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Technical Paper

A Fundamental Study on Combustion Characteristics in a Pre-Chamber Type Lean Burn Natural Gas Engine

2019-09-09
2019-24-0123
Pre-chamber spark ignition technology can stabilize combustion and improve thermal efficiency of lean burn natural gas engines. During compression stroke, a homogeneous lean mixture is introduced into pre-chamber, which separates spark plug electrodes from turbulent flow field. After the pre-chamber mixture is ignited, the burnt jet gas is discharged through multi-hole nozzles which promotes combustion of the lean mixture in the main chamber due to turbulence caused by high speed jet and multi-points ignition. However, details mechanism in the process has not been elucidated. To design the pre-chamber geometry and to achieve stable combustion under the lean condition for such engines, it is important to understand the fundamental aspects of the combustion process. In this study, a high-speed video camera with a 306 nm band-pass filer and an image intensifier is used to visualize OH* self-luminosity in rapid compression-expansion machine experiment.
Technical Paper

Computational Optimization of Pressure Wave Reflection on the Piston Surface for Single Point Autoignition Gasoline Engine with Colliding Pulsed Supermulti-Jets Leading to Noiseless-High Compression and Nearly-Complete Air-Insulation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0235
A new engine concept based on pulsed supermulti-jets colliding at a small area around the chamber center was proposed in our previous research. It was expected to provide noiseless high compression ratio and nearly-complete air-insulation on chamber walls, leading to high thermal efficiency. In the previous reports, three-dimensional computations for the unsteady compressible Navier-Stokes equation were conducted, which were qualitative because of using regular grid method. This time, we develop a new numerical code in order to quantitatively simulate the compression level caused by the jets colliding with pulse. It is achieved by applying a staggered grid method to improve conservatibity of physical quantities at very high compression in combustion phenomena. Computations at a simple condition were fairly agreed with a theoretical value. Computational results obtained for a complex geometry of an engine by the new code had less error than one with previous codes.
Technical Paper

0D/1D Turbulent Combustion Model Assessment from an Ultra-Lean Spark Ignition Engine

2019-03-25
2019-01-1409
This paper focuses on an assessment of predictive combustion model using a 0D/1D simulation tool under high load, different excess air ratio λ , and different combustion stabilities (based on coefficient of variation of indicated mean effective pressure COVimep). To consider that, crank angle resolved data of experimental pressure of 500 cycles are recorded under engine speed 1000 RPM and 2000 RPM, wide-open throttle, and λ=1.0, 1.42, 1.7, and 2.0. Firstly, model calibration is conducted using 18 cases at 2000 RPM using 500 cycle-averaged in-cylinder pressure to find optimized model constants. Then, the model constants are unchanged for other cases. Next, different cycle-averaged pressure data are used as inputs in the simulation based on the COVimep for studying sensitivity of the turbulent model constants. The simulation is conducted using 1D simulation software GT-Power.
Technical Paper

Kinetic Modeling of Ammonia-SCR and Experimental Studies over Monolithic Cu-ZSM-5 Catalyst

2019-01-15
2019-01-0024
Ammonia-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems have been introduced commercially in diesel vehicles, however catalyst systems with higher conversion efficiency and better control characteristics are required to know the actual emissions during operation and the emissions in random test cycles. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an effective approach when applied to SCR catalyst development, and many models have been proposed, but these models need experimental verification and are limited in the situations they apply to. Further, taking account of redox cycle is important to have better accuracy in transient operation, however there are few models considering the cycle. Model development considering the redox reactions in a zeolite catalyst, Cu-ZSM-5, is the object of the research here, and the effects of exhaust gas composition on the SCR reaction and NH3 oxidation at high temperatures are investigated.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Spark-Assisted Auto-Ignition Gasoline Engine with Octagonal Colliding Pulsed Supermulti-Jets and Asymmetric Double Piston Unit

2018-10-30
2018-32-0004
Much effort has been devoted to studies on auto-ignition engines of gasoline including homogeneous-charge combustion ignition engines over 30 years, which will lead to lower exhaust energy loss due to high-compression ratio and less dissipation loss due to throttle-less device. However, the big problem underlying gasoline auto-ignition is knocking phenomenon leading to strong noise and vibration. In order to overcome this problem, we propose the principle of colliding pulsed supermulti-jets. In a prototype engine developed by us, octagonal pulsed supermulti-jets collide and compress the air around the center point of combustion chamber, which leads to a hot spot area far from chamber walls. After generating the hot spot area, the mechanical compression of an asymmetric double piston unit is added in four-stroke operation, which brings auto-ignition of gasoline.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on Correlation of Chemiluminescent Species and Heat Release Distributions Using Large Eddy Simulation

