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Technical Paper

Modeling Three-Way Catalyst Converters During Cold Starts And Potential Improvements

2019-12-19
2019-01-2326
Three-way catalyst (TWC) converters are often used to purify toxic substances contained in exhaust emissions from gasoline engines. However, a large amount of CO, NOx and THC may be emitted before the TWC reaches its light-off temperature during a cold start. In this work, a numerical model was developed for studying the purification performance of a close-coupled TWC converter during the cold start period. The TWC model was built using axisuite, commercial software by Exothermia S.A. Model gas experiments were designed for calibrating the chemical reaction scheme and corresponding reaction rate parameters in the TWC model. The TWC model was able to simulate the purification performance of CO, NOx and THC under both lean and rich air-fuel equivalence ratios (λ) for different conditions. The light-off temperature and oxygen storage capacity (OSC) behavior were also successfully validated in the model. Vehicle tests were conducted on a chassis dynamometer to verify the TWC model.
Technical Paper

Analysis of NH3 Diffusion Phenomena in a Selective Catalytic Reduction Coated Diesel Particulate Filter Catalyst Using a Simple One-Dimensional Core Model

2019-12-19
2019-01-2236
This paper describes a method for estimating constants related to NH3 gas diffusion phenomena to the active sites in a selective catalytic reduction diesel particulate filter (SCR/DPF) catalyst. A simple one-dimensional NH3 gas diffusion model based on the pore structure inside the catalyst was developed and used to estimate the intracrystalline diffusion coefficient. It was shown that the estimated value agreed well with experimental data.
Technical Paper

A Fundamental Study on Combustion Characteristics in a Pre-Chamber Type Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0123
Pre-chamber spark ignition technology can stabilize combustion and improve thermal efficiency of lean burn natural gas engines. During compression stroke, a homogeneous lean mixture is introduced into pre-chamber, which separates spark plug electrodes from turbulent flow field. After the pre-chamber mixture is ignited, the burnt jet gas is discharged through multi-hole nozzles which promotes combustion of the lean mixture in the main chamber due to turbulence caused by high speed jet and multi-points ignition. However, details mechanism in the process has not been elucidated. To design the pre-chamber geometry and to achieve stable combustion under the lean condition for such engines, it is important to understand the fundamental aspects of the combustion process. In this study, a high-speed video camera with a 306 nm band-pass filer and an image intensifier is used to visualize OH* self-luminosity in rapid compression-expansion machine experiment.
Technical Paper

Kinetic Modeling of Ammonia-SCR and Experimental Studies over Monolithic Cu-ZSM-5 Catalyst

2019-01-15
2019-01-0024
Ammonia-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems have been introduced commercially in diesel vehicles, however catalyst systems with higher conversion efficiency and better control characteristics are required to know the actual emissions during operation and the emissions in random test cycles. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an effective approach when applied to SCR catalyst development, and many models have been proposed, but these models need experimental verification and are limited in the situations they apply to. Further, taking account of redox cycle is important to have better accuracy in transient operation, however there are few models considering the cycle. Model development considering the redox reactions in a zeolite catalyst, Cu-ZSM-5, is the object of the research here, and the effects of exhaust gas composition on the SCR reaction and NH3 oxidation at high temperatures are investigated.
Technical Paper

Effects of Soot Deposition on NOx Purification Reaction and Mass Transfer in a SCR/DPF Catalyst

2018-09-10
2018-01-1707
Experimental studies were carried out to investigate the effect of soot deposition on NOx purification phenomena in an ammonia selective catalytic reduction coated diesel particulate filter (SCR/DPF) catalyst. To study soot deposition effects on the chemical reactions and mass transfer, two types of testing device were used. A synthetic gas bench enabling tests to be conducted with temperature and flow rate ranges relevant to real driving conditions was used to investigate the soot influence on reduction of NOx to N2 (DeNOx). A micro-reactor that removed the effect of soot deposition on mass transfer in the catalyst layer was used to analyze chemical reactions on a soot surface and their interaction with the SCR catalyst. A filter test brick of a Cu-zeolite SCR/DPF catalyst and a powder catalyst were used for the synthetic gas bench and micro-reactor tests, respectively. Engine soot was sampled in all the tests.
Journal Article

Detailed Diesel Combustion and Soot Formation Analysis with Improved Wall Model Using Large Eddy Simulation

2015-11-17
2015-32-0715
A mixed time-scale subgrid large eddy simulation was used to simulate mixture formation, combustion and soot formation under the influence of turbulence during diesel engine combustion. To account for the effects of engine wall heat transfer on combustion, the KIVA code's standard wall model was replaced to accommodate more realistic boundary conditions. This were carried out by implementing the non-isothermal wall model of Angelberger et al. with modifications and incorporating the log law from Pope's method to account for the wall surface roughness. Soot and NOx emissions predicted with the new model are compared to experimental data acquired under various EGR conditions.
Technical Paper

