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Journal Article

Roll and Pitch Produced During an Uneven Wing Deployment of a Hybrid Projectile

Uneven wing deployment of a Hybrid Projectile (HP), an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) that is ballistically launched and then transforms, was investigated to determine the amount of roll and pitch produced during wing deployment. During testing of an HP prototype, it was noticed that sometimes the projectile began to slightly roll after the wings were deployed shortly after apogee. In this study, an analytical investigation was done to determine how the projectile body dynamics would be affected by the wings being deployed improperly. Improper and uneven wing deployment situations were investigated throughout the course of this study. The first analyzed was a single wing delaying to open. The second was if only one wing was to lock into a positive angle of incidence. The roll characteristics when both wings were deployed but only one was locked into an angle of incidence resulted in a steady state roll rate of 4.5 degrees per second.
Journal Article

Finite Element Analysis of Composite Over-wrapped Pressure Vessels for Hydrogen Storage

This paper presents 3D finite element analysis performed for a composite cylindrical tank made of 6061-aluminum liner overwrapped with carbon fibers subjected to a burst internal pressure of 1610 bars. As the service pressure expected in these tanks is 700 bars, a factor of safety of 2.3 is kept the same for all designs. The optimal design configuration of such high pressure storage tanks includes an inner liner used as a gas permeation barrier, geometrically optimized domes, inlet/outlet valves with minimum stress concentrations, and directionally tailored exterior reinforcement for high strength and stiffness. Filament winding of pressure vessels made of fiber composite materials is the most efficient manufacturing method for such high pressure hydrogen storage tanks. The complexity of the filament winding process in the dome region is characterized by continually changing the fiber orientation angle and the local thickness of the wall.
Technical Paper

Innovative Dense Lightweight Design for On-Board Hydrogen Storage Tank

The hydrogen economy envisioned in the future requires safe and efficient means of storing hydrogen fuel for either use on-board vehicles, delivery on mobile transportation systems or high-volume storage in stationary systems. The main emphasis of this work is placed on the high -pressure storing of gaseous hydrogen on-board vehicles. As a result of its very low density, hydrogen gas has to be stored under very high pressure, ranging from 350 to 700 bars for current systems, in order to achieve practical levels of energy density in terms of the amount of energy that can be stored in a tank of a given volume. This paper presents 3D finite element analysis performed for a composite cylindrical tank made of 6061-aluminum liner overwrapped with carbon fibers subjected to a burst internal pressure of 1610 bars. As the service pressure expected in these tanks is 700 bars, a factor of safety of 2.3 is kept the same for all designs.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Wing Stowing Designs Focused on Increased Continuous Payload Volume for Projectile Applications

West Virginia University's Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department is studying the benefits of continuous payload volume in transforming projectiles. Continuous payload volume is the single largest vacancy in a vehicle that may be utilized. Currently there is a market for transforming projectiles, which are gun launched (or tube launched) vehicles stowed in an initial configuration; which deploy wings once exiting the launcher to become small unmanned aircraft. WVU's proposed design uses a helical hinge, which allows the wing sections to be externally stowed outside the UAV's fuselage. Additionally, the design positions the vehicles wing sections sub-bore (or smaller than the guns internal diameter), and flush (smooth and planer) to the surface of the fuselage. The typical transforming winged projectile design considered, stores its wing sections along the center axis of the fuselage. This bisects the payload space and limits the continuous payload carrying potential.
Technical Paper

Contribution of Soot Contaminated Oils to Wear-Part II

Diesel soot interacts with the engine oil and leads to wear of engine parts. Engine oil additives play a crucial role in preventing wear by forming the anti-wear film between the wearing surfaces. The current study was aimed at investigating the interactions between engine soot and oil properties in order to develop high performance oils for diesel engines equipped with exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). The effect of soot contaminated oil on wear of engine components was examined using a statistically designed experiment. To quantitatively analyze and simulate the extent of wear a three-body wear machine was designed and developed. The qualitative wear analysis was performed by examining the wear scars on an AISI 52100 stainless steel ball worn in the presence of oil test samples on a ball-on-flat disc setup. The three oil properties studied were base stock, dispersant level and zinc dithiophosphate level.
Technical Paper

Automobile Body Panel Color Measurement Test

It has been proposed that an automated remote color inspection of automobile body panels is possible with a reasonably precise color measurement. This paper outlines a test of a new 3D color measurement technology as applied to this task and presents the results of the first test. A camera is set up several feet away from a car body; a 3D orientation measuring system takes both 3D and color data from the car. The raw data is presented as a set of 3D graphs; the geometry-corrected data is also provided. Statistical analysis is presented to indicate system precision.
Technical Paper

