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Technical Paper

Step by Step Conversion of ICE Motorcycle to a BEV Configuration

With the mass movement toward electrification and renewable technologies, the scope of innovation of electrification has gone beyond the automotive industry into areas such as electric motorcycle applications. This paper provides a discussion of the methodology and complexities of converting an internal combustion motorcycle to an electric motorcycle. In developing this methodology, performance goals including, speed limits, range, weight, charge times, as well as riding styles will be examined and discussed. Based on the goals of this paper, parts capable of reaching the performance targets are selected accordingly. Documentation of the build process will be presented along with the constraints, pitfalls, and difficulties associated with the process of the project. The step-by-step process that is developed can be used as a guideline for future build and should be used as necessary.
Technical Paper

Lithium-Ion Battery Cell Modeling with Experiments for Battery Pack Design

Lithium-ion polymer battery has been widely used for vehicle onboard electric energy storage ranging from 12V SLI (Starting, Lighting, and Ignition), 48V mild hybrid electric, to 300V battery electric vehicle. Formulation on cell parameters acquired from minimum numbers of experiments, the modeling and simulation could be an effective approach in predicting battery performance, thermal effectiveness, and degradation. This paper describes the modeling, simulation, and validation of Lithium-Nickel-Manganese-Cobalt-Oxide (LiNiMnCoO2) based cell with 3.6V nominal voltage and 20Ah capacity. Constant current 20A, 40A, 60A, and 80A discharge tests are conducted in the computer-controlled cycler and temperature chamber. Discharging voltage curves and cell surface temperature distributions are recorded in each discharging test. A three-dimensional cell model is constructed in the COMSOL multi-physics platform based on the cell parameters.
Technical Paper

Modeling and Validation of Lithium-Ion Polymer SLI Battery

Lead-acid batteries have dominated the automotive conventional electric system, particularly in the functions of starting (S), lighting (L) and ignition (I) for decades. However, the low energy-to-weight ratio and the low energy-to-volume ratio makes the lead-acid SLI battery relatively heavy, large, and shallow Depth of Discharge (DOD). This could be improved by replacing the lead-acid battery by the lithium-ion polymer battery. The lithium-ion polymer battery can provide the same power with lightweight, compact volume, and deep DOD for engine idle elimination using start-stop function that is a basic feature in electric-drive vehicles. This paper presents the modeling and validation of a lithium-ion battery for SLI application. A lithium-metal-oxide based cell with 3.6 nominal voltage and 20Ah capacity is used in the study. A simulation model of lithium-ion polymer battery pack (14.4V, 80Ah) with battery management system is built in the MATLAB/Simulink environment.
Technical Paper

Development of the Hybrid Supervisory Controller for a Pre-Transmission Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Year 3 of the EcoCAR3 Competition

This paper details the Wayne State University development of the Hybrid Supervisory Controller strategies for the Year 3 of the EcoCAR 3 competition. Included in this paper are the processes for developing the strategies for the supervisory control system, which includes the torque distribution among the powertrain components, and the diagnostic strategies adopted to guarantee the safety critical functionalities of the vehicle. The EcoCAR 3 competition challenges sixteen North American universities to re-engineer the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to reduce its environmental impact without compromising its performance and consumer acceptability. During the Year 3 of the competition the team has refined the control strategies designed in the previous years, to enable the powertrain full functionalities and achieve better energy consumption over pre-determined drive cycles.
Technical Paper

Autoignition and Combustion of ULSD and JP8 during Cold Starting of a High Speed Diesel Engine

Cold starting problems of diesel engines are caused mainly by the failure of the auto-ignition process or the subsequent combustion of the rest of the charge. The problems include long cranking periods and combustion instability leading to an increase in fuel consumption in addition to the emission of undesirable unburned hydrocarbons which appear in the exhaust as white smoke. The major cause of these problems is the low temperature and pressure of the charge near the end of the compression stroke and/or the poor ignition quality of the fuel. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation of cold starting of a high speed diesel engine with ULSD (Ultra Low Sulphur Diesel) and JP8 (Jet Propulsion) fuels at ambient temperature (25°C). A detailed analysis is made of the autoignition and combustion of the two fuels in the first few cycles in the cold start transient. In addition, a comparison is made between these processes for the two fuels during idle operation.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Simulation and Control Development of a Pre-Transmission Parallel E85 PHEV for Year-1 of EcoCAR 3 Competition