Developments of the Reduced Chemical Reaction Scheme for Multi-Component Gasoline Fuel

2015-09-01
2015-01-1808
The reduced chemical reaction scheme which can take the effect of major fuel components on auto ignition timing into account has been developed. This reaction scheme was based on the reduced reaction mechanism for the primary reference fuels (PRF) proposed by Tsurushima [1] with 33 species and 38 reactions. Some pre-exponential factors were modified by using Particle Swarm Optimization to match the ignition delay time versus reciprocal temperature which was calculated by the detailed scheme with 2,301 species and 11,116 elementary chemical reactions. The result using the present reaction scheme shows good agreements with that using the detailed scheme for the effects of EGR, fuel components, and radical species on the ignition timing under homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion (HCCI) conditions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Optimization of Parameters to Improve Thermal Efficiency of a Spark-Ignited Natural Gas Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1884
Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines because of its clean combustion characteristics and abundant reserves. However, it has several disadvantages due to its low energy density and low thermal efficiency at low loads. Thus, to assist efforts to improve the thermal efficiency of spark-ignited (SI) engines operating on natural gas and to minimize test procedures, a numerical simulation model was developed to predict and optimize the performance of a turbocharged test engine, considering flame propagation, occurrence of knock and ignition timing. The numerical results correlate well with empirical data, and show that increasing compression ratios and retarding the intake valve closing (IVC) timing relative to selected baseline conditions could effectively improve thermal efficiency. In addition, employing moderate EGR ratios is also effective for avoiding knock.
Technical Paper

Detailed Analysis of Particulate Matter Emitted from Biofueled Diesel Combustion with High EGR

2009-04-20
2009-01-0483
Difference of engine combustion characteristics, species and amount of exhaust gas and PM (particulate matter consisted of SOF and Soot and Ash), and especially PM oxidation characteristics were studied when diesel fuel or bio-fuel, here PME (palm oil methyl ester) as an example, was used as a fuel. The fueling rate was adjusted to obtain the same torque for both fuels and engine was operated under several range of EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) ratio. Under such conditions, PME showed shorter ignition delay time and lower R.H.R (rate of heat release) under 0-40% EGR ratio. With respect to engine exhaust gas species, CO, NO, THC and HCHO, CH3CHO concentration was almost the same when the EGR ratio is higher than 35% (Intake-Air/Fuel: A/F=20). However, PME also showed lower exhaust gas emission when the EGR ratio is higher than 30%.
Journal Article

Numerical Analysis of Diesel Combustion with High EGR and High Boost Pressure using a Multi-Dimensional CFD Code Coupled with Complex Chemistry Analysis

2008-06-23
2008-01-1637
In this study, fuel ignition timing parameters, in-cylinder pressure and heat release rates, and quantities of major exhaust gas emissions from a diesel engine were calculated using multi-dimensional CFD codes coupled with complex chemistry analysis. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of parameters was conducted to identify the major variables affecting these diesel combustion parameters. Firstly, diesel combustion analysis under typical operating conditions was carried out to validate the analytical methods used in the study, and then the effects of intake gas variables (e.g. temperature, and pressure) were investigated in detail in the sensitivity analysis. The results show that the main determinant of ignition timing in the engine is the spatial density of oxygen in the cylinder. This finding indicates that diesel combustion with high EGR and high boost pressure can provide both high thermal efficiency and low emissions.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Exhaust Pipe Injection Conditions for Diesel Oxidation

2007-10-29
2007-01-3998
In a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Catalyzed Soot Filter (CSF) system, the DOC is used to oxidize additional fuel injected into the cylinder and/or exhaust pipe in order to increase the CSF's inlet temperature during soot regeneration. The catalyst's hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation performance is known to be strongly affected by the HC species present and the catalyst design. However, the engine operating conditions and additive fuel supply parameters also affect the oxidation performance of DOCs, but the effects of these variables have been insufficiently examined. Therefore, in this study, the oxidation performance of a DOC was examined in experiments in which both exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels and exhaust pipe injection parameters were varied. The results were then analyzed and optimal conditions were identified using modeFRONTIER.
Technical Paper