Rotor Shaft Bearing Analysis for Selected Rand Cam™ Engine Configurations

Analysis of two types of bearings has been performed for the rotor shaft of the Rand Cam™ engine. Rolling element bearings and a combination of journal and thrust bearings for selected engine configurations have been considered. The engine configurations consist of four, five, six, seven, and eight vanes. The bearing geometry and orientation was also addressed. This analysis is crucial due to the potentially large axial loading on the bearings and the need for the bearing arrangement to be compact and reliable. An emphasis was placed on the combination of fluctuating axial and radial loads and the resulting effect upon the bearings. Tapered roller bearings were found to be effective. However, a combination of journal and thrust bearings is a more compact bearing arrangement for this application. The eight vane configuration is the most desirable configuration based upon the bearing analysis.
Technical Paper

The Rand-Cam Engine: A Pistonless Four Stroke Engine

The Rand-Cam engine is a positive displacement machine, operating on a four stroke cycle, which consists of a rotor with multiple axial vanes forming combustion chambers as the rotor and vanes rotate in a cam shaped housing. The cam housing, consisting of two “half-housings” or stators, contains a toroidal trough of varying depth machined into each stator. The two stators are phased so that the shallowest point on one trough corresponds to the deepest on the other. A set of six vanes, able to move axially through machined holes in the rotor, traverses the troughs creating six captured zones per side. These zones vary in volume with rotor rotation. Since each trough has two deep sections and two shallow sections with ramps in between, full four stroke operation is obtained between each pair of vanes in each trough, corresponding to twelve power “strokes” per revolution.
Technical Paper

An Elasticity Solution of Angle-Ply Laminated Composite Shells Based on a Higher-Order FE Analysis

In the case of advanced light weight material applications, the design of such components, in many cases, are based on applied surface tractions These surface loads can be caused by various means. When wind effects are present these tractions can be due to pressure, suction or drag. In the case of underwater applications, hydrostatic pressure and friction caused by moving against water current needs to be considered in the design. These are some of the traction load applications, a design engineer has to deal with in his advanced material applications. In contrast to the conventional materials, the modern structures made of highly directional dependent material properties, respond the applied loads and environment in an unpredicted way, so that, a detail analysis and design is always necessary. Hence in the present study a higher-order shear deformation formulation is developed to calculate the distribution of stresses accurately in angle-ply laminated shells of revolution.
Technical Paper

Engineering Modeling and Synthesis of a Rand Cam Engine Through CAD Parametric Techniques

In this paper an approach is presented for the system parameterization and synthesis of a Rand-Cam® Engine configuration based on an axial-cylindrical cam driven mechanism. This engine consists of a stationary axial-cylindrical cam on which axially moving pistons (vanes) sweep around the cam as they are driven by the rotor, providing the volume displacement as the rotor delivers the rotary output torque directly to the shaft. It has been documented that this engine configuration has some unique features that make it particularly suitable for high power to weight ratio applications. The modeling strategy makes use of higher order curve and surface modeling techniques and object modeling approaches based on profile extruding, blending operations and constructive solid geometry. Some of the resulting models are further used for finite element engineering analysis through a programmatic logic built into the parameterized general model.
Technical Paper

Basic Design of the Rand Cam Engine

The Rand Cam engine is a novel design which avoids the use of pistons in favor of a cavity of varying size and shape. A set of vanes protrudes from a rotor into a circular trough in a stator. The vanes seal to the walls and base of the trough, which is of varying depth, and progress around the trough with rotation of the rotor. These vanes therefore pass through the rotor and are constrained to move parallel to the rotational axis. Intake and exhaust processes occur through ports in the stator wall which are revealed by the passing vanes. Advantages of the basic design include an absence of valves, reduction in reciprocating masses, presence of an integral flywheel in the rotor and strong fluid movement akin a swirl induced by the relative velocity between the rotor and stator.
Technical Paper

The Stiller-Smith Engine: Floating Gear Analysis

The Stiller-Smith Engine employs a non-standard gear train and as such requires a closer examination of the design and sizing of the gears. To accomplish this the motion of the Stiller-Smith gear train -will be compared to more familiar arrangements. The results of a kinematic and dynamic analysis will introduce the irregular forces that the gears are subjected to. The “floating” or “trammel” gear will be examined more closely, first stochastically and then with finite element analysis. This will pinpoint high stress concentrations on the gear and where they occur during the engine cycle, The configuration considered will be one with: an output shaft, negligible idler gear forces, and floating gear pins that are part of the connecting rods rather than the floating gear. Various loading techniques will be discussed with possible ramifications of each.