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Technical Paper

In-Situ Characterization of Vibrations from a Door Mounted Loudspeaker

2018-06-13
2018-01-1511
In the automotive industry, there is an increasing need for gaining efficiency and confidence in the prediction capability for various attributes. Often, one component or sub-system is used in a number of car models of one vehicle platform. Many of these components are potential sources of noise, vibration and squeak and rattle. In order to provide an early prognosis, vibro-acoustic source characterization in combination with the source-to-response transfer behavior are required. This paper describes the process of predicting the vibrational behavior due to a woofer, which could induce squeak and rattle, on a door panel. Blocked forces, determined indirectly in-situ by frequency response functions and operational accelerations, were used for quantifying the source activity. Those forces were in a second step loaded on to a finite element model in order to predict the response when the speaker was mounted to another position in an upcoming car model.
Technical Paper

A Steady-State Based Investigation of Automotive Turbocharger Compressor Noise

2018-06-13
2018-01-1528
The challenging problem of noise generation and propagation in automotive turbocharging systems is of real interest from both scientific and practical points of view. Robust and fast steady-state fluid flow calculations, complemented by acoustic analogies can represent valuable tools to be used for a quick assessment of the problem during e.g. design phase, and a starting point for more in-depth future unsteady calculations. Thus, as a part of the initial phase of a long-term project, a steady-state Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) flow analysis is carried out for a specific automotive turbocharger compressor geometry. Acoustic data are extracted by means of aeroacoustics models available within the framework of the STAR-CCM+ solver (i.e. Curle and Proudman acoustic analogies, respectively).
Technical Paper

Flow Noise Generation in a Pipe Bend

2018-06-13
2018-01-1525
Noise generated by low Mach number flow in duct networks is important in many industrial applications. In the automotive industry the two most important are the ventilation duct network and the engine exhaust system. Traditionally, design is made based on rule-of thumb or slightly better by simple semi-empirical scaling laws for flow noise. In many cases, strong curvatures and local deviations from circular cross-sections are created due to outer geometry restrictions. This can result in local relatively high flow velocities and complex flow separation patterns and as a result, rule-of thumb and scaling law methods can become highly inaccurate and uncertain. More advanced techniques based on time domain modelling of the fluid dynamics equations together with acoustic analogies can offer a better understanding of the local noise generation, the propagation and interaction with the rest of the system.
Technical Paper

Stop Whistling! A Note on Fluid Driven Whistles in Flow Ducts

2018-06-13
2018-01-1524
The generation mechanism and possible counter measures for fluid driven whistles in low Mach number flow duct networks are discussed. The vortex sound model, where unstable shear layers interact with the acoustic field and act as amplifiers under certain boundary conditions, is shown to capture the physics well. Further, for the system to actually whistle an acoustic feedback to the amplifying shear layer is also needed. The demonstration example in this study is a generalized resonator configuration with annular volumes attached to a straight flow duct via a number of small holes, perforations, around the duct’s circumference. At each hole a shear layer is formed and the acoustic reflections from the resonator volumes and the up and downstream sides provides a possible feedback to them. Not only the Helmholtz mode but also ring modes in the annular volumes provide a feedback to sustain whistles.
Technical Paper

Robustness and Variability Prediction of Seat Vibration Caused by All-Wheel Drive System Imbalance in Vehicle Development

2018-06-13
2018-01-1484
During the vehicle development process in the premium and luxury automotive segments an important task is the refinement of noise, vibration and harshness. Along with other attributes such as styling, drivability and vehicle dynamics it strongly influences the overall perception of the vehicle. At the same time the automotive manufacturers need to release more products faster to the market using shorter vehicle development time with reduced cost. Altogether this has increased the use of virtual models and decreased the number of test vehicles in the programs. When assembling vehicles in production there will be a natural variation, which will result in a spread in the attribute performances. When shifting towards virtual models and reduced numbers of physical test vehicles there is a higher risk that the variations in production will be neglected, leading to more customer complaints.
Technical Paper

