Refine Your Search

Search Results

Viewing 1 to 12 of 12
Technical Paper

Kinetic Modeling of Ammonia-SCR and Experimental Studies over Monolithic Cu-ZSM-5 Catalyst

2019-01-15
2019-01-0024
Ammonia-selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems have been introduced commercially in diesel vehicles, however catalyst systems with higher conversion efficiency and better control characteristics are required to know the actual emissions during operation and the emissions in random test cycles. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is an effective approach when applied to SCR catalyst development, and many models have been proposed, but these models need experimental verification and are limited in the situations they apply to. Further, taking account of redox cycle is important to have better accuracy in transient operation, however there are few models considering the cycle. Model development considering the redox reactions in a zeolite catalyst, Cu-ZSM-5, is the object of the research here, and the effects of exhaust gas composition on the SCR reaction and NH3 oxidation at high temperatures are investigated.
Technical Paper

Effects of Soot Deposition on NOx Purification Reaction and Mass Transfer in a SCR/DPF Catalyst

2018-09-10
2018-01-1707
Experimental studies were carried out to investigate the effect of soot deposition on NOx purification phenomena in an ammonia selective catalytic reduction coated diesel particulate filter (SCR/DPF) catalyst. To study soot deposition effects on the chemical reactions and mass transfer, two types of testing device were used. A synthetic gas bench enabling tests to be conducted with temperature and flow rate ranges relevant to real driving conditions was used to investigate the soot influence on reduction of NOx to N2 (DeNOx). A micro-reactor that removed the effect of soot deposition on mass transfer in the catalyst layer was used to analyze chemical reactions on a soot surface and their interaction with the SCR catalyst. A filter test brick of a Cu-zeolite SCR/DPF catalyst and a powder catalyst were used for the synthetic gas bench and micro-reactor tests, respectively. Engine soot was sampled in all the tests.
Journal Article

Detailed Diesel Combustion and Soot Formation Analysis with Improved Wall Model Using Large Eddy Simulation

2015-11-17
2015-32-0715
A mixed time-scale subgrid large eddy simulation was used to simulate mixture formation, combustion and soot formation under the influence of turbulence during diesel engine combustion. To account for the effects of engine wall heat transfer on combustion, the KIVA code's standard wall model was replaced to accommodate more realistic boundary conditions. This were carried out by implementing the non-isothermal wall model of Angelberger et al. with modifications and incorporating the log law from Pope's method to account for the wall surface roughness. Soot and NOx emissions predicted with the new model are compared to experimental data acquired under various EGR conditions.
Technical Paper

Developments of the Reduced Chemical Reaction Scheme for Multi-Component Gasoline Fuel

2015-09-01
2015-01-1808
The reduced chemical reaction scheme which can take the effect of major fuel components on auto ignition timing into account has been developed. This reaction scheme was based on the reduced reaction mechanism for the primary reference fuels (PRF) proposed by Tsurushima [1] with 33 species and 38 reactions. Some pre-exponential factors were modified by using Particle Swarm Optimization to match the ignition delay time versus reciprocal temperature which was calculated by the detailed scheme with 2,301 species and 11,116 elementary chemical reactions. The result using the present reaction scheme shows good agreements with that using the detailed scheme for the effects of EGR, fuel components, and radical species on the ignition timing under homogeneous charge compression ignition combustion (HCCI) conditions.
Technical Paper

A Study on N2O Formation Mechanism and Its Reduction in a Urea SCR System Employed in a DI Diesel Engine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1745
N₂O is known to have a significantly high global warming potential. We measured N₂O emissions in engine-bench tests by changing the NO/NH₃ ratio and exhaust gas temperature at the oxidation catalyst inlet in a heavy-duty diesel engine equipped with a urea SCR (selective catalytic reduction) system. The results showed that the peak N₂O production ratio occurred at an exhaust gas temperature of around 200°C and the maximum value was 84%. Moreover, the N₂O production ratio increased with increasing NO/NH₃. Thus, we concluded that N₂O is produced via the NO branching reaction. Based on our results, two methods were proposed to decrease N₂O formation. At low temperatures ~200°C, NO should be reduced by controlling diesel combustion to lower the contribution of NO to N₂O production. This is essential because the SCR system cannot reduce NOx at low temperatures.
Technical Paper

Detailed Analysis of Particulate Matter Emitted from Biofueled Diesel Combustion with High EGR

2009-04-20
2009-01-0483
Difference of engine combustion characteristics, species and amount of exhaust gas and PM (particulate matter consisted of SOF and Soot and Ash), and especially PM oxidation characteristics were studied when diesel fuel or bio-fuel, here PME (palm oil methyl ester) as an example, was used as a fuel. The fueling rate was adjusted to obtain the same torque for both fuels and engine was operated under several range of EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) ratio. Under such conditions, PME showed shorter ignition delay time and lower R.H.R (rate of heat release) under 0-40% EGR ratio. With respect to engine exhaust gas species, CO, NO, THC and HCHO, CH3CHO concentration was almost the same when the EGR ratio is higher than 35% (Intake-Air/Fuel: A/F=20). However, PME also showed lower exhaust gas emission when the EGR ratio is higher than 30%.
Technical Paper