2018-10-30
2018-32-0066
A mixed timescale subgrid model of a large eddy simulation was used to simulate the turbulence regime in diesel engine combustion. The combustion model used the direct integration approach with a diesel oil surrogate mechanism (developed at Chalmers University of Technology and consisting of 70 species and 309 reactions). Additional reactions for the generation and consumption of OH*, CO2*, and CH* species were added from recent kinetic studies. Collisional quenching and spontaneous emission resulted in de-excitation of the excited state radical. A phenomenological soot formation model (developed at Waseda University) was combined with the LES code. The following important steps were considered in the soot model: particle inception where naphthalene grows irreversibly to form soot, surface growth with the addition of C2H2, surface oxidation (induced by OH radicals and O2 attack), and particle coagulation.
Technical Paper

Effects of Soot Deposition on NOx Purification Reaction and Mass Transfer in a SCR/DPF Catalyst

2018-09-10
2018-01-1707
Experimental studies were carried out to investigate the effect of soot deposition on NOx purification phenomena in an ammonia selective catalytic reduction coated diesel particulate filter (SCR/DPF) catalyst. To study soot deposition effects on the chemical reactions and mass transfer, two types of testing device were used. A synthetic gas bench enabling tests to be conducted with temperature and flow rate ranges relevant to real driving conditions was used to investigate the soot influence on reduction of NOx to N2 (DeNOx). A micro-reactor that removed the effect of soot deposition on mass transfer in the catalyst layer was used to analyze chemical reactions on a soot surface and their interaction with the SCR catalyst. A filter test brick of a Cu-zeolite SCR/DPF catalyst and a powder catalyst were used for the synthetic gas bench and micro-reactor tests, respectively. Engine soot was sampled in all the tests.
Technical Paper

Experimental Measurements and Computations for Clarifying Nearly Complete Air-Insulation Obtained by the Concept of Colliding Pulsed Supermulti-Jets

2017-03-28
2017-01-1030
In our previous papers, a new concept of a compressive combustion engine (Fugine) was proposed based on the collision of pulsed supermulti-jets, which can enclose the burned gas around the chamber center leading to an air-insulation effect and also a lower exhaust gas temperature due to high single-point compression. In order to examine the compression level and air-insulation effect as basic data for application to automobiles, aircraft, and rockets, a prototype engine based on the concept, i.e., a piston-less prototype engine with collision of bi-octagonal pulsed multi-jets from fourteen nozzles, was developed. Some combustion results [Naitoh et al. SAE paper, 2016] were recently reported. However, there was only one measurement of wall temperature and pressure in the previous report. Thus, in this paper, more experimental data for pressures and temperatures on chamber walls and exhaust temperatures, are presented for the prototype engine.
Technical Paper

Unsteady Three-Dimensional Computations of the Penetration Length and Mixing Process of Various Single High-Speed Gas Jets for Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0817
For various densities of gas jets including very light hydrogen and relatively heavy ones, the penetration length and diffusion process of a single high-speed gas fuel jet injected into air are computed by performing a large eddy simulation (LES) with fewer arbitrary constants applied for the unsteady three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equation. In contrast, traditional ensemble models such as the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation have several arbitrary constants for fitting purposes. The cubic-interpolated pseudo-particle (CIP) method is employed for discretizing the nonlinear terms. Computations of single-component nitrogen and hydrogen jets were done under initial conditions of a fuel tank pressure of gas fuel = 10 MPa and back pressure of air = 3.5 MPa, i.e., the pressure level inside the combustion chamber after piston compression in the engine.
Journal Article

Studies on the Effect of In-Cylinder Charge Stratifications on High Load HCCI Combustion

2016-11-08
2016-32-0010
The objective of this article is to clarify the effect of thermal and equivalence ratio stratification on Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion under several conditions with three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD). Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulation was used to calculate in-cylinder fluid dynamics. The 3D CFD simulation is also coupled with detailed chemical reaction to calculate HCCI combustion. First, the study with a simple engine model reveals that thermal stratification is more effective for prolonged combustion duration, which is a key factor for a high load limit of HCCI combustion, than equivalence ratio stratification. Thermal stratification has two-stage combustion: the combustion propagates from hot region slowly at first and then ignites in the entire in-cylinder region. Owing to this phenomenon, thermal stratification is more effective to mitigate HCCI combustion.
Journal Article