Quantification of Diesel Engine Vibration Using Cylinder Deactivation for Exhaust Temperature Management and Recipe for Implementation in Commercial Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-1284
Commercial vehicles require continual improvements in order to meet fuel emission standards, improve diesel aftertreatment system performance and optimize vehicle fuel economy. Aftertreatment systems, used to remove engine NOx, are temperature dependent. Variable valve actuation in the form of cylinder deactivation (CDA) has been shown to manage exhaust temperatures to the aftertreatment system during low load operation (i.e., under 3-4 bar BMEP). During cylinder deactivation mode, a diesel engine can have higher vibration levels when compared to normal six cylinder operation. The viability of CDA needs to be implemented in a way to manage noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) within acceptable ranges for today’s commercial vehicles and drivelines. A heavy duty diesel engine (inline 6 cylinder) was instrumented to collect vibration data in a dynamometer test cell.
Technical Paper

Effect of Intake Valve Profile Modulation on Passenger Car Fuel Consumption

2018-04-03
2018-01-0379
Variable valve actuation is a focus to improve fuel efficiency for passenger car engines. Various means to implement early and late intake valve closing (E/LIVC) at lower load operating conditions is investigated. The study uses GT Power to simulate on E/LIVC on a 2.5 L gasoline engine, in-line four cylinder, four valve per cylinder engine to evaluate different ways to achieve Atkinson cycle performance. EIVC and LIVC are proven methods to reduce the compression-to-expansion ratio of the engine at part load and medium load operation. Among the LIVC strategies, two non-traditional intake valve lift profiles are investigated to understand their impact on reduction of fuel consumption at low engine loads. Both the non-traditional lift profiles retain the same maximum lift as a normal intake valve profile (Otto-cycle) unlike a traditional LIVC profile (Atkinson cycle) which needs higher maximum lift.
Technical Paper

Frictional Differences between Rolling and Sliding Interfaces for Passenger Car Switching Roller Finger Followers

2018-04-03
2018-01-0382
The demand for improving fuel economy in passenger cars is continuously increasing. Eliminating energy losses within the engine is one method of achieving fuel economy improvement. Frictional energy losses account for a noticeable portion of the overall efficiency of an engine. Valvetrain friction, specifically at the camshaft interface, is one area where potential for friction reduction is evident. Several factors can impact the friction at the camshaft interface. Some examples include: camshaft lobe profile, rocker arm interface geometry, valve spring properties, material properties, oil temperature, and oil pressure. This paper discusses the results of a series of tests that experimented the changes in friction that take place as these factors are altered. The impact of varying testing conditions such as oil pressure and oil temperature was evaluated throughout the duration of the testing and described herein.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Deactivation for Increased Engine Efficiency and Aftertreatment Thermal Management in Diesel Engines

2018-04-03
2018-01-0384
Diesel engine cylinder deactivation (CDA) can be used to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of the global freight transportation system. Heavy duty trucks require complex exhaust aftertreatment (A/T) in order to meet stringent emission regulations. Efficient reduction of engine-out emissions require a certain A/T system temperature range, which is achieved by thermal management via control of engine exhaust flow and temperature. Fuel efficient thermal management is a significant challenge, particularly during cold start, extended idle, urban driving, and vehicle operation in cold ambient conditions. CDA results in airflow reductions at low loads. Airflow reductions generally result in higher exhaust gas temperatures and lower exhaust flow rates, which are beneficial for maintaining already elevated component temperatures. Airflow reductions also reduce pumping work, which improves fuel efficiency.
Technical Paper

In-Duct Acoustic Source Data for Roots Blowers

2017-06-05
2017-01-1792
Increased demands for reduction of fuel consumption and CO2 emissions are driven by the global warming. To meet these challenges with respect to the passenger car segment the strategy of utilizing IC-engine downsizing has shown to be effective. In order to additionally meet requirements for high power and torque output supercharging is required. This can be realized using e.g. turbo-chargers, roots blowers or a combination of several such devices for the highest specific power segment. Both turbo-chargers and roots blowers can be strong sources of sound depending on the operating conditions and extensive NVH abatements such as resonators and encapsulation might be required to achieve superior vehicle NVH. For an efficient resonator tuning process in-duct acoustic source data is required. No published studies exists that describe how the gas exchange process for roots blowers can be described by acoustic sources in the frequency domain.
Journal Article