Improvement of NOx Reduction Rate of Urea-SCR System by NH3 Adsorption Quantity Control

2008-10-06
2008-01-2498
A urea SCR system was combined with a DPF system to reduce NOx and PM in a four liters turbocharged with intercooler diesel engine. Significant reduction in NOx was observed at low exhaust gas temperatures by increasing NH3 adsorption quantity in the SCR catalyst. Control logic of the NH3 adsorption quantity for transient operation was developed based on the NH3 adsorption characteristics on the SCR catalyst. It has been shown that NOx can be reduced by 75% at the average SCR inlet gas temperature of 158 deg.C by adopting the NH3 adsorption quantity control in the JE05 Mode.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Exhaust Pipe Injection Conditions for Diesel Oxidation

2007-10-29
2007-01-3998
In a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and Catalyzed Soot Filter (CSF) system, the DOC is used to oxidize additional fuel injected into the cylinder and/or exhaust pipe in order to increase the CSF's inlet temperature during soot regeneration. The catalyst's hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation performance is known to be strongly affected by the HC species present and the catalyst design. However, the engine operating conditions and additive fuel supply parameters also affect the oxidation performance of DOCs, but the effects of these variables have been insufficiently examined. Therefore, in this study, the oxidation performance of a DOC was examined in experiments in which both exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels and exhaust pipe injection parameters were varied. The results were then analyzed and optimal conditions were identified using modeFRONTIER.
Technical Paper

Control Strategy for Urea-SCR System in Single Step Load Transition

2006-10-16
2006-01-3308
Urea-SCR system has a high NOx reduction potential in the steady-state diesel engine operation. In complicated transient operations, however, there are certain problems with the urea-SCR system in that NOx reduction performance degrades and adsorbed NH3 would be emitted. Here, optimum urea injection methods and exhaust bypass control to overcome these problems are studied. This exhaust bypass control enables NO/NOx ratio at the inlet of SCR catalyst to be decreased widely, which prevents over production of NO2 at the pre-oxidation catalyst. Steady-state and simple transient engine tests were conducted to clarify NOx reduction characteristics when optimum urea injection pattern and exhaust bypass control were applied. In simple transient test, only the engine load was rapidly changed for obtaining the fundamental knowledge concerning the effect of those techniques.
Technical Paper

Influence of Diesel Post Injection Timing on HC Emissions and Catalytic Oxidation Performance

2006-10-16
2006-01-3442
For diesel emission control systems containing a Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) and a Catalyzed Soot Filter (CSF) the DOC is used to oxidize the additional fuel injected into the cylinder and/or the exhaust pipe for the purpose of increasing the CSF inlet temperature during the soot regeneration. Hydrocarbon (HC) oxidation performance of the DOC is affected by HC species as well as a catalyst design, i.e., precious metal species, support materials and additives. How engine-out HC species vary as a function of fuel supply conditions is not well understood. In addition, the relationship between catalyst design and oxidation activity of different hydrocarbon species requires further study. In this study, diesel fuel was supplied by in-cylinder, post injection and exhaust HC species were measured by a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and a gas analyzer. The post injection timing was set to either 73°, 88° or 98° ATDC(after top dead center).
Technical Paper

The Effect of Intake, Injection Parameters and Fuel Properties on Diesel Combustion and Emissions

2003-05-19
2003-01-1793
To improve urban air pollution, stringent emissions regulations for heavy-duty diesel engines have been proposed and will become effective in Japan, the EU, and the United States in a few years. To comply with such future regulations, it is critical to investigate the effects of intake and injection parameters and fuel properties on engine performance, efficiency and emissions characteristics, associated with the use of aftertreatment systems. An experimental study was carried out to identify such effects. In addition, the KIVA-3 code was used to gain insight into cylinder events. The results showed improvements in NOx-Smoke and BSFC trade-offs at high-pressure injection in conjunction with EGR and supercharging.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on Combustion and Exhaust Gas Emissions Characteristics of a Dual Fuel Natural Gas Engine Using a Multi-Dimensional Model Combined With Detailed Kinetics

2002-05-06
2002-01-1750
A numerical study was carried out to investigate combustion characteristics of a dual-fuel gas diesel engine, using a multi-dimensional model combined with detailed chemical kinetics, including 43 chemical species and 173 elementary reactions. In calculations, the effects of initial temperature, EGR ratios on ignition, and combustion were examined. The results indicated EGR combined with intake preheating can favorably reduced NOx and THC emissions simultaneously. This can be explained by the fact that combustion mechanism is changed from flame propagation to HCCl like combustion.
X