Control Strategy for Urea-SCR System in Single Step Load Transition

2006-10-16
2006-01-3308
Urea-SCR system has a high NOx reduction potential in the steady-state diesel engine operation. In complicated transient operations, however, there are certain problems with the urea-SCR system in that NOx reduction performance degrades and adsorbed NH3 would be emitted. Here, optimum urea injection methods and exhaust bypass control to overcome these problems are studied. This exhaust bypass control enables NO/NOx ratio at the inlet of SCR catalyst to be decreased widely, which prevents over production of NO2 at the pre-oxidation catalyst. Steady-state and simple transient engine tests were conducted to clarify NOx reduction characteristics when optimum urea injection pattern and exhaust bypass control were applied. In simple transient test, only the engine load was rapidly changed for obtaining the fundamental knowledge concerning the effect of those techniques.
Technical Paper

Influence of Diesel Post Injection Timing on HC Emissions and Catalytic Oxidation Performance

2006-10-16
2006-01-3442
For diesel emission control systems containing a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and a Catalyzed Soot Filter (CSF) the DOC is used to oxidize the additional fuel injected into the cylinder and/or the exhaust pipe for the purpose of increasing the CSF inlet temperature during the soot regeneration. Hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation performance of the DOC is affected by HC species as well as a catalyst design, i.e., precious metal species, support materials and additives. How engine-out HC species vary as a function of fuel supply conditions is not well understood. In addition, the relationship between catalyst design and oxidation activity of different hydrocarbon species requires further study. In this study, diesel fuel was supplied by in-cylinder, post injection and exhaust HC species were measured by a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and a gas analyzer. The post injection timing was set to either 73°, 88° or 98° ATDC(after top dead center).
Technical Paper

Achievement of Medium Engine Speed and Load Premixed Diesel Combustion with Variable Valve Timing

2006-04-03
2006-01-0203
A variable valve timing (VVT) mechanism was applied to achieve premixed diesel combustion at higher load for low emissions and high thermal efficiency in a light duty diesel engine. By means of late intake valve closing (LIVC), compressed gas temperatures near the top dead center are lowered, thereby preventing too early ignition and increasing ignition delay to enhance fuel-air mixing. The variability of effective compression ratio has significant potential for ignition timing control of conventional diesel fuel mixtures. At the same time, the expansion ratio is kept constant to ensure thermal efficiency. Combining the control of LIVC, EGR, supercharging systems and high-pressure fuel injection equipment can simultaneously reduce NOx and smoke. The NOx and smoke suppression mechanism in the premixed diesel combustion was analyzed using the 3D-CFD code combined with detailed chemistry.
Technical Paper

Ignition and Combustion Control of Diesel HCCI

2005-05-11
2005-01-2132
Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) is effective for the simultaneous reduction of soot and NOx emissions in diesel engine. In general, high octane number fuels (gasoline components or gaseous fuels) are used for HCCI operation, because these fuels briefly form lean homogeneous mixture because of long ignition delay and high volatility. However, it is necessary to improve injection systems, when these high octane number fuels are used in diesel engine. In addition, the difficulty of controlling auto-ignition timing must be resolved. On the other hand, HCCI using diesel fuel (diesel HCCI) also needs ignition control, because diesel fuel which has a low octane number causes the early ignition before TDC. The purpose of this study is the ignition and combustion control of diesel HCCI. The effects of parameters (injection timing, injection pressure, internal/external EGR, boost pressure, and variable valve timing (VVT)) on the ignition timing of diesel HCCI were investigated.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Intake, Injection Parameters and Fuel Properties on Diesel Combustion and Emissions

2003-05-19
2003-01-1793
To improve urban air pollution, stringent emissions regulations for heavy-duty diesel engines have been proposed and will become effective in Japan, the EU, and the United States in a few years. To comply with such future regulations, it is critical to investigate the effects of intake and injection parameters and fuel properties on engine performance, efficiency and emissions characteristics, associated with the use of aftertreatment systems. An experimental study was carried out to identify such effects. In addition, the KIVA-3 code was used to gain insight into cylinder events. The results showed improvements in NOx-Smoke and BSFC trade-offs at high-pressure injection in conjunction with EGR and supercharging.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on Combustion and Exhaust Gas Emissions Characteristics of a Dual Fuel Natural Gas Engine Using a Multi-Dimensional Model Combined With Detailed Kinetics

2002-05-06
2002-01-1750
A numerical study was carried out to investigate combustion characteristics of a dual-fuel gas diesel engine, using a multi-dimensional model combined with detailed chemical kinetics, including 43 chemical species and 173 elementary reactions. In calculations, the effects of initial temperature, EGR ratios on ignition, and combustion were examined. The results indicated EGR combined with intake preheating can favorably reduced NOx and THC emissions simultaneously. This can be explained by the fact that combustion mechanism is changed from flame propagation to HCCl like combustion.
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