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Technical Paper

Stop Whistling! A Note on Fluid Driven Whistles in Flow Ducts

The generation mechanism and possible counter measures for fluid driven whistles in low Mach number flow duct networks are discussed. The vortex sound model, where unstable shear layers interact with the acoustic field and act as amplifiers under certain boundary conditions, is shown to capture the physics well. Further, for the system to actually whistle an acoustic feedback to the amplifying shear layer is also needed. The demonstration example in this study is a generalized resonator configuration with annular volumes attached to a straight flow duct via a number of small holes, perforations, around the duct’s circumference. At each hole a shear layer is formed and the acoustic reflections from the resonator volumes and the up and downstream sides provides a possible feedback to them. Not only the Helmholtz mode but also ring modes in the annular volumes provide a feedback to sustain whistles.
Technical Paper

Predicting Fluid Driven Whistles in Automotive Intake and Exhaust Systems

This work explores how fluid driven whistles in complex automotive intake and exhaust systems can be predicted using computationally affordable tools. Whistles associated with unsteady shear layers (created over for example side branches or perforates in resonators) are studied using vortex sound theory; vorticity in the shear layer interacts with the acoustic field while being convected across the orifice. If the travel time of a hydrodynamic disturbance over the orifice reasonably matches a multiple of the acoustic period of an acoustic feedback system, energy is transferred from the flow field to the acoustic field resulting in a whistle. The actual amplitude of the whistle is set by non-linear saturation phenomena and cannot be predicted here, but the frequency and relative strength can be found. For this not only the mean flow and acoustic fields needs to be characterized separately, but also the interaction of the two.