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Technical Paper

Feasibility of Multiple Piston Motion Control Approaches in a Free Piston Engine Generator

The design optimization and control of Free Piston Linear Engine (FPLE) has been found to be difficult as each independent variable changes the dynamics with respect to time. These dynamics, in turn, alters the alternator and engine response to other governing variables. As a result, the FPLE system necessitates an energy balance control algorithm with high-speed dynamic response for stable operation and perhaps optimized system efficiency. The main objective of this control algorithm is to match the power generated by the engine to the power demanded by the alternator. This energy balance control is similar to the use of a governor to control the crankshaft rotational speed in a conventional crankshaft driven engine. In addition to that, when stiff springs are added to the FPLE system, the dynamics becomes more sinusoidal and more consistent with increasing spring stiffness.
Journal Article

Control and Testing of a 2-Mode Front-Wheel-Drive Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

The new General Motors 2-mode hybrid transmission for front-wheel-drive vehicles has been incorporated into a 2009 Saturn Vue by the West Virginia University EcoCAR team. The 2-mode hybrid transmission can operate in either one of two electrically variable transmission modes or four fixed gear modes although only the electrically variable modes were explored in this paper. Other major power train components include a GM 1.3L SDE turbo diesel engine fueled with B20 biodiesel and an A123 Systems 12.9 kWh lithium-ion battery system. Two additional vehicle controllers were integrated for tailpipe emission control, CAN message integration, and power train hybridization control. Control laws for producing maximum fuel efficiency were implemented and include such features as engine auto-stop, regenerative braking and optimized engine operation. The engine operating range is confined to a high efficiency area that improves the overall combined engine and electric motor efficiency.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Emissions from Hybrid-Electric and Conventional Transit Buses

Hybrid-electric transit buses offer benefits over conventional transit buses of comparable capacity. These benefits include reduced fuel consumption, reduced emissions and the utilization of smaller engines. Factors allowing for these benefits are the use of regenerative braking and reductions in engine transient operation through sophisticated power management systems. However, characterization of emissions from these buses represents new territory: the whole vehicle must be tested to estimate real world tailpipe emissions levels and fuel economy. The West Virginia University Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratories were used to characterize emissions from diesel hybrid-electric powered as well as diesel and natural gas powered transit buses in Boston, MA and New York City.
Technical Paper

An Elasticity Solution of Angle-Ply Laminated Composite Shells Based on a Higher-Order FE Analysis

In the case of advanced light weight material applications, the design of such components, in many cases, are based on applied surface tractions These surface loads can be caused by various means. When wind effects are present these tractions can be due to pressure, suction or drag. In the case of underwater applications, hydrostatic pressure and friction caused by moving against water current needs to be considered in the design. These are some of the traction load applications, a design engineer has to deal with in his advanced material applications. In contrast to the conventional materials, the modern structures made of highly directional dependent material properties, respond the applied loads and environment in an unpredicted way, so that, a detail analysis and design is always necessary. Hence in the present study a higher-order shear deformation formulation is developed to calculate the distribution of stresses accurately in angle-ply laminated shells of revolution.