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Technical Paper

Influence of the Compression Ratio on the Performance and Emissions of a Mini HCCI Engine Fueled Ether with Diethyl

2007-10-29
2007-01-4075
Power supply systems play a very important role in applications of everyday life. Mainly, for low power generation, there are two ways of producing energy: electrochemical batteries and small engines. In the last few years many improvements have been carried out in order to obtain lighter batteries with longer duration but unfortunately the energy density of 1 MJ/kg seems to be an asymptotic value. If the energy source is an organic fuel with an energy density of around 29 MJ/kg and a minimum overall efficiency of only 3.5%, this device can surpass the batteries. Nowadays the most efficient combustion process is HCCI combustion which is able to combine high energy conversion efficiency and low emission levels with a very low fuel consumption. In this paper, an investigation has been carried out concerning the effects of the compression ratio on the performance and emissions of a mini, Vd = 4.11 [cm3], HCCI engine fueled with diethyl ether.
Technical Paper

Detailed Heat Release Analyses with Regard to Combustion of RME and Oxygenated Fuels in an HSDI Diesel Engine

2007-04-16
2007-01-0627
Experiments on a modern DI Diesel engine were carried out: The engine was fuelled with standard Diesel fuel, RME and a mixture of 85% standard Diesel fuel, 5% RME and 10% higher alcohols under low load conditions (4 bar IMEP). During these experiments, different external EGR levels were applied while the injection timing was chosen in a way to keep the location of 50% heat release constant. Emission analysis results were in accordance with widely known correlations: Increasing EGR rates lowered NOx emissions. This is explained by a decrease of global air-fuel ratio entailing longer ignition delay. Local gas-fuel ratio increases during ignition delay and local combustion temperature is lowered. Exhaust gas analysis indicated further a strong increase of CO, PM and unburned HC emissions at high EGR levels. This resulted in lower combustion efficiency. PM emissions however, decreased above 50% EGR which was also in accordance with previously reported results.
Technical Paper

A Real Time NOx Model for Conventional and Partially Premixed Diesel Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-0195
In this paper a fast NOx model is presented which can be used for engine optimization, aftertreatment control or virtual mapping. A cylinder pressure trace is required as input data. High calculation speed is obtained by using table interpolation to calculate equilibrium temperatures and species concentrations. Test data from a single-cylinder engine and from a complete six-cylinder engine have been used for calibration and validation of the model. The model produces results of good agreement with emission measurements using approximately 50 combustion product zones and a calculation time of one second per engine cycle. Different compression ratios, EGR rates, injection timing, inlet pressures etc. were used in the validation tests.
Technical Paper

Cylinder-to-Cylinder and Cycle-to-Cycle Variations at HCCI Operation With Trapped Residuals

2005-04-11
2005-01-0130
A naturally aspirated in-line six-cylinder 2.9-litre Volvo engine is operated in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) mode, using camshafts with low lift and short duration generating negative valve overlap. Standard port fuel injection is used and pistons and cylinder head are unchanged from the automotive application. HCCI through negative valve overlap is recognized as one of the possible implementation strategies of HCCI closest to production. It is important to gain knowledge of the constraints and limits on the possible operating region. In this work, the emphasis is on investigating how cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder deviations limit the operating region, how these effects change in different parts of the operating region and how they can be controlled. At low load the cycle-to-cycle phenomena cause periodic behavior in combustion timing; together with cylinder deviations this is found responsible for decreasing the operating regime.
Technical Paper

Start of Injection Strategies for HCCI-combustion

2004-10-25
2004-01-2990
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) has a great potential for low NOx emissions but problems with emissions of unburned hydrocarbons (HC). One way of reducing the HC is to use direct injection. The purpose of this paper is to present experimental data on the trade off between NOx and HC. Injection timing, injection pressure and nozzle configuration all effect homogeneity of the mixture and thus the NOx and HC emissions. The engine studied is a single cylinder version of a Scania D12 that represents a modern heavy-duty truck size engine. A common rail (CR) system has been used to control injection pressure and timing. The combustion using injectors with different nozzle hole diameters and spray angle, both colliding and non-colliding, has been studied. The NOx emission level changes with start of injection (SOI) and the levels are low for early injection timing, increasing with retarded SOI. Different injectors produce different NOx levels.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Heat Release and NOx Formation in a DI Diesel Engine Running on DME and Diesel Fuel

2001-03-05
2001-01-0651
Although there seems to be a consensus regarding the low emission potential of DME, there are still different opinions about why the low NOx emissions can be obtained without negative effects on thermal efficiency. Possible explanations are: The physical properties of DME affecting the spray and the mixture formation Different shape and duration of the heat release in combination with reduced heat losses In this paper an attempt is made to increase the knowledge of DME in relation to diesel fuel with respect to heat release and NOx formation. The emphasis has been to create injection conditions as similar as possible for both fuels. For that purpose the same injection system (CR), injection pressure (270 bar), injection timing and duration have been used for the two fuels. The only differences were the diameters of the nozzle holes, which were chosen to give the same fuel energy supply, and the physical properties of the fuels.
Technical Paper