This paper details the first year of modeling and simulation, and powertrain control development for the Wayne State University EcoCAR 3 vehicle. Included in this paper are the processes for developing simulation platforms, plant models and electronic control units to support the supervisory control system development. The EcoCAR 3 competition challenges sixteen North American universities to re-engineer the 2016 Chevrolet Camaro to reduce its environmental impact without compromising its performance and consumer acceptability. The team is in the final stages of competition Year One, which, as the “non-vehicle year,” focuses on the preliminary design, simulation, and hybrid modes selection for the team’s selected vehicle architecture. The team chose a Pre-Transmission Parallel Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) architecture for its performance capability, multiplicity of operational modes, and drivetrain configuration that retains the vehicle’s rear-wheel drive configuration.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of Active and Passive Cooling Systems of a Lithium-Ion Battery Module for Electric Vehicles

In this work, a pseudo three-dimensional coupled thermal-electrochemical model is established to estimate the heat generation and temperature profiles of a lithium ion battery as functions of the state of the discharge. Then, this model is used to investigate the effectiveness of active and passive thermal management systems. The active cooling system utilizes cooling plate and water as the working fluid while the passive cooling system incorporates a phase change material (PCM). The thermal effects of coolant flow rate examined using a computational fluid dynamics model. In the passive cooling system, Paraffin wax used as a heat dissipation source to control battery temperature rise. The effect of module size and battery spacing is studied to find the optimal weight of PCM required. The results show that although the active cooling system has the capability to reduce the peak temperatures, it leads to a large temperature difference over the battery module.
Technical Paper

Design and Simulation of Lithium-Ion Battery Thermal Management System for Mild Hybrid Vehicle Application

It is well known that thermal management is a key factor in design and performance analysis of Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery, which is widely adopted for hybrid and electric vehicles. In this paper, an air cooled battery thermal management system design has been proposed and analyzed for mild hybrid vehicle application. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed using CD-adapco's STAR-CCM+ solver and Battery Simulation Module (BMS) application to predict the temperature distribution within a module comprised of twelve 40Ah Superior Lithium Polymer Battery (SLPB) cells connected in series. The cells are cooled by air through aluminum cooling plate sandwiched in-between every pair of cells. The cooling plate has extended the cooling surface area exposed to cooling air flow. Cell level electrical and thermal simulation results were validated against experimental measurements.
Technical Paper

Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Reengineering of a Conventional Sedan for EcoCAR2

The Wayne State University student team reengineered a mid-sized sedan into a functional plug-in hybrid electric vehicle as participants in the EcoCAR 2 competition sponsored by the US Department of Energy and managed by Argonne National Laboratory. The competition goals included reducing petroleum usage, emissions, and energy consumption through implementing advanced vehicle technologies. During the competition, the team did plug-in charging of the 19 kWh high voltage traction battery, drove in pure electric mode (engine off) until the battery was depleted, then switched to hybrid mode and continued driving by using E85 from the fuel tank. The pure electric mode vehicle driving range was 48 km [30 miles] while pulling an emissions instrumented test trailer and projected to be 58 km [36 miles] without the test trailer load for the competition's city/highway blend drive cycle.
Journal Article

Experimental Assessments of Parallel Hybrid Medium-Duty Truck

Fuel consumption reduction on medium-duty tactical truck has and continues to be a significant initiative for the U.S. Army. The Crankshaft-Integrated-Starter-Generator (C-ISG) is one of the parallel hybrid propulsions to improve the fuel economy. The C-ISG configuration is attractive because one electric machine can be used to propel the vehicle, to start the engine, and to be function as a generator. The C-ISG has been implemented in one M1083A1 5-ton tactical cargo truck. This paper presents the experimental assessments of the C-ISG hybrid truck characteristics. The experimental assessments include all electric range for on- and off-road mission cycles and fuel consumption for the high voltage battery charging. Stationary tests related to the charging profile of the battery pack and the silent watch time duration is also conducted.
Technical Paper