An Investigation on the Ignition Characteristics of Lubricant Component Containing Fuel Droplets Using Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2168
With the development of downsized spark ignition (SI) engines, low-speed pre-ignition (LSPI) has been observed more frequently as an abnormal combustion phenomenon, and there is a critical need to solve this issue. It has been acknowledged that LSPI is not directly triggered by autoignition of the fuel, but by some other material with a short ignition delay time. It was previously reported that LSPI can be caused by droplets of lubricant oil intermixed with the fuel. In this work, the ignition behavior of lubricant component containing fuel droplets was experimentally investigated by using a constant volume chamber (CVC) and a rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM), which enable visualization of the combustion process in the cylinder. Various combinations of fuel compositions for the ambient fuel-air mixture and fractions of base oil/metallic additives/fuel for droplets were tested.
Technical Paper

Computations and Experiments for Clarifying Compression Level and Stability of Colliding Pulsed Supermulti-Jets in a Piston-Less Single-Point Autoignition Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2331
In recent years, a new type of engine (Fugine) based on the colliding of pulsed supermulti-jets was proposed by us, which indicates the potential for attaining very high thermal efficiencies and also less combustion noise. A prototype engine with eight nozzles for injecting octagonal pulsed supermulti-jets, which was developed with a low-cost gasoline injector and a double piston system, showed high thermal efficiency comparable to that of diesel engines and also less combustion noise comparable to that of traditional spark-ignition gasoline engines. Another type of prototype piston-less engine having fourteen bioctagonal nozzles was also developed and test results confirmed the occurrence of combustion, albeit it was unstable. In this work, time histories of pressure were measured in the combustion chamber of the piston-less prototype engine under a cold flow condition without combustion in order to examine the compression level obtained with the colliding supermulti-jets.
Technical Paper

Computations and Experiments of Single-Point Autoignition Gasoline Engine with Colliding Pulsed Supermulti-Jets, Single Piston and Rotary Valve

2016-10-17
2016-01-2334
A new engine concept (Fugine) based on colliding pulsed supermulti-jets was proposed in recent years, which is expected to provide high thermal efficiencies over 50% and less combustion noise. Theoretical analyses indicate a high potential for thermal efficiency over 60%. Three types of prototype engines have been developed. The first prototype engine based only on the colliding of pulsed supermulti-jets with fourteen nozzles has no piston compression, while the second type equipped with a low-cost gasoline injector in the suction port has a double piston system and eight jet nozzles. Combustion experiments conducted on the second prototype gasoline engine show high thermal efficiency similar to that of traditional diesel engines and lower combustion noise comparable to that of traditional spark-ignition gasoline engines.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Combustion Experiments of a Piston-Less Single-Point Autoignition Gasoline Engine Based on Compression Due to Colliding of Pulsed Supermulti-Jets

2016-10-17
2016-01-2337
Computational and theoretical analyses for a new type of engine (Fugine), which was proposed by us based on the colliding of pulsed supermulti-jets, indicate a potential for very high thermal efficiencies and also less combustion noise. Three types of prototype engines were developed. One of them has a low-cost gasoline injector installed in the suction port and a double piston system in which eight octagonal supermulti-jets are injected and collide. Combustion experiments conducted on the prototype gasoline engine show high thermal efficiency comparable to that of diesel engines and less combustion noise comparable to that of traditional spark-ignition gasoline engines. This paper presents some combustion experiments of one of the other piston-less prototype engines having bi-octagonal pulsed multi-jets injected from fourteen nozzles.
Technical Paper

High Thermal Efficiency Obtained with a Single-Point Autoignition Gasoline Engine Prototype Having Pulsed Supermulti-Jets Colliding in an Asymmetric Double Piston Unit

2016-10-17
2016-01-2336
A single-point autoignition gasoline engine (Fugine) proposed by us previously has a strongly asymmetric double piston unit without poppet valves, in which pulsed multi-jets injected from eight suction nozzles collide around the combustion chamber center. Combustion experiments conducted on this engine at a low operating speed of 2000 rpm using gasoline as the test fuel under lean burn conditions showed both high thermal efficiency comparable to that of diesel engines and silent combustion comparable to that of conventional spark-ignition gasoline engines. This gasoline engine was tested with a weak level of point compression generated by negative pressure of about 0.04 MPa and also at an additional mechanical homogeneous compression ratio of about 8:1 without throttle valves. After single-point autoignition, turbulent flame propagation may occur at the later stage of heat release.
Journal Article

