments (SA), which is a resource-intensive procedure requiring both expert drivers and vehicles. Furthermore, development projects becoming shorter and more complex, and increasing demands on quality require higher efficiency. Most research in this area has focused on moving from physical to virtual testing. However, SA remains the central method. Less attention has been given to provide better tools for the SA process itself. One promising approach is to introduce computer-tablets to aid data collection, which has proven to be useful in medical studies. Simple software solutions can eliminate the need to transcribe data and generate more flexible and better maintainable questionnaires. Tablets’ technical features envision promising enhancements of SA, which also enable better correlations to objective metrics, a requirement to improve CAE evaluations.
Technical Paper

Wake and Unsteady Surface-Pressure Measurements on an SUV with Rear-End Extensions

2015-04-14
2015-01-1545
Previous research on both small-scale and full-scale vehicles shows that base extensions are an effective method to increase the base pressure, enhancing pressure recovery and reducing the wake size. These extensions decrease drag at zero yaw, but show an even larger improvement at small yaw angles. In this paper, rear extensions are investigated on an SUV in the Volvo Cars Aerodynamic Wind Tunnel with focus on the wake flow and on the unsteady behavior of the surface pressures near the base perimeter. To increase the effect of the extensions on the wake flow, the investigated configurations have a closed upper- and lower grille (closed-cooling) and the underbody has been smoothed with additional panels. This paper aims to analyze differences in flow characteristics on the wake of an SUV at 0° and 2.5° yaw, caused by different sets of extensions attached to the base perimeter. Extensions with several lengths are investigated with and without a kick.
Technical Paper

Severe Frontal Collisions with Partial Overlap - Two Decades of Car Safety Development

2013-04-08
2013-01-0759
Frontal Severe Partial Overlap Collisions (SPOC) also called small overlap crashes pose special challenges with respect to structural design as well as occupant protection. In the early 1990s, the SPOC test method was developed addressing 20-40% overlap against a fixed rigid barrier with initial velocities up to 65 km/h. The knowledge gained has been used in the design of Volvo vehicles since then. Important design principles include front side members orientated along the wheel envelopes together with a strong support structure utilizing a space frame principle with beams loaded mainly in tension and compression. This novel setup was first introduced in the 850-model in 1991 and has been refined and patented (2001) in later Volvo front structures. Among the design principles are multiple front side members on each side, helping energy absorption efficiency and robustness.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Simulation of Peak Load Events Using Adams - Driving Over a Curb and Skid Against a Curb

2011-04-12
2011-01-0733
The durability peak load events Driving over a curb and Skid against a curb have been simulated in Adams for a Volvo S80. Simulated responses in the front wheel suspension have been validated by comparison with measurements. Due to the extreme nature of the peak load events, the component modeling is absolutely critical for the accuracy of the simulations. All components have to be described within their full range of excitation. Key components and behaviors to model have been identified as tire with wheel strike-through, contacts between curb and tire and between curb and rim, flexibility of structural components, bump stops, bushings, shock absorbers, and camber stiffness of the suspension. Highly non-linear component responses are captured in Adams. However, since Adams only allows linear material response for flexible bodies, the proposed methods to simulate impact loads are only valid up to small, plastic strains.
Technical Paper

A Method for Estimating the Benefit of Autonomous Braking Systems Using Traffic Accident Data

2006-04-03
2006-01-0473
One way of avoiding crashes or mitigating the consequences of a crash is to apply an autonomous braking system. Quantifying the benefit of such a system in terms of injury reduction is a challenge. At the same time it is a fundamental input into the vehicle development process. This paper describes a method to estimate the effectiveness of reducing speed prior to impact. A holistic view of quantifying the benefit is presented, based on existing real life crash data and basic dynamic theories. It involves a systematic and new way of examining accident data in order to extract information concerning pre-crash situations. One problem area when implementing collision mitigation systems is being able to achieve sufficient target discrimination. The results from the case study highlight frontal impact situations from real world accident data that have the greatest potential in terms of improving accident outcome.
Technical Paper

The Door Mounted Inflatable Curtain

2006-04-03
2006-01-1437
It has been shown that Inflatable Curtains have the potential to reduce head injuries in side impacts and the system has accordingly been introduced on a growing number of car models. There is also a potential benefit in rollover situations. This paper only consider performance in situations with belted occupants. To date, it has not been possible to implement an Inflatable Curtain in convertible vehicles because they lack a roof. The challenge of the Door Mounted Inflatable Curtain (DMIC) has been to overcome the lack of support and fixation possibilities offered by a roof. This paper includes a description of the DMIC and how it was integrated into the vehicle structure. The paper will also show how to create the space and support needed to utilize the internal stiffness and make it possible to fill the bag in time. The impact attenuation and ejection protection functions of the DMIC will be demonstrated.
Technical Paper

The Inflatable Curtain (IC) - A New Head Protection System in Side Impacts

1998-05-31
986180
Car accident investigations have shown that the head, the chest and the abdomen are the three most vulnerable body regions in side impacts, when serious-to-fatal (MAIS 3-6) injuries are considered. Injuries are much more common to occupants seated on the struck side than to those on the non-struck side. The development of new side impact protection systems has therefore been focused on struck side occupants. The first airbag system for side impact protection, jointly developed by Volvo and Autoliv, was introduced on the market in 1994. The SIPS bag is seat-mounted and protects mainly the chest and the abdomen, and also to some extent the head, since the head's lateral relative displacement is reduced by the side airbag, thereby keeping the head inside the car's outer profile. However, if an external object is exposed in the head area, for example in a truck-to-car side impact or in a single car collision into a pole or a tree, there is a need for an additional head protection device.
Technical Paper

A Study of Ground Simulation-Correlation between Wind-Tunnel and Water-Basin Tests of a Full-Scale Car

1989-02-01
890368
The aerodynamic properties of a full-scale car have been investigated in a wind-tunnel with upstream boundary layer suction, and in a water-basin where the car was rolling on the bottom. Measurements were carried out of the drag and lift forces, the static pressure distribution on the car body and the total head distribution between the car and the ground. By comparing data from the tunnel and the basin the ground simulation technique could be evaluated. The measured drag coefficients were found to be very similar in both facilities, while the absolute values of the lift coefficients were considerably higher in the tunnel. Lift differences due to configuration changes of the upperbody were essentially the same in the two facilities, while changes of the underbody caused smaller lift differences in the tunnel. In the project the water-basin technique was thoroughly investigated and proven.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Vehicle Pitch in Sled Testing

1985-02-25
850098
In HYGE sled simulations of 35 mph barrier crashes with the Volvo 760 dummy kinematics and injury criteria have been different from what can be observed in barrier crashes One of the major differences between sled testing and barrier crashes is the car pitch in the barrier crashes. In order to improve the sled testing a method to simulate pitch on the sled was developed. Dummy kinematics and injury criteria from sled tests with pitch simulation have proved to be in good agreement with results from barrier crashes. The paper will give a more detailed description of vehicle pitch, the sled pitch arrangement and a comparison of dummy kinematics and injury criteria from barrier crashes and sled testing with and without pitch displacement.
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