ESS Design Process Overview and Key Outcomes of Year Two of EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future

EcoCAR 2: Plugging in to the Future (EcoCAR) is North America's premier collegiate automotive engineering competition, challenging students with systems-level advanced powertrain design and integration. The three-year Advanced Vehicle Technology Competition (AVTC) series is organized by Argonne National Laboratory, headline sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and General Motors (GM), and sponsored by more than 30 industry and government leaders. Fifteen university teams from across North America are challenged to reduce the environmental impact of a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu by redesigning the vehicle powertrain without compromising performance, safety, or consumer acceptability. During the three-year program, EcoCAR teams follow a real-world Vehicle Development Process (VDP) modeled after GM's own VDP. The EcoCAR 2 VDP serves as a roadmap for the engineering process of designing, building and refining advanced technology vehicles.
Technical Paper

Efficient Thermal Modeling and Integrated Control Strategy of Powertrain for a Parallel Hybrid EcoCAR2 Competition Vehicle

Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is one of the most highly pursued technologies for improving energy efficiency while reducing harmful emissions. Thermal modeling and control play an ever increasing role with HEV design and development for achieving the objective of improving efficiency, and as a result of additional thermal loading from electric powertrain components such as electric motor, motor controller and battery pack. Furthermore, the inherent dual powertrains require the design and analysis of not only the optimal operating temperatures but also control and energy management strategies to optimize the dynamic interactions among various components. This paper presents a complete development process and simulation results for an efficient modeling approach with integrated control strategy for the thermal management of plug-in HEV in parallel-through-the road (PTTR) architecture using a flexible-fuel engine running E85 and a battery pack as the energy storage system (ESS).
Technical Paper

Parallel-Through-The-Road Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Modeling and Simulation by Wayne State University for EcoCAR2

The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR2 student team designed, modeled, Model-In-the-Loop (MIL) tested, Software-In-the-Loop (SIL) simulation tested, and Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulation tested the team's conversion design for taking a 2013 Chevrolet Malibu and converting it into a Parallel-Through-The-Road (PTTR) plug-in hybrid. The 2013 Malibu is a conventional Front Wheel Drive (FWD) vehicle and the team's conversion design keeps the conventional FWD and adds a Rear Wheel Drive (RWD) powertrain consisting of an electric motor, a single speed reduction gearbox and a differential to drive the rear wheels -where none of these previously existed on the rear wheels. The RWD addition creates the PTTR hybrid powertrain architecture of two driven axles where the mechanical torque path connection between the two powertrains is through the road, rather than a mechanical torque path through gears, chains, or shafts.
Technical Paper

Pulse Power Testing of Batteries and Supercapacitors for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications: A Comparison of Constant Current, Constant Power, and Ramped Power Transients

The central performance requirement for electrochemical energy storage systems for the full power-assist hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) is pulse power capability, typically 25-40 kW pulse power capability for 10 seconds duration. Standard test procedures utilize constant current pulses. However, in the HEV application, the power transient for acceleration is a ramped power transient and the power transient for regenerative braking power is a descending power ramp. This paper compares the usable power capability of batteries and supercapacitors under constant current, constant power, and ramped power transients. Although the usable battery discharge power is relatively insensitive to the transient type applied, 10-40% higher regenerative braking charge capability is observed with ramped power transients. With supercapacitors, the discharge and charge capability is much more strongly dependent on the type of power transient.
Technical Paper

Parallel-Through-The-Road Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle Design Development Process

The Wayne State University (WSU) EcoCAR 2 Team designed the conversion of a GM donated 2013 Chevrolet Malibu to a Parallel-Through-The-Road (PTTR) Plug-In Hybrid vehicle within a 9 month timeframe. This fast prototyping project used the EcoCAR 2 Vehicle Development Process (EVDP). Various tradeoffs were made to meet all competition requirements and to make the vehicle as competitive as possible within budget, time and experience limitations. The chosen PTTR architecture, nicknamed by the team as “E2D2” (Ethanol-Electric Dual-Drivetrain), provides up to 35.7 electric only miles and a fuel economy of 60 miles per gallons gasoline equivalent (mpgge) or 3.96 liters gasoline equivalent (lge) per one hundred km. This is accomplished using an E85 engine-driven front traction system and a battery-electric-motors-driven rear traction system. The team developed the control system and designed the packaging and integration of all required components including the Energy Storage System (ESS).
Technical Paper

