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Technical Paper

Kinetic Modeling of Ammonia-SCR and Experimental Studies over Monolithic Cu-ZSM-5 Catalyst

2019-01-15
2019-01-0024
Ammonia-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems have been introduced commercially in diesel vehicles, however catalyst systems with higher conversion efficiency and better control characteristics are required to know the actual emissions during operation and the emissions in random test cycles. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an effective approach when applied to SCR catalyst development, and many models have been proposed, but these models need experimental verification and are limited in the situations they apply to. Further, taking account of redox cycle is important to have better accuracy in transient operation, however there are few models considering the cycle. Model development considering the redox reactions in a zeolite catalyst, Cu-ZSM-5, is the object of the research here, and the effects of exhaust gas composition on the SCR reaction and NH3 oxidation at high temperatures are investigated.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach to Improve the Accuracy of the DPF Simulation Model under Transient Conditions

2019-01-15
2019-01-0027
Cars with diesel engines are commonly equipped with a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) to reduce their emissions of particulate matter (PM). Because the pressure drop within the DPF reduces engine performance, it must be predicted with accuracy. The purpose of this study was to improve the accuracy of a DPF simulation model under transient conditions by parameter optimization. The DPF model under consideration consists of an inlet channel, a cake layer, wall layer, and an outlet channel. The pressure drop is influenced by the location, mass, and density of the deposited soot. Therefore, the model includes the following sub-models: Sub-model 1: Calculates the soot density deposited in the wall layer Sub-model 2: Computes the filtration efficiency and mass of the wall and cake layer Sub-model 3: Calculates the soot density deposited in the cake layer Because the sub-models include some empirical formulae, the first step in refining the model was to optimize their fitting parameters.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on Correlation of Chemiluminescent Species and Heat Release Distributions Using Large Eddy Simulation

2018-10-30
2018-32-0066
A mixed timescale subgrid model of a large eddy simulation was used to simulate the turbulence regime in diesel engine combustion. The combustion model used the direct integration approach with a diesel oil surrogate mechanism (developed at Chalmers University of Technology and consisting of 70 species and 309 reactions). Additional reactions for the generation and consumption of OH*, CO2*, and CH* species were added from recent kinetic studies. Collisional quenching and spontaneous emission resulted in de-excitation of the excited state radical. A phenomenological soot formation model (developed at Waseda University) was combined with the LES code. The following important steps were considered in the soot model: particle inception where naphthalene grows irreversibly to form soot, surface growth with the addition of C2H2, surface oxidation (induced by OH radicals and O2 attack), and particle coagulation.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of Spark-Assisted Auto-Ignition Gasoline Engine with Octagonal Colliding Pulsed Supermulti-Jets and Asymmetric Double Piston Unit

2018-10-30
2018-32-0004
Much effort has been devoted to studies on auto-ignition engines of gasoline including homogeneous-charge combustion ignition engines over 30 years, which will lead to lower exhaust energy loss due to high-compression ratio and less dissipation loss due to throttle-less device. However, the big problem underlying gasoline auto-ignition is knocking phenomenon leading to strong noise and vibration. In order to overcome this problem, we propose the principle of colliding pulsed supermulti-jets. In a prototype engine developed by us, octagonal pulsed supermulti-jets collide and compress the air around the center point of combustion chamber, which leads to a hot spot area far from chamber walls. After generating the hot spot area, the mechanical compression of an asymmetric double piston unit is added in four-stroke operation, which brings auto-ignition of gasoline.
Technical Paper

Effects of Soot Deposition on NOx Purification Reaction and Mass Transfer in a SCR/DPF Catalyst

2018-09-10
2018-01-1707
Experimental studies were carried out to investigate the effect of soot deposition on NOx purification phenomena in an ammonia selective catalytic reduction coated diesel particulate filter (SCR/DPF) catalyst. To study soot deposition effects on the chemical reactions and mass transfer, two types of testing device were used. A synthetic gas bench enabling tests to be conducted with temperature and flow rate ranges relevant to real driving conditions was used to investigate the soot influence on reduction of NOx to N2 (DeNOx). A micro-reactor that removed the effect of soot deposition on mass transfer in the catalyst layer was used to analyze chemical reactions on a soot surface and their interaction with the SCR catalyst. A filter test brick of a Cu-zeolite SCR/DPF catalyst and a powder catalyst were used for the synthetic gas bench and micro-reactor tests, respectively. Engine soot was sampled in all the tests.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Combustion Experiments of a Piston-Less Single-Point Autoignition Gasoline Engine Based on Compression Due to Colliding of Pulsed Supermulti-Jets

