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Technical Paper

Experimental Study for the Effect of Fuel Properties on the Ion Current, Combustion, and Emission in a High Speed Diesel Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1263
This paper presents experimental study on the impact of using fuels with different physical and chemical properties in a diesel engine. Research is driven towards finding an alternative or extender to the conventional diesel fuel for compression ignition engines. Such alternative fuels have wide ranges of physical and chemical properties which are not suitable for CI engines. Advanced injection systems and control strategies in modern diesel engines permit operation to be extended to a wider range of fuels. Therefore, experimental investigation to understand the effects of different fuels on engine performance, combustion, and emissions are necessary. The study covers the effect of using different fuels such as JP-8 and Sasol-IPK on a modern automotive diesel engine. The engine used in this study is a 2.0L, 4 cylinders, direct injection diesel engine fitted with piezo-driven injectors.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Ignition Energy with Visualization on a Spark Ignited Engine powered by CNG

2014-04-01
2014-01-1331
The need for using alternative fuel sources continues to grow as industry looks towards enhancing energy security and lowering emissions levels. In order to capture the potential of these megatrends, this study focuses on the relationship between ignition energy, thermal efficiency, and combustion stability of a 0.5 L single cylinder engine powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) at steady state operation. The goal of the experiment was to increase ignition energy at fixed lambda values to look for gains in thermal efficiency. Secondly, a lambda sweep was performed with criteria of maintaining a 4% COVIMEP by increasing the ignition energy until an appropriate threshold for stable combustion was found. The engine performance was measured with a combustion analysis system (CAS), to understand the effects of thermal efficiency and combustion stability (COVIMEP). Emissions of the engine were measured with an FTIR.
Technical Paper

The Development of an Electronic Control Unit for a High Pressure Common Rail Diesel/Natural Gas Dual-Fuel Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1168
Natural gas has been considered to be one of the most promising alternative fuels due to its lower NOx and soot emissions, less carbon footprint as well as attractive price. Furthermore, higher octane number makes it suitable for high compression ratio application compared with other gaseous fuels. For better economical and lower emissions, a turbocharged, four strokes, direct injection, high pressure common rail diesel engine has been converted into a diesel/natural gas dual-fuel engine. For dual-fuel engine operation, natural gas as the main fuel is sequentially injected into intake manifold, and a very small amount of diesel is directly injected into cylinder as the ignition source. In this paper, a dual-fuel electronic control unit (ECU) based on the PowerPC 32-bit microprocessor was developed. It cooperates with the original diesel ECU to control the fuel injection of the diesel/natural gas dual-fuel engine.
Technical Paper

Interactions of Multi-hole DI Sprays with Charge Motion and their Implications to Flexible Valve-trained Engine Performance

2011-08-30
2011-01-1883
Advanced valvetrain coupled with Direct Injection (DI) provides an opportunity to simultaneous reduction of fuel consumption and emissions. Because of their robustness and cost performance, multi-hole injectors are being adopted as gasoline DI fuel injectors. Ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends synergistically improve the performance of a turbo-charged DI gasoline engine, especially in down-sized, down-sped and variable-valvetrain engine architecture. This paper presents Mie-scattering spray imaging results taken with an Optical Accessible Engine (OAE). OAE offers dynamic and realistic in-cylinder charge motion with direct imaging capability, and the interaction with the ethanol spray with the intake air is studied. Two types of cams which are designed for Early Intake Valve Close (EIVC) and Later Intake Valve Close (LIVC) are tested, and the effect of variable valve profile and deactivation of one of the intake valves are discussed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Using Biodiesel (B-20) and Combustion Phasing on Combustion and Emissions in a HSDI Diesel Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-1203
The use of biodiesel and its blends with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) is gaining significant importance due to its ability to burn in conventional diesel engines with minor modifications. However the chemical and physical properties of biodiesel are different compared to the conventional ULSD. These differences directly impact the injection, spray formation, auto ignition and combustion processes which in turn affect the engine-out emissions. To understand the effect of fueling with B-20, tests were conducted on a single cylinder 0.42L direct injection research diesel engine. The engine is equipped with a common rail injection system, variable EGR and swirl control systems and was operated at a constant engine speed of 1500 rpm and 3 bar IMEP to simulated turbocharged conditions. Injection timing and duration were adjusted with B-20 at different locations of peak premixed combustions (LPPC) and two different swirl ratios to achieve 3 bar IMEP.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Multi-hole Spray and Mixing of Ethanol and Gasoline Fuels under DI Engine Conditions