Detailed Diesel Combustion and Soot Formation Analysis with Improved Wall Model Using Large Eddy Simulation

2015-11-17
2015-32-0715
A mixed time-scale subgrid large eddy simulation was used to simulate mixture formation, combustion and soot formation under the influence of turbulence during diesel engine combustion. To account for the effects of engine wall heat transfer on combustion, the KIVA code's standard wall model was replaced to accommodate more realistic boundary conditions. This were carried out by implementing the non-isothermal wall model of Angelberger et al. with modifications and incorporating the log law from Pope's method to account for the wall surface roughness. Soot and NOx emissions predicted with the new model are compared to experimental data acquired under various EGR conditions.
Technical Paper

Numerical Optimization of Parameters to Improve Thermal Efficiency of a Spark-Ignited Natural Gas Engine

2015-09-01
2015-01-1884
Natural gas is a promising alternative fuel for internal combustion engines because of its clean combustion characteristics and abundant reserves. However, it has several disadvantages due to its low energy density and low thermal efficiency at low loads. Thus, to assist efforts to improve the thermal efficiency of spark-ignited (SI) engines operating on natural gas and to minimize test procedures, a numerical simulation model was developed to predict and optimize the performance of a turbocharged test engine, considering flame propagation, occurrence of knock and ignition timing. The numerical results correlate well with empirical data, and show that increasing compression ratios and retarding the intake valve closing (IVC) timing relative to selected baseline conditions could effectively improve thermal efficiency. In addition, employing moderate EGR ratios is also effective for avoiding knock.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on Predicting Combustion Chamber Wall Surface Temperature Distributions in a Diesel Engine and their Effects on Combustion, Emission and Heat Loss Characteristics by Using a 3D-CFD Code Combined with a Detailed Heat Transfer Model

2015-09-01
2015-01-1847
A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D-CFD) code was combined with a detailed combustion chamber heat transfer model. The established model allowed not only prediction of instantaneous combustion chamber wall surface temperature distributions in practical calculation time but also investigation of the characteristics of combustion, emissions and heat losses affected by the wall temperature distributions. Although zero-dimensional combustion analysis can consider temporal changes in the heat transfer coefficient and in-cylinder gas temperature, it cannot take into account the effect of interactions between spatially distributed charge and wall temperatures. In contrast, 3D-CFD analysis can consider temporal and spatial changes in both parameters. However, in most zero-/multi- dimensional combustion analyses, wall temperatures are assumed to be temporally constant and spatially homogeneous.
Technical Paper

Developments of the Reduced Chemical Reaction Scheme for Multi-Component Gasoline Fuel

2015-09-01
2015-01-1808
The reduced chemical reaction scheme which can take the effect of major fuel components on auto ignition timing into account has been developed. This reaction scheme was based on the reduced reaction mechanism for the primary reference fuels (PRF) proposed by Tsurushima [1] with 33 species and 38 reactions. Some pre-exponential factors were modified by using Particle Swarm Optimization to match the ignition delay time versus reciprocal temperature which was calculated by the detailed scheme with 2,301 species and 11,116 elementary chemical reactions. The result using the present reaction scheme shows good agreements with that using the detailed scheme for the effects of EGR, fuel components, and radical species on the ignition timing under homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion (HCCI) conditions.
Technical Paper

Two Small Prototype Engines Developed based on Pulsed Supermulti-Jets Colliding: Having a Potential of Thermal Efficiency Over 60% with Satisfactory Strength of Structure

2014-11-11
2014-32-0099
In our previous reports based on computations and fluid dynamic theory, we proposed a new compressive combustion principle for an inexpensive and relatively quiet engine reactor that has the potential to achieve thermal efficiency over 50% even for small combustion chambers having less than 100 cc. This can be achieved with colliding supermulti-jets that create complete air insulation to encase burned gas around the chamber center. We originally developed two small prototype engine systems for gasoline. First one with one rotary valve for pulsating intake flow and sixteen nozzles of jets colliding has no pistons. Next, we developed the second one having a strongly-asymmetric double piston system with the supermulti-jets colliding, although there are no poppet valves. The second prototype engine can vary point-compression strength due to the supermulti-jets and homogeneous compression level due to piston, by changing phase and size of two gears.
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