2016-10-17
2016-01-2337
Computational and theoretical analyses for a new type of engine (Fugine), which was proposed by us based on the colliding of pulsed supermulti-jets, indicate a potential for very high thermal efficiencies and also less combustion noise. Three types of prototype engines were developed. One of them has a low-cost gasoline injector installed in the suction port and a double piston system in which eight octagonal supermulti-jets are injected and collide. Combustion experiments conducted on the prototype gasoline engine show high thermal efficiency comparable to that of diesel engines and less combustion noise comparable to that of traditional spark-ignition gasoline engines. This paper presents some combustion experiments of one of the other piston-less prototype engines having bi-octagonal pulsed multi-jets injected from fourteen nozzles.
Technical Paper

High Thermal Efficiency Obtained with a Single-Point Autoignition Gasoline Engine Prototype Having Pulsed Supermulti-Jets Colliding in an Asymmetric Double Piston Unit

2016-10-17
2016-01-2336
A single-point autoignition gasoline engine (Fugine) proposed by us previously has a strongly asymmetric double piston unit without poppet valves, in which pulsed multi-jets injected from eight suction nozzles collide around the combustion chamber center. Combustion experiments conducted on this engine at a low operating speed of 2000 rpm using gasoline as the test fuel under lean burn conditions showed both high thermal efficiency comparable to that of diesel engines and silent combustion comparable to that of conventional spark-ignition gasoline engines. This gasoline engine was tested with a weak level of point compression generated by negative pressure of about 0.04 MPa and also at an additional mechanical homogeneous compression ratio of about 8:1 without throttle valves. After single-point autoignition, turbulent flame propagation may occur at the later stage of heat release.
Technical Paper

Computations and Experiments of Single-Point Autoignition Gasoline Engine with Colliding Pulsed Supermulti-Jets, Single Piston and Rotary Valve

2016-10-17
2016-01-2334
A new engine concept (Fugine) based on colliding pulsed supermulti-jets was proposed in recent years, which is expected to provide high thermal efficiencies over 50% and less combustion noise. Theoretical analyses indicate a high potential for thermal efficiency over 60%. Three types of prototype engines have been developed. The first prototype engine based only on the colliding of pulsed supermulti-jets with fourteen nozzles has no piston compression, while the second type equipped with a low-cost gasoline injector in the suction port has a double piston system and eight jet nozzles. Combustion experiments conducted on the second prototype gasoline engine show high thermal efficiency similar to that of traditional diesel engines and lower combustion noise comparable to that of traditional spark-ignition gasoline engines.
Technical Paper

Computations and Experiments for Clarifying Compression Level and Stability of Colliding Pulsed Supermulti-Jets in a Piston-Less Single-Point Autoignition Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2331
In recent years, a new type of engine (Fugine) based on the colliding of pulsed supermulti-jets was proposed by us, which indicates the potential for attaining very high thermal efficiencies and also less combustion noise. A prototype engine with eight nozzles for injecting octagonal pulsed supermulti-jets, which was developed with a low-cost gasoline injector and a double piston system, showed high thermal efficiency comparable to that of diesel engines and also less combustion noise comparable to that of traditional spark-ignition gasoline engines. Another type of prototype piston-less engine having fourteen bioctagonal nozzles was also developed and test results confirmed the occurrence of combustion, albeit it was unstable. In this work, time histories of pressure were measured in the combustion chamber of the piston-less prototype engine under a cold flow condition without combustion in order to examine the compression level obtained with the colliding supermulti-jets.
Journal Article

Detailed Diesel Combustion and Soot Formation Analysis with Improved Wall Model Using Large Eddy Simulation