A Practical Approach for Cross-Functional Vehicle Body Weight Optimization

The goal of optimization in vehicle design is often blurred by the myriads of requirements belonging to attributes that may not be quite related. If solutions are sought by optimizing attribute performance-related objectives separately starting with a common baseline design configuration as in a traditional design environment, it becomes an arduous task to integrate the potentially conflicting solutions into one satisfactory design. It may be thus more desirable to carry out a combined multi-disciplinary design optimization (MDO) with vehicle weight as an objective function and cross-functional attribute performance targets as constraints. For the particular case of vehicle body structure design, the initial design is likely to be arrived at taking into account styling, packaging and market-driven requirements.
Journal Article

Effect of Swirl Ratio and Wall Temperature on Pre-lnjection Chemiluminescence During Starting of an Optical Diesel Engine

Fuel wall impingement commonly occurs in small-bore diesel engines. Particularly during engine starting, when wall temperatures are low, the evaporation rate of fuel film remaining from previous cycles plays a significant role in the autoignition process that is not fully understood. Pre-injection chemiluminescence (PIC), resulting from low-temperature oxidation of evaporating fuel film and residual gases, was measured over 3200 μsec intervals at the end of the compression strokes, but prior to fuel injection during a series of starting sequences in an optical diesel engine. These experiments were conducted to determine the effect of this parameter on combustion phasing and were conducted at initial engine temperatures of 30, 40, 50 and 60°C, at swirl ratios of 2.0 and 4.5 at 1000 RPM. PIC was determined to increase and be highly correlated with combustion phasing during initial cycles of the starting sequence.
Technical Paper

Optical and Numerical Investigation of Pre-Injection Reactions and Their Effect on the Starting of a Diesel Engine

Ultraviolet chemiluminescence has been observed in a diesel engine cyclinder during compression, but prior to fuel injection under engine starting conditions. During a portion of the warm-up sequence, the intensity of this emission exhibits a strong correlation to the phasing of the subsequent combustion. Engine exhaust measurements taken from a continuously misfiring, motored engine confirm the generation of formaldehyde (HCHO) in such processes. Fractions of this compound are expected to be recycled as residual to participate in the following combustion cycle. Spectral measurements taken during the compression period prior to fuel injection match the features of Emeleus' cool flame HCHO bands that have been observed during low temperature heat release reactions occurring in lean HCCI combustion. That the signal from the OH* bands is weak implies a buildup of HCHO during compression.
Technical Paper

Digital Human Modeling Goals and Strategic Plans

Digital human modeling (DHM) progress worldwide will be much faster and cohesive if the diverse community now developing simulations has a global blueprint for DHM, and is able to work together efficiently. DHM developers and users can save time by building on each other's work. This paper highlights a panel discussion on DHM goals and strategic plans for the next decade to begin formulating the international blueprint. Four subjects are chosen as the starting points: (1) moving DHM into the public safety and internet arenas, (2) role of DHM in computer assisted surgery and automotive safety, (3) DHM in defense applications, and (4) DHM to improve workplace ergonomics.
Journal Article

Static and Dynamic Instabilities of Electrostatic Actuated MEMS Devices

Fast and accurate characterization of stability regions and operational range with respect to pull-in voltage and displacement is critical in the design and development of MEMS resonators and switches. This paper presents a mathematical and computational procedure for modeling and analysis of static and dynamic instabilities of capacitive microdevices employing resonant microbeams. The mathematical model consists of a nonlinear microbeam under distributed electrostatic actuation and squeeze film damping. The coupled system is described by the nonlinear beam equation and a modified compressible Reynolds equation to account for the rarefied gas in the narrow gap between the microbeam and substrate. The Differential Quadrature Method (DQM) is used to discretize partial differential equations of motion and solve for static deflection, natural frequencies, static pull-in voltage, and quality factors for various encapsulation air pressures and applied DC voltages.