2010-10-25
2010-01-2151
Because of their robustness and cost performance, multi-hole gasoline injectors are being adopted as the direct injection (DI) fuel injector of choice as vehicle manufacturers look for ways to reduce fuel consumption without sacrificing power and emission performance. To realize the full benefits of direct injection, the resulting spray needs to be well targeted, atomized, and appropriately mixed with charge air for the desirable fuel vapor concentration distributions in the combustion chamber. Ethanol and ethanol-gasoline blends synergistically improve the turbo-charged DI gasoline performance, especially in down-sized, down-sped and variable-valve-train engine architecture. This paper presents the spray imaging results from two multi-hole DI gasoline injectors with different design, fueled with pure ethanol (E100) or gasoline (E0), under homogeneous and stratified-charge conditions that represent typical engine operating points.
Technical Paper

Effect of Biodiesel and its Blends on Particulate Emissions from HSDI Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0798
The effect of biodiesel on the Particulate emissions is gaining significant attention particularly with the drive for the use of alternative fuels. The particulate matter (PM), especially having a diameter less than 50 nm called the Nanoparticles or Nucleation mode particles (NMPs), has been raising concerns about its effect on human health. To better understand the effect of biodiesel and its blends on particulate emissions, steady state tests were conducted on a small-bore single-cylinder high-speed direct-injection research diesel engine. The engine was fueled with Ultra-Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD or B-00), a blend of 20% soy-derived biodiesel and 80% ULSD on volumetric basis (B-20), B-40, B-60, B-80 and 100% soy-derived biodiesel (B-100), equipped with a common rail injection system, EGR and swirl control systems at a load of 5 bar IMEP and constant engine speed of 1500 rpm.
Technical Paper

Effects of B20 Fuel and Catalyst Entrance Section Length on the Performance of UREA SCR in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-1173
The current study focused on the effects B20 fuel (20% soybean-based biodiesel) and SCR entrance shapes on a light-duty, high-speed, 2.8L common-rail 4-cylinder diesel engine, at different exhaust temperatures. The results indicate that B20 has less deNOX efficiency at low temperature than ULSD, and that N₂O emission need to be characterized as well as NH₃ slip. If a mixer and enough mixing length are used, longer divergence section does not improve the deNOX efficiency significantly under the speed ranges tested.
Technical Paper

Temperature Effect on Performance of a Commercial Fuel Filter for Biodiesel Blends with ULSD

2010-04-12
2010-01-0473
Biodiesel offers a potentially viable alternative fuel source for diesel automotive applications. However, biodiesel may present problems at colder temperatures due to the crystallization of fatty acid methyl esters and precipitation of other components, such as unreacted triglycerides and sterol glycosides in biodiesel. At lower temperatures, the fuel gels until it solidifies in the fuel lines, clogging the fuel filter, and shutting down the engine. A laboratory-based continuous loop fuel system was utilized to determine the flow properties at low temperatures of biodiesel in B100, B20, and B10 blends for soybean and choice white grease (pig fat) biodiesel fuel. The continuous loop fuel delivery system was designed to be similar to those that can be found in engines and vehicles currently in use, and provided a mechanical pump or an electric pump as a means to simulate systems found in the different types of vehicles.
Journal Article

Spray Characterization of Ethanol Gasoline Blends and Comparison to a CFD Model for a Gasoline Direct Injector

2010-04-12
2010-01-0601
Operation of flex fuel vehicles requires operation with a range of fuel properties. The significant differences in the heat of vaporization and energy density of E0-E100 fuels and the effect on spray development need to be fully comprehended when developing engine control strategies. Limited enthalpy for fuel vaporization needs to be accounted for when developing injection strategies for cold start, homogeneous and stratified operation. Spray imaging of multi-hole gasoline injectors with fuels ranging from E0 to E100 and environmental conditions that represent engine operating points from ambient cold start to hot conditions was performed in a spray chamber. Schlieren visualization technique was used to characterize the sprays and the results were compared with Laser Mie scattering and Back-lighting technique. Open chamber experiments were utilized to provide input and validation of a CFD model.
Technical Paper

Performance, Durability, and Stability of a Power Generator Fueled with ULSD, S-8, JP-8, and Biodiesel

2010-04-12
2010-01-0636
The feasibility of using ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD), synthetic paraffinic kerosene (S-8), military grade jet fuel (JP-8) and commercial B20 blend (20% v biodiesel in ULSD) in a power generator equipped with a compression ignition (CI) engine was investigated according to the MIL-STD-705C military specifications for engine-driven generator sets. Several properties of these fuels such as cetane number, lubricity, viscosity, cold flow properties, heat of combustion, distillation temperatures, and flash point, were evaluated. All fuels were tested for 240 hours at a stationary load of 30 kW (60% of full load) with no alteration to the engine calibrations. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake thermal efficiency (BTE), frequency, and power of the generator using S-8, JP-8 and B20 were compared with the baseline fuel ULSD.
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