2015-11-17
2015-32-0715
A mixed time-scale subgrid large eddy simulation was used to simulate mixture formation, combustion and soot formation under the influence of turbulence during diesel engine combustion. To account for the effects of engine wall heat transfer on combustion, the KIVA code's standard wall model was replaced to accommodate more realistic boundary conditions. This were carried out by implementing the non-isothermal wall model of Angelberger et al. with modifications and incorporating the log law from Pope's method to account for the wall surface roughness. Soot and NOx emissions predicted with the new model are compared to experimental data acquired under various EGR conditions.
Technical Paper

A Quasi Two Dimensional Model of Transport Phenomena in Diesel Particulate Filters - The Effects of Particle and Wall Pore Diameter on the Pressure Drop -

2015-09-01
2015-01-2010
Experimental and numerical studies were conducted on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) under different soot loading conditions and DPF configurations. Pressure drops across DPFs with various mean pore diameters loaded with soots having different mean particle diameters were measured by introducing exhaust gases from a 2.2 liter inline four-cylinder, TCI diesel engine designed for use in passenger cars. A mechanistic hypothesis was then proposed to explain the observed trends, accounting for the effects of the soot loading regime in the wall and the soot cake layer on the pressure drop. This hypothesis was used to guide the development and validation of a numerical model for predicting the pressure drop in the DPF. The relationship between the permeability and the porosity of the wall and soot cake layer was modeled under various soot loading conditions.
Technical Paper

Developments of the Reduced Chemical Reaction Scheme for Multi-Component Gasoline Fuel

2015-09-01
2015-01-1808
The reduced chemical reaction scheme which can take the effect of major fuel components on auto ignition timing into account has been developed. This reaction scheme was based on the reduced reaction mechanism for the primary reference fuels (PRF) proposed by Tsurushima [1] with 33 species and 38 reactions. Some pre-exponential factors were modified by using Particle Swarm Optimization to match the ignition delay time versus reciprocal temperature which was calculated by the detailed scheme with 2,301 species and 11,116 elementary chemical reactions. The result using the present reaction scheme shows good agreements with that using the detailed scheme for the effects of EGR, fuel components, and radical species on the ignition timing under homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion (HCCI) conditions.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on Predicting Combustion Chamber Wall Surface Temperature Distributions in a Diesel Engine and their Effects on Combustion, Emission and Heat Loss Characteristics by Using a 3D-CFD Code Combined with a Detailed Heat Transfer Model

2015-09-01
2015-01-1847
A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D-CFD) code was combined with a detailed combustion chamber heat transfer model. The established model allowed not only prediction of instantaneous combustion chamber wall surface temperature distributions in practical calculation time but also investigation of the characteristics of combustion, emissions and heat losses affected by the wall temperature distributions. Although zero-dimensional combustion analysis can consider temporal changes in the heat transfer coefficient and in-cylinder gas temperature, it cannot take into account the effect of interactions between spatially distributed charge and wall temperatures. In contrast, 3D-CFD analysis can consider temporal and spatial changes in both parameters. However, in most zero-/multi- dimensional combustion analyses, wall temperatures are assumed to be temporally constant and spatially homogeneous.
Technical Paper

A Study on N2O Formation Mechanism and Its Reduction in a Urea SCR System Employed in a DI Diesel Engine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1745
N₂O is known to have a significantly high global warming potential. We measured N₂O emissions in engine-bench tests by changing the NO/NH₃ ratio and exhaust gas temperature at the oxidation catalyst inlet in a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with a urea SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system. The results showed that the peak N₂O production ratio occurred at an exhaust gas temperature of around 200°C and the maximum value was 84%. Moreover, the N₂O production ratio increased with increasing NO/NH₃. Thus, we concluded that N₂O is produced via the NO branching reaction. Based on our results, two methods were proposed to decrease N₂O formation. At low temperatures ~200°C, NO should be reduced by controlling diesel combustion to lower the contribution of NO to N₂O production. This is essential because the SCR system cannot reduce NOx at low temperatures.
Technical Paper

Detailed Analysis of Particulate Matter Emitted from Biofueled Diesel Combustion with High EGR