Employing an Ionization Sensor for Combustion Diagnostics in a Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine

2001-03-05
2001-01-0992
An ionization sensor has been used to study the combustion process in a six-cylinder lean burn, truck-sized engine fueled with natural gas and optimized for low emissions of nitric oxides. The final goal of the investigations is to study the prospects of using the ionization sensor for finding the optimal operating position with respect to low NOx emission and stable engine operation. The results indicate that unstable combustion can be detected by analyzing the coefficient of variation (CoV) of the detector current amplitude. Close relationships between this measure and the CoV of the indicated mean effective pressure have been found during an air-fuel ratio scan with fixed ignition advance.
Technical Paper

A Theoretical Study of the Potential of NOx Reduction by Fuel Rate Shaping in a DI Diesel Engine

2000-10-16
2000-01-2935
In this paper, a theoretical study is presented where fuel rate shaping is analyzed in combination with EGR as a method for reducing NOx formation. The analytical tools used include an empirically based model to convert fuel rate to heat release rate, and a zero dimensional multizone combustion model to calculate combustion products, local flame temperatures and NOx emissions at a given heat release rate. The multizone model, which has been presented earlier, includes flame radiation and convective heat losses. Several geometrical shapes of the fuel rate are tested for different combustion timings and EGR rates. It is found that the fuel rate giving the lowest NOx formation varies with the injection timing. In order to lower the NOx emissions at normal and advanced injection timings, the fuel rate should have a rather long duration, and start at its maximum level followed by a slow decay.
Technical Paper

Hydrocarbon (HC) Reduction of Exhaust Gases from a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engine Using Different Catalytic Mesh-Coatings

2000-06-19
2000-01-1847
A FeCrAlloy mesh-type catalyst has been used to reduce hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from a 4-stroke HCCI engine. Significant for the HCCI engine is a high compression ratio and lean mixtures, which leads to a high efficiency, low combustion temperatures and thereby low NOx emissions, <5 pmm, but also low exhaust temperatures, around 300°C. It becomes critical to: 1. Ensure that the HCCI-combustion generates as low HC emissions as possible, this can be done by very precise control of engine inlet conditions and, if possible, compression ratio. 2. Ensure that the exhaust temperature is high enough, without loosing efficiency or producing NOx; in order to get an oxidizing catalyst to work. 3. Select proper catalyst material for the catalyst so that the exhaust temperature can be as low as possible.
Technical Paper

The Influence of EGR on Heat Release Rate and NO Formation in a DI Diesel Engine

2000-06-19
2000-01-1807
Exhaust Gas Recirculation, EGR, is one of the most effective means of reducing NOx emissions from diesel engines and is likely to be used in order to meet future emissions standards. Exhaust gases can either be used to replace some of the air that enters the engine or can be added to the intake flow. The former case has been studied in this paper. One advantage of air replacement is that the exhaust mass flow is reduced in addition to the decreased NOx formation. The objective of this study has been to take a closer look at the factors affecting NOx emissions at different EGR rates. This is done by combining heat release analysis, based on measured pressure traces and NO formation in a multi zone combustion model. The model used is an improved version of an earlier presented model [1]. One feature in the new model is the possibility to separate the NO formation during the premixed combustion from NO formed during the diffusive combustion.
Technical Paper

Demonstrating the Multi Fuel Capability of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engine with Variable Compression Ratio

1999-10-25
1999-01-3679
The potential of a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine with variable compression ratio has been experimentally investigated. The experiments were carried out in a single cylinder engine, equipped with a modified cylinder head. Altering the position of a secondary piston in the cylinder head enabled a change of the compression ratio. The secondary piston was controlled by a hydraulic system, which was operated from the control room. Dual port injection systems were used, which made it possible to change the ratio of two different fuels with the engine running. By mixing iso-octane with octane number 100 and normal heptane with octane number 0, it was possible to obtain any octane rating between 0 and 100. By using an electrical heater for the inlet air, it was possible to adjust the inlet air temperature to a selected value.
Technical Paper

Reactions Over A Double Layer Tri-Metal Three-Way Catalyst

1996-02-01
960801
The reactions over a commercially available double layer tri-metal type (Pt, Pd, Rh) passenger car catalyst were analysed. A parameter study was performed in synthetic exhaust gases at: steady state conversion, periodic oscillations, and controlled transients. The influences of gas phase composition, temperature, adiabatic heat of reaction and lambda oscillations were investigated. The reactions of nitrogen oxides, propene and carbon monoxide were simultaneously analysed. Fast response emission analysers were used to record the dynamic properties of the catalysts. The catalyst was found to have high conversion rates and high oxygen storage capacity at relatively low temperatures. The presence of sulphur dioxide was found to reduce the conversion of CO and NOx substantially. An emission increase of 40-70 % was observed for steady state conditions and at oscillating conditions the increase was more than 100%.
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