Influence of Exhaust Gas Composition on Measured Total and Exhaust Flow Using a CVS with Critical Flow Venturi and Smooth Approach Orifice

2017-03-28
2017-01-0995
The Constant Volume Sampler (CVS) is often used to dilute automotive exhaust with ambient air for measurement of emissions from light duty vehicles. A CVS is traditionally equipped with Critical Flow Venturi (CFV) to control and measure total flow. If the CVS is equipped with a Smooth Approach Orifice (SAO) to measure dilution air flow, the exhaust flow of the vehicle can be calculated as the difference between dilution and total flow. Calibration of the CVS and SAO is routinely done using ambient air, but carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor in diluted exhaust have an influence on the flow through the CFV. In current US emission legislation the provisions to include water vapor is added. However, if this is done then the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) in exhaust has not been considered. Further on, when using the CVS to measure exhaust flow, only the CFV will be affected by the diluted exhaust gas composition.
Technical Paper

Innovative Design - Route to Functionally Graded Structures

2017-01-10
2017-26-0157
Functionally graded materials enable structures to have distribution of different properties (physical, thermal, electrical, mechanical, etc.) across its volume; achievable via material/ design/ process engineering. These functionally graded materials can find an application in systems which demand localized variation or enhancement in properties in different regions of the same component. In this paper, we focus on the potential ways of designing functionally graded polymer composite structure by injection molding process. Advanced mold designs for injection molding process can be effectively used to manufacture the functionally graded structures. Innovative design approach has been explored to control the distribution of the filler content /orientation to impart distinctive properties across the cross section / geometry without affecting the bulk properties.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Compact Non-Fibrous Silencer for the Control of Compressor Noise

2016-06-15
2016-01-1818
The concept of IC engine downsizing is a well-adapted industry standard, enabling better fuel conversion efficiency and the reduction of tailpipe emissions. This is achieved by utilizing different type of superchargers. As a consequence, the additional charger noise emission, at the IC engine inlet, can become a problem. In order to address such problem, the authors of this work have recently proposed a novel dissipative silencer for effective and robust noise control of the compressor. Essentially, it realizes an optimal flow channel impedance, referred to as the Cremer impedance. This is achieved by means of a straight flow channel with a locally reacting wall consisting of air cavities covered by an acoustic resistance, e.g., a micro-perforated panel (MPP). In this paper, an improved optimization method of this silencer is presented. The classical Cremer impedance model is modified to account for mean flow dependence of the optimal wave number.
Technical Paper

Predicting Fluid Driven Whistles in Automotive Intake and Exhaust Systems

2016-06-15
2016-01-1820
This work explores how fluid driven whistles in complex automotive intake and exhaust systems can be predicted using computationally affordable tools. Whistles associated with unsteady shear layers (created over for example side branches or perforates in resonators) are studied using vortex sound theory; vorticity in the shear layer interacts with the acoustic field while being convected across the orifice. If the travel time of a hydrodynamic disturbance over the orifice reasonably matches a multiple of the acoustic period of an acoustic feedback system, energy is transferred from the flow field to the acoustic field resulting in a whistle. The actual amplitude of the whistle is set by non-linear saturation phenomena and cannot be predicted here, but the frequency and relative strength can be found. For this not only the mean flow and acoustic fields needs to be characterized separately, but also the interaction of the two.
Technical Paper

Light Weight Structures - Structural Analysis for Weight Optimization and Joining Techniques of Dissimilar Materials

2016-04-05
2016-01-1394
Light weight structures give significant advantages to products in the Industrial sector. Component weight-saving plays a major role in improving the efficiency and performance of assembled systems. The introduction of lighter materials into products using dissimilar material joining techniques can create more weight savings and leads to lighter structures. Structural optimization is another method to optimize the material layout without affecting overall performance of the product. This paper discusses the methods to create lighter structures by the introduction of lighter materials in structures and structural optimization methods. Lighter materials are introduced in the structure using dissimilar material joining techniques. Joining processes such as thermal shrink-fit and mechanical press-fit are useful for metal to metal components. Similarly, adhesively bonded joints are useful for both metal and non-metal (plastics and composites) components.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Time-to-Failure Prediction Methodology for Glass (Fused Quartz) Material under Cyclic Loading