2009-04-20
2009-01-0483
Difference of engine combustion characteristics, species and amount of exhaust gas and PM (particulate matter consisted of SOF and Soot and Ash), and especially PM oxidation characteristics were studied when diesel fuel or bio-fuel, here PME (palm oil methyl ester) as an example, was used as a fuel. The fueling rate was adjusted to obtain the same torque for both fuels and engine was operated under several range of EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) ratio. Under such conditions, PME showed shorter ignition delay time and lower R.H.R (rate of heat release) under 0-40% EGR ratio. With respect to engine exhaust gas species, CO, NO, THC and HCHO, CH3CHO concentration was almost the same when the EGR ratio is higher than 35% (Intake-Air/Fuel: A/F=20). However, PME also showed lower exhaust gas emission when the EGR ratio is higher than 30%.
Technical Paper

Improvement of NOx Reduction Rate of Urea-SCR System by NH3 Adsorption Quantity Control

2008-10-06
2008-01-2498
A urea SCR system was combined with a DPF system to reduce NOx and PM in a four liters turbocharged with intercooler diesel engine. Significant reduction in NOx was observed at low exhaust gas temperatures by increasing NH3 adsorption quantity in the SCR catalyst. Control logic of the NH3 adsorption quantity for transient operation was developed based on the NH3 adsorption characteristics on the SCR catalyst. It has been shown that NOx can be reduced by 75% at the average SCR inlet gas temperature of 158 deg.C by adopting the NH3 adsorption quantity control in the JE05 Mode.
Journal Article

Miller-PCCI Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine with VVT

2008-04-14
2008-01-0644
A variable valve timing (VVT) mechanism has been applied in a high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine. The effective compression ratio (εeff) was lowered by means of late intake valve closing (LIVC), while keeping the expansion ratio constant. Premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion, adopting the Miller-cycle, was experimentally realized and numerically analyzed. Significant improvements of NOx and soot emissions were achieved for a wide range of engine speeds and loads, frequently used in a transient mode test. The operating range of the Miller-PCCI combustion has been expanded up to an IMEP of 1.30 MPa.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Exhaust Pipe Injection Conditions for Diesel Oxidation

2007-10-29
2007-01-3998
In a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Catalyzed Soot Filter (CSF) system, the DOC is used to oxidize additional fuel injected into the cylinder and/or exhaust pipe in order to increase the CSF's inlet temperature during soot regeneration. The catalyst's hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation performance is known to be strongly affected by the HC species present and the catalyst design. However, the engine operating conditions and additive fuel supply parameters also affect the oxidation performance of DOCs, but the effects of these variables have been insufficiently examined. Therefore, in this study, the oxidation performance of a DOC was examined in experiments in which both exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels and exhaust pipe injection parameters were varied. The results were then analyzed and optimal conditions were identified using modeFRONTIER.
Technical Paper

Control Strategy for Urea-SCR System in Single Step Load Transition

2006-10-16
2006-01-3308
Urea-SCR system has a high NOx reduction potential in the steady-state diesel engine operation. In complicated transient operations, however, there are certain problems with the urea-SCR system in that NOx reduction performance degrades and adsorbed NH3 would be emitted. Here, optimum urea injection methods and exhaust bypass control to overcome these problems are studied. This exhaust bypass control enables NO/NOx ratio at the inlet of SCR catalyst to be decreased widely, which prevents over production of NO2 at the pre-oxidation catalyst. Steady-state and simple transient engine tests were conducted to clarify NOx reduction characteristics when optimum urea injection pattern and exhaust bypass control were applied. In simple transient test, only the engine load was rapidly changed for obtaining the fundamental knowledge concerning the effect of those techniques.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Mechanism of Lubricating Oil Consumption of Diesel Engines - 3rd Report: Effect of Piston Motion on Piston Skirt Oil Film Behavior

2006-10-16
2006-01-3349
The necessity of the reduction of the lubricating oil consumption of diesel engines has been increasing its importance to reduce the negative effect of exhausted oil on after treatment devices for exhausted gas. The final purpose of the studies is clarifying the mechanism of the oil consumption and developing the method of its estimation. For the basic study, the mechanism of oil film generation on the piston skirt could be explained by hydrodynamic lubrication in our first and second reports [1, 2]. In this paper, the piston skirt was calculated using the measured piston motion to clarify the effect of the piston motion to the piston skirt oil film behavior.
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