2016-04-05
2016-01-0388
In amorphous solids such as fused quartz, the failure mechanism under cyclic loading is very different when compared to metals where this failure is attributable to dislocation movement and eventual slip band activity. Standard mechanical fatigue prediction methodologies, S-N or ε-N based, which have been historically developed for metals are rendered inapplicable for this class of material. The fatigue strength of Fused Silica or Fused Quartz (SiO2) material is known to be highly dependent on the stressed area and the surface finish. Stable crack growth in Region II of the V-K curve (Crack growth rate vs Stress intensity factor) is dependent on the competing and transitional effects of temperature and humidity, along that specific section of the stress intensity factor abscissa. Fused glass (under harsh environment conditions) finds usage in Automotive, Marine and Aerospace applications, where stress and load (both static and cyclic) can be severe.
Journal Article

On Practical Implementation of the Ramberg-Osgood Model for FE Simulation

2016-01-05
2015-01-9086
The three parameter Ramberg-Osgood (RO) method finds popular usage for extracting complete stress-strain curve from limited data which is usually available. The currently popular practice of assuming the plasticity to set in only at the Yield point provides computational advantage by separating the complete nonlinear curve, obtained from RO method, into elastic and plastic regions. It is shown, with an example problem, that serious errors are committed by using this method if one compares the obtained results with results of complete stress-strain curve. In the present work we propose a simple Taylor series based approach based on RO method to overcome the above deficiency. This method is found to be computationally efficient. The proposed method is applicable for stress-strain curves of materials for which RO method provides a good approximation.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Comparison Studies of Forklift Transmission Architecture

2015-09-29
2015-01-2830
Fuel economy is one of the major challenges for both on and off-road vehicles. Inefficient engine operation and loss of kinetic energy in the form of heat during braking are two of the major sources of wasted fuel energy. Rising energy costs, stringent emission norms and increased environmental awareness demand efficient drivetrain designs for the next generation of vehicles. This paper analyzes three different types of powertrain concepts for efficient operation of a forklift truck. Starting from a conventional torque convertor transmission, hydrostatic transmission and a hydraulic hybrid transmission (Eaton architecture) are compared for their fuel economy performance. Eaton hydraulic hybrid system is seen to perform much better compared to other two architectures. Improved fuel economy is attributed to efficient engine operation and regeneration of vehicle kinetic energy during braking.
Technical Paper

Development of Net Shape Fiber Reinforced Plenum for Electronic Limited Slip Differential

2015-04-14
2015-01-0710
Global vehicle emissions reduction initiatives have warranted the development and usage of new materials and processes not traditionally used in the automotive industry besides exclusive applications. To support this mandate, vehicle lightweighting via metal replacement and design optimization has come into sharp focus as a doubly rewarding effect; namely, a lighter vehicle system not only requires less road load power for motivation, but also allows for smaller, usually more efficient powertrain options, which tend to be more efficient still. The automotive industry has begun to embrace adapting composite materials that have typically been available only to the upper end of the market and specialty racing applications. The specific component detailed in this paper highlights the challenges and rewards for metal replacement with an injection molded, fiber reinforced plastic for usage in mass produced drivetrain systems, namely the Electronic Limited Slip Differential (eLSD).
Technical Paper

Electric Power Assist Steering System Parameterization and Optimisation Employing Computer-Aided Engineering

2015-04-14
2015-01-1500
The automotive industry strives to develop high quality vehicles in a short period of time that satisfy the consumer needs and stand out in the competition. Full exploitation of simulation and Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) tools can enable quick evaluation of different vehicle concepts and setups without the need of building physical prototypes. Addressing the aforementioned statements this paper presents a method for optimising the Electric Power-Assisted Steering (EPAS) ECU parameters employing solely CAE. The objective of the optimisation is to achieve a desired steering response. The developed process is tested on three specific steering metrics (friction feel, torque build-up and torque deadband) for two function parameters (basic steering torque and active return) of the EPAS. The optimisation method enabled all metrics to fall successfully